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galvanic vestibular stimulation

Adam J Toth, Laurence R Harris, John Zettel, Leah R Bent
Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism which could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially-evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should only operate when the arm is being controlled in an earth-fixed rather than body-fixed reference frame...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Moslem Shaabani, Yones Lotfi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Mehdi Rahgozar, Mehdi Hooshmandi
In this dataset, we analyzed galvanic-evoked head movements (GEHMs) in the spatial planes of yaw, and roll in normal and unilaterally labyrinthectomized (UL) Wistar rats. The rats were assigned in 4 groups of 10: control, sham, right-UL and left-UL. Bilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was presented by our "ring-shaped electrode" design (see "Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats" (M. Shaabani et al., 2016) [1])...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Hironobu Morita, Chikara Abe, Kunihiko Tanaka
The vestibular system is known to have an important role in controlling blood pressure upon posture transition (vestibulo-cardiovascular reflex, VCR). However, under a different gravitational environment, the sensitivity of the vestibular system may be altered. Thus, the VCR may become less sensitive after spaceflight because of orthostatic intolerance potentially induced by long-term exposure to microgravity. To test this hypothesis in humans, we investigated the ability of the VCR to maintain blood pressure upon head-up tilt before and after a 4-6 months stay on the International Space Station...
2016: Scientific Reports
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active). Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17), and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17). They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open) and four vestibular manipulation condition (i...
2016: PloS One
Kathrin D Gensberger, Anna-Kristin Kaufmann, Haike Dietrich, Francisco Branoner, Roberto Banchi, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
UNLABELLED: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) uses modulated currents to evoke neuronal activity in vestibular endorgans in the absence of head motion. GVS is typically used for a characterization of vestibular pathologies; for studies on the vestibular influence of gaze, posture, and locomotion; and for deciphering the sensory-motor transformation underlying these behaviors. At variance with the widespread use of this method, basic aspects such as the activated cellular substrate at the sensory periphery or the comparability to motion-induced neuronal activity patterns are still disputed...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jean-Philippe Pialasse, Pierre Mercier, Martin Descarreaux, Martin Simoneau
OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that the impaired sensorimotor control observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) may be related more to the onset of scoliosis than to the maturation of sensory systems or sensorimotor control mechanisms. The objective of this study was to assess sensorimotor control in adults diagnosed with IS in adolescence versus healthy controls. METHODS: The study included 20 young adults 20 to 24 years of age (10 healthy controls and 10 diagnosed with adolescent IS but not treated for it)...
September 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Moslem Shaabani, Yones Lotfi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Mehdi Rahgozar, Mehdi Hooshmandi
Current experimental research on the therapeutic effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has mainly focused on neurodegenerative disorders. However, it primarily stimulates the vestibular nuclei and could be potentially effective in modulating imbalance between them in the case of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Fifty male Wistar rats (180-220g) were used in 5 groups of 10: intact, sham, right-UL (RUL; without intervention), and two other right-UL groups with GVS intervention [one group treated with low rate GVS (GVS...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Maren Schmidt-Kassow, David Wilkinson, Emma Denby, Heather Ferguson
The perception of beat within an auditory rhythm can be facilitated when accompanied by synchronised movements. Electrophysiological investigation shows that this facilitatory effect is associated with a larger P300 amplitude. It has remained unclear, however, which movement-related processes drive this P300 effect. To investigate whether vestibular signals play a role, we administered alternating, sub-sensory (mean=.3mA) galvanic current to the vestibular nerves of participants while they counted the number of oddballs presented in a stream of tones played at a rate of 1Hz...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Gay R Holstein, Victor L Friedrich, Giorgio P Martinelli
Imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAARP) is a putative neurotransmitter/modulator and an endogenous regulator of sympathetic drive, notably systemic blood pressure, through binding to imidazoline receptors. IAARP is present in neurons and processes throughout the CNS, but is particularly prevalent in regions that are involved in blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to determine whether IAARP is present in neurons in the caudal vestibular nuclei that participate in the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) pathway...
October 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Claudio Krstulovic, Nabil Atrache Al Attrache, Herminio Pérez Garrigues, Herminia Argente-Escrig, Luis Bataller Alberola, Constantino Morera Pérez
OBJECTIVE: Velocity storage mechanism is a multisensory rotation estimator; it compensates for errors in the information provided by the peripheral vestibular organs by means of an adjustment in the duration of the vestibular signal. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the velocity storage mechanism in the presence of a labyrinthine disorder, using galvanic vestibular stimulation to cause direct activation of the vestibular afferent neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one subjects with definite Meniere's disease (MD) and 36 healthy volunteers were evaluated using a 20-s galvanic vestibular stimulation...
April 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Denise Utsch Gonçalves, Ludimila Labanca, Leonardo Dornas de Oliveira, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Thiago de Almeida Pereira, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, José Roberto Lambertucci
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004672.].
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emma Bestaven, Charline Kambrun, Dominique Guehl, Jean-René Cazalets, Etienne Guillaud
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes...
2016: PeerJ
Max Wuehr, Eva Nusser, Julian Decker, Siegbert Krafczyk, Andreas Straube, Thomas Brandt, Klaus Jahn, Roman Schniepp
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of imperceptible levels of white noise galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) on dynamic walking stability in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP). METHODS: Walking performance of 13 patients with confirmed BVP (mean age 50.1 ± 5.5 years) at slow, preferred, and fast speeds was examined during walking with zero-amplitude nGVS (sham trial) and nonzero-amplitude nGVS set to 80% of the individual cutaneous threshold for GVS (nGVS trial)...
June 7, 2016: Neurology
Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Denise Utsch Gonçalves, Ludimila Labanca, Leonardo Dornas de Oliveira, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Thiago de Almeida Pereira, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, José Roberto Lambertucci
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR), the most severe and disabling ectopic form of Schistosoma mansoni infection, is caused by embolized ova eliciting local inflammation in the spinal cord and nerve roots. The treatment involves the use of praziquantel and long-term corticotherapy. The assessment of therapeutic response relies on neurological examination. Supplementary electrophysiological exams may improve prediction and monitoring of functional outcome. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) triggered by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive electrophysiological technique that has been used to test the vestibulospinal tract in motor myelopathies...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kihwan Hong, Hyeon-Min Shim, Minsoo Goh, Seung-Yon Jang, Sangmin Lee, Kyu-Sung Kim
Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) act primarily on the peripheral vestibular system. Although the electrical current applied during GVS is thought to flow through peripheral vestibular organs, some current may spread into areas within the central nervous system, particularly when the bilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (bGVS) method is used. According to Alexander's law, the magnitude of nystagmus increases with eccentric gaze movement, due to the function of the neural integrator (NI); thus, if the information for vestibular stimulation corresponds to Alexander's law, the peripheral vestibular organ is stimulated...
April 23, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Lorenz Assländer, Robert J Peterka
Removing or adding sensory cues from one sensory system during standing balance causes a change in the contribution of the remaining sensory systems, a process referred to as sensory reweighting. While reweighting changes have been described in many studies under steady-state conditions, less is known about the temporal dynamics of reweighting following sudden transitions to different sensory conditions. The present study changed sensory conditions by periodically adding or removing visual (lights On/Off) or proprioceptive cues (surface sway referencing On/Off) in 12 young, healthy subjects...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sungjae Hwang, Peter Agada, Stephen Grill, Tim Kiemel, John J Jeka
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease manifested by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Deficits in proprioceptive integration are prevalent in individuals with PD, even at early stages of the disease. These deficits have been demonstrated primarily during investigations of reaching. Here, we investigated how PD affects sensory fusion of multiple modalities during upright standing. We simultaneously perturbed upright stance with visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive stimulation, to understand how these modalities are reweighted so that overall feedback remains suited to stabilizing upright stance in individuals with PD...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
T P Knellwolf, E Hammam, V G Macefield
It has been shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) has no effect on the firing of spontaneously active muscle spindles in either relaxed or voluntarily contracting human leg muscles. However, all previous studies have been conducted on subjects in a seated position. Given that independent vestibular control of muscle spindle firing would be more valuable during postural threat, we tested the hypothesis that this modulation would become apparent for subjects in a near-vertical position...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Gay R Holstein, Victor L Friedrich, Giorgio P Martinelli
The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The VSR pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the VSR pathway in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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