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galvanic vestibular stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#1
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391373/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-an-emerging-treatment-option-for-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#2
Max Wuehr, Julian Decker, Roman Schniepp
Patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) suffer from persistent imbalance during standing and walking as well as an impaired gaze stabilization during head movements. Disabilities associated with BVP severely compromise patients' daily activities and are often linked to an increased risk of falls. Currently, the only established treatment option in BVP is physical therapy. However, treatment effects of physical therapy in BVP are most often limited and many patients do not adequately recover performance...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#3
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368883/effect-of-gaze-stabilization-exercises-on-vestibular-function-during-postural-control
#4
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yusuke Ueta, Kosuke Oku, Kojiro Okuno, Yoshiki Tamaru, Shohei Nomura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Nobuhiko Mori
Gaze-stabilization exercise (GSE) is often conducted in vestibular rehabilitation, but its effect on vestibular function in postural control is not clear. We investigated whether GSE affects vestibular function during static upright standing and vestibulospinal reflex (VSR) in healthy young adults. First, the center of pressure of the total trajectory length (CoP-L) was measured before each GSE task or control (only standing) task (pre), immediately after (post), and 10 min after (post10) in the static standing position on foam rubber with the eyes open or closed (EC)...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360882/vestibular-activation-habituates-the-vasovagal-response-in-the-rat
#5
Bernard Cohen, Giorgio P Martinelli, Yongqing Xiang, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Vasovagal syncope is a significant medical problem without effective therapy, postulated to be related to a collapse of baroreflex function. While some studies have shown that repeated static tilts can block vasovagal syncope, this was not found in other studies. Using anesthetized, male Long-Evans rats that were highly susceptible to generation of vasovagal responses, we found that repeated activation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) with ±2 and ±3 mA, 0.025 Hz sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) caused incremental changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) that blocked further generation of vasovagal responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356472/task-dependent-vestibular-feedback-responses-in-reaching
#6
Johannes Keyser, W Pieter Medendorp, Luc P J Selen
When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown if vestibular feedback is processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323018/modulation-of-auditory-percepts-by-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation
#7
Margarete Anna Ueberfuhr, Amalia Braun, Lutz Wiegrebe, Benedikt Grothe, Markus Drexl
Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18th century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse...
March 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217106/effect-of-noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-to-bone-conducted-vibration
#8
Shinichi Iwasaki, Shotaro Karino, Teru Kamogashira, Fumiharu Togo, Chisato Fujimoto, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Tatsuya Yamasoba
OBJECTIVE: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) delivered as zero-mean current noise (noisy GVS) has been shown to improve static and dynamic postural stability probably by enhancing vestibular information. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an imperceptible level noisy GVS on ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) in response to bone-conducted vibration (BCV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: oVEMPs to BCV were measured during the application of white noise GVS with an amplitude ranging from 0 to 300 µA [in root mean square (RMS)] in 20 healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176264/the-integration-of-neural-information-by-a-passive-kinetic-stimulus-and-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus
#9
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Despite an easy control and the direct effects on vestibular neurons, the clinical applications of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) have been restricted because of its unclear activities as input. On the other hand, some critical conclusions have been made in the peripheral and the central processing of neural information by kinetic stimuli with different motion frequencies. Nevertheless, it is still elusive how the neural responses to simultaneous GVS and kinetic stimulus are modified during transmission and integration at the central vestibular area...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107424/anchoring-the-self-to-the-body-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure
#10
Diane Deroualle, Michel Toupet, Christian van Nechel, Ulla Duquesne, Charlotte Hautefort, Christophe Lopez
Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054312/latent-inhibition-reduces-nocebo-nausea-even-without-deception
#11
V F Quinn, E J Livesey, B Colagiuri
BACKGROUND: Nocebo nausea is a debilitating and prevalent side effect that can develop after conditioning occurs between cues present in the treatment context and the experience of nausea. Interventions that retard conditioning may therefore be able to reduce nocebo nausea. PURPOSE: To test whether 'latent inhibition', where pre-exposing cues in the absence of an outcome retards subsequent learning about those cues, could reduce nocebo nausea in healthy adults. METHODS: We examined this possibility using a Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) model of nausea in healthy participants, with pre-exposure to the treatment cues achieved using a placebo version of GVS...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869225/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-induces-a-sustained-improvement-in-body-balance-in-elderly-adults
#12
Chisato Fujimoto, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Teru Kamogashira, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Yukari Uemura, Fumiharu Togo, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
Vestibular dysfunction causes postural instability, which is prevalent in the elderly. We previously showed that an imperceptible level of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve postural stability in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy during the stimulus, presumably by enhancing vestibular information processing. In this study, we investigated the after-effects of an imperceptible long-duration nGVS on body balance in elderly adults. Thirty elderly participants underwent two nGVS sessions in a randomised order...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847985/acute-peripheral-vestibular-deficit-increases-redundancy-in-random-number-generation
#13
Ivan Moser, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
Unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit leads to broad cognitive difficulties and biases in spatial orientation. More specifically, vestibular patients typically show a spatial bias toward their affected ear in the subjective visual vertical, head and trunk orientation, fall tendency, and walking trajectory. By means of a random number generation task, we set out to investigate how an acute peripheral vestibular deficit affects the mental representation of numbers in space. Furthermore, the random number generation task allowed us to test if patients with peripheral vestibular deficit show evidence of impaired executive functions while keeping the head straight and while performing active head turns...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820972/effects-of-repetitive-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-spatial-neglect-and-verticality-perception-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#14
Katharina Volkening, Georg Kerkhoff, Ingo Keller
Recent evidence shows that bipolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with the cathode on the left (CL) or right (CR) mastoid ameliorates spatial neglect, extinction and verticality perception transiently and partly permanently. However, no randomised controlled trial evaluated the long-term effects of repetitive GVS in comparison to sham-GVS on exploration and verticality perception. To compare the effects of CL-GVS, CR-GVS and Sham-GVS on spatial exploration and verticality perception in right-hemispheric stroke patients with left neglect we conducted a randomised controlled trial with minimisation...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799703/effects-of-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-event-related-potentials
#15
Jeong-Woo Lee, Woong-Sik Park, Se-Won Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on event-related potentials. [Subjects and Methods] Forty normal female adult subjects were randomly distributed to a galvanic vestibular stimulation application group (20 subjects) and sham group (20 subjects). For galvanic vestibular stimulation application, a positive electrode was applied to the right mastoid process, and a negative electrode was applied to the left mastoid process; simulation was applied for 10 minutes...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752729/vision-can-recalibrate-the-vestibular-reafference-signal-used-to-re-establish-postural-equilibrium-following-a-platform-perturbation
#16
Adam J Toth, Laurence R Harris, John Zettel, Leah R Bent
Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730646/vestibular-feedback-maintains-reaching-accuracy-during-body-movement
#17
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
KEY POINTS: Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear. Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body. During the fixed-in-space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper-limb accuracy in the face of body movement...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672673/data-on-galvanic-evoked-head-movements-in-healthy-and-unilaterally-labyrinthectomized-rats
#18
Moslem Shaabani, Yones Lotfi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Mehdi Rahgozar, Mehdi Hooshmandi
In this dataset, we analyzed galvanic-evoked head movements (GEHMs) in the spatial planes of yaw, and roll in normal and unilaterally labyrinthectomized (UL) Wistar rats. The rats were assigned in 4 groups of 10: control, sham, right-UL and left-UL. Bilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was presented by our "ring-shaped electrode" design (see "Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats" (M. Shaabani et al., 2016) [1])...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634181/long-term-exposure-to-microgravity-impairs-vestibulo-cardiovascular-reflex
#19
Hironobu Morita, Chikara Abe, Kunihiko Tanaka
The vestibular system is known to have an important role in controlling blood pressure upon posture transition (vestibulo-cardiovascular reflex, VCR). However, under a different gravitational environment, the sensitivity of the vestibular system may be altered. Thus, the VCR may become less sensitive after spaceflight because of orthostatic intolerance potentially induced by long-term exposure to microgravity. To test this hypothesis in humans, we investigated the ability of the VCR to maintain blood pressure upon head-up tilt before and after a 4-6 months stay on the International Space Station...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627441/postural-effects-of-vestibular-manipulation-depend-on-the-physical-activity-status
#20
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active). Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17), and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17). They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open) and four vestibular manipulation condition (i...
2016: PloS One
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