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galvanic vestibular stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912091/is-hippocampal-neurogenesis-modulated-by-the-sensation-of-self-motion-encoded-by-the-vestibular-system
#1
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833167/coordination-of-the-upper-and-lower-limbs-for-vestibular-control-of-balance
#2
Craig P Smith, Jonathan E Allsop, Michael Mistry, Raymond F Reynolds
Vestibular stimulation can evoke responses in the arm when it is used for balance. Here we determine how these responses are affected by grip context, and how they are coordinated with the rest of the body. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was used to evoke balance responses under three conditions of manual contact with an earth-fixed object: no contact (NC), light grip (<1 N) (LG), and firm grip (FG). As grip progressed along this continuum, we observed an increase in GVS-evoked hand force, with a simultaneous reduction in ground reaction force (GRF) through the feet...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783491/adaptation-of-postural-recovery-responses-to-a-vestibular-sensory-illusion-in-individuals-with-parkinson-disease-and-healthy-controls
#4
Mark E Lester, James T Cavanaugh, K Bo Foreman, Scott W Shaffer, Robin Marcus, Leland E Dibble
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. METHODS: This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611657/vestibular-adaptations-induced-by-gentle-physical-activity-are-reduced-among-older-women
#5
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The aim of this study was to compare the ability of older individuals to maintain an efficient upright stance in contexts of vestibular sensory manipulation, according to their physical activity status. Two groups of healthy older women (aged over 65) free from any disorders (i.e., neurological, motor and metabolic disorders) and vestibular disturbances, participated in this study. One group comprised participants who regularly practiced gentle physical activities, i.e., soft gym, aquarobic, active walking, ballroom dancing (active group, age: 73...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605674/a-procedure-to-detect-abnormal-sensorimotor-control-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis
#6
Jean-Philippe Pialasse, Pierre Mercier, Martin Descarreaux, Martin Simoneau
This work identifies, among adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, those demonstrating impaired sensorimotor control through a classification procedure comparing the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural responses. The sensorimotor control of healthy adolescents (n=17) and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (n=52) with either mild (Cobb angle≥15° and ≤30°) or severe (Cobb angle >30°) spine deformation was assessed through galvanic vestibular stimulation. A classification procedure sorted out adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis whether the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural response was dissimilar or similar to controls...
June 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592853/framing-susceptibility-in-a-risky-choice-game-is-altered-by-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation
#7
Nora Preuss, Roger Kalla, Rene Müri, Fred W Mast
Recent research provides evidence that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has a modulating effect on somatosensory perception and spatial cognition. However, other vestibular stimulation techniques have induced changes in affective control and decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GVS on framing susceptibility in a risky-choice game. The participants were to decide between a safe and a risky option. The safe option was framed either positively or negatively. During the task, the participants were exposed to either left anodal/right cathodal GVS, right anodal/left cathodal GVS, or sham stimulation (control condition)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#8
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391373/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-an-emerging-treatment-option-for-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#9
Max Wuehr, Julian Decker, Roman Schniepp
Patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) suffer from persistent imbalance during standing and walking as well as an impaired gaze stabilization during head movements. Disabilities associated with BVP severely compromise patients' daily activities and are often linked to an increased risk of falls. Currently, the only established treatment option in BVP is physical therapy. However, treatment effects of physical therapy in BVP are most often limited and many patients do not adequately recover performance...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#10
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368883/effect-of-gaze-stabilization-exercises-on-vestibular-function-during-postural-control
#11
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yusuke Ueta, Kosuke Oku, Kojiro Okuno, Yoshiki Tamaru, Shohei Nomura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Nobuhiko Mori
Gaze-stabilization exercise (GSE) is often conducted in vestibular rehabilitation, but its effect on vestibular function in postural control is not clear. We investigated whether GSE affects vestibular function during static upright standing and vestibulospinal reflex (VSR) in healthy young adults. First, the center of pressure of the total trajectory length (CoP-L) was measured before each GSE task or control (only standing) task (pre), immediately after (post), and 10 min after (post10) in the static standing position on foam rubber with the eyes open or closed (EC)...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360882/vestibular-activation-habituates-the-vasovagal-response-in-the-rat
#12
Bernard Cohen, Giorgio P Martinelli, Yongqing Xiang, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Vasovagal syncope is a significant medical problem without effective therapy, postulated to be related to a collapse of baroreflex function. While some studies have shown that repeated static tilts can block vasovagal syncope, this was not found in other studies. Using anesthetized, male Long-Evans rats that were highly susceptible to generation of vasovagal responses, we found that repeated activation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) with ±2 and ±3 mA, 0.025 Hz sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) caused incremental changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) that blocked further generation of vasovagal responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356472/task-dependent-vestibular-feedback-responses-in-reaching
#13
Johannes Keyser, W Pieter Medendorp, Luc P J Selen
When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown whether vestibular feedback is specifically processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323018/modulation-of-auditory-percepts-by-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation
#14
Margarete Anna Ueberfuhr, Amalia Braun, Lutz Wiegrebe, Benedikt Grothe, Markus Drexl
Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18th century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse...
March 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217106/effect-of-noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-to-bone-conducted-vibration
#15
Shinichi Iwasaki, Shotaro Karino, Teru Kamogashira, Fumiharu Togo, Chisato Fujimoto, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Tatsuya Yamasoba
OBJECTIVE: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) delivered as zero-mean current noise (noisy GVS) has been shown to improve static and dynamic postural stability probably by enhancing vestibular information. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an imperceptible level noisy GVS on ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) in response to bone-conducted vibration (BCV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: oVEMPs to BCV were measured during the application of white noise GVS with an amplitude ranging from 0 to 300 µA [in root mean square (RMS)] in 20 healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176264/the-integration-of-neural-information-by-a-passive-kinetic-stimulus-and-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus
#16
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Despite an easy control and the direct effects on vestibular neurons, the clinical applications of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) have been restricted because of its unclear activities as input. On the other hand, some critical conclusions have been made in the peripheral and the central processing of neural information by kinetic stimuli with different motion frequencies. Nevertheless, it is still elusive how the neural responses to simultaneous GVS and kinetic stimulus are modified during transmission and integration at the central vestibular area...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107424/anchoring-the-self-to-the-body-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure
#17
Diane Deroualle, Michel Toupet, Christian van Nechel, Ulla Duquesne, Charlotte Hautefort, Christophe Lopez
Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054312/latent-inhibition-reduces-nocebo-nausea-even-without-deception
#18
V F Quinn, E J Livesey, B Colagiuri
BACKGROUND: Nocebo nausea is a debilitating and prevalent side effect that can develop after conditioning occurs between cues present in the treatment context and the experience of nausea. Interventions that retard conditioning may therefore be able to reduce nocebo nausea. PURPOSE: To test whether 'latent inhibition', where pre-exposing cues in the absence of an outcome retards subsequent learning about those cues, could reduce nocebo nausea in healthy adults. METHODS: We examined this possibility using a Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) model of nausea in healthy participants, with pre-exposure to the treatment cues achieved using a placebo version of GVS...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869225/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-induces-a-sustained-improvement-in-body-balance-in-elderly-adults
#19
Chisato Fujimoto, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Teru Kamogashira, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Yukari Uemura, Fumiharu Togo, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
Vestibular dysfunction causes postural instability, which is prevalent in the elderly. We previously showed that an imperceptible level of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve postural stability in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy during the stimulus, presumably by enhancing vestibular information processing. In this study, we investigated the after-effects of an imperceptible long-duration nGVS on body balance in elderly adults. Thirty elderly participants underwent two nGVS sessions in a randomised order...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847985/acute-peripheral-vestibular-deficit-increases-redundancy-in-random-number-generation
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ivan Moser, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
Unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit leads to broad cognitive difficulties and biases in spatial orientation. More specifically, vestibular patients typically show a spatial bias toward their affected ear in the subjective visual vertical, head and trunk orientation, fall tendency, and walking trajectory. By means of a random number generation task, we set out to investigate how an acute peripheral vestibular deficit affects the mental representation of numbers in space. Furthermore, the random number generation task allowed us to test if patients with peripheral vestibular deficit show evidence of impaired executive functions while keeping the head straight and while performing active head turns...
February 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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