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Apoptotic changes & basal ganglia

Leonardo Lorente, María M Martín, Antonia Pérez-Cejas, Luis Ramos, Mónica Argueso, Jordi Solé-Violán, Juan J Cáceres, Alejandro Jiménez, Victor García-Marín
BACKGROUND: Apoptotic changes after cerebral hemorrhage in brain samples of humans have been found. Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 could be detected in the bloodstream during apoptosis. Higher circulating CCCK-18 levels have been associated with 6-month mortality in patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is an association between serum CCCK-18 levels and early mortality of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SIH) patients. We performed an observational, prospective and multicentre study...
April 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Wenqian Zhang, Ying Cui, Junling Gao, Ran Li, Xiaohua Jiang, Yanxia Tian, Kaijie Wang, Jianzhong Cui
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of recombinant osteopontin (r-OPN) on apoptotic changes via modulating phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β) signaling in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MATERIAL AND METHODS We subjected 10-12-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=120) to injection of autologous blood into the right basal ganglia to induce ICH or sham surgery. ICH animals received vehicle administration, r-OPN (4 μL/pup), or r-OPN combined with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (86 ng/pup) at 30 min after injury...
March 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mehrzad Lotfi, Sara Shafiee, Ahmd Ghanizadeh, Motahar O Sigaroudi, Leila Razeghian
BACKGROUND: No trial has examined the effect of lovastatin on the brain metabolites in patients with bipolar mood disorder. OBJECTIVES: Current medications for treating bipolar disorders cause metabolic syndrome. It is supposed that lovastatin not only decreases the rate of metabolic syndrome but also impacts some brain metabolites and their ratio like common treatments that are measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. METHODS: 27 Manic phase patients were randomly allocated into two groups, lovastatin and placebo as their adjuant medication...
2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Agustina Alaimo, Roxana M Gorojod, Juan Beauquis, Manuel J Muñoz, Flavia Saravia, Mónica L Kotler
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target...
2014: PloS One
Charles B Breckenridge, Nicholas C Sturgess, Mark Butt, Jeffrey C Wolf, Dan Zadory, Melissa Beck, James M Mathews, Merrill O Tisdel, Daniel Minnema, Kim Z Travis, Andrew R Cook, Philip A Botham, Lewis L Smith
The pharmacokinetics and neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) were assessed following once weekly administration to C57BL/6J male mice by intraperitoneal injection for 1, 2 or 3 weeks at doses of 10, 15 or 25 mg/kg/week. Approximately 0.3% of the administered dose was taken up by the brain and was slowly eliminated, with a half-life of approximately 3 weeks. PQ did not alter the concentration of dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA) or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), or increase dopamine turnover in the striatum...
July 2013: Neurotoxicology
C B Carroll, M-L Zeissler, C O Hanemann, J P Zajicek
AIMS: Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although CB1 receptors are increased within the basal ganglia of PD patients and animal models, current evidence suggests a role for CB1 receptor-independent mechanisms. Here, we utilized a human neuronal cell culture PD model to further investigate the protective properties of Δ⁹-THC. METHODS: Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to PD-relevant toxins: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), lactacystin and paraquat...
October 2012: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
M V Vettori, R Gatti, G Orlandini, S Belletti, R Alinovi, A Smargiassi, A Mutti
PC12 (undifferentiated and differentiated) and C6 cells have been used to investigate kinetics, morphological and functional endpoints following exposure to MnCl(2) and manganic transferrin (Mn-Tf). [Mn](i) in undifferentiated (non-differentiated cells) exposed to both free (MnCl(2)) and bound Mn (Mn-Tf), was three- to fivefold lower as compared to differentiated (differentiated) PC12 cells and higher by one order of magnitude as compared to glial C6 cells. Exposure to both MnCl(2) and Mn-Tf was followed by time- and dose-dependent morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, which was never observed in Mn-exposed C6 glial cells...
December 1999: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ana I Rojo, Nadia G Innamorato, Ana M Martín-Moreno, María L De Ceballos, Masayuki Yamamoto, Antonio Cuadrado
Neural injury leads to inflammation and activation of microglia that in turn may participate in progression of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms involved in changing microglial activity from beneficial to chronic detrimental neuroinflammation are not known but reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved. We have addressed this question in Nrf2-knockout mice, with hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, submitted to daily inoculation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) for 4 weeks. Basal ganglia of these mice exhibited a more severe dopaminergic dysfunction than wild type littermates in response to MPTP...
April 2010: Glia
Jin-Sook Kim, Alexei Kondratyev, York Tomita, Karen Gale
Seizure incidence during the neonatal period is higher than any other period in the lifespan, yet we know little about this period in terms of the effect of seizures or of the drugs used in their treatment. The fact that several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) induce pronounced apoptotic neuronal death in specific regions of the immature brain prompts a search for AEDs that may be devoid of this action. Furthermore, there is a clear need to find out if a history of seizures alters the proapoptotic action of the AEDs...
2007: Epilepsia
Ilaria Tamburini, Fabio Blandini, Marco Gesi, Giada Frenzilli, Marco Nigro, Mario Giusiani, Antonio Paparelli, Francesco Fornai
Several studies, carried out in chronic (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abusers, have shown memory loss and cognitive impairment, as well as persistent electroencephalographic changes. This suggests that, at least in humans, forebrain areas, including the limbic system, might be altered by MDMA. Consistently, recent experimental evidences suggest that, in rodents, MDMA, besides effects on the basal ganglia, produces alterations in the hippocampus. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to investigate whether treatment with MDMA produces activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which is part of an enzymatic pathway involved in cell death, within limbic areas (i...
August 2006: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
F Musshoff, D W Lachenmeier, L Kroener, P Schmidt, R Dettmeyer, B Madea
Using a solid-phase extraction procedure, an enantioselective derivatization and a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method, the levels of dopamine (DA) and of the dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (R)/(S)-salsolinol (SAL) and norsalsolinol (NorSAL) were determined in human brain samples. A complex pre-analytical synthesis of reference substances as well as deuterated internal standards allowed the standardized and reproducible analysis. In this study, to our best knowledge for the first time, the regional distribution of (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL, as well as NorSAL is examined systematically in a large collective of human brain samples obtained by autopsy...
July 2003: Cellular and Molecular Biology
I J Mitchell, A C Cooper, M R Griffiths, A J Cooper
Chronic administration of typical neuroleptics is associated with tardive dyskinesia in some patients. This dyskinetic syndrome has been associated with loss of GABAergic markers in the basal ganglia but the cause of these GABAergic depletions remains uncertain. Haloperidol, a commonly prescribed typical neuroleptic, is known to be toxic in vitro, possibly as a consequence of its conversion to pyridinium-based metabolites and potentially by raising glutamate-mediated transmission. We report here that the in vivo, acute administration of a large dose of haloperidol resulted in a microglial response indicative of neuronal damage...
2002: Neuroscience
M Broe, C E Shepherd, E A Milward, G M Halliday
This aim of the present study was to identify whether apoptotic features relate to the degree of cortical neuronal loss in cases with variable cortical degeneration. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed using histochemical and morphological criteria in cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=7) or Lewy bodies (n= 11) compared with controls (n=11). AD cases had both significant plaque and tangle formation but no Lewy bodies, while cases with Lewy bodies had significant plaque formation but no tangles. Cortical sections were stained using (TdT)-mediated UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), propidium iodide, and cell and pathology-specific labels...
June 2001: Acta Neuropathologica
F Gray, H Adle-Biassette, F Chretien, G Lorin de la Grandmaison, G Force, C Keohane
A variety of HIV-induced lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) have been described, including HIV encephalitis, HIV leukoencephalopathy, axonal damage, and diffuse poliodystrophy with neuronal loss of variable severity resulting, at least partly, from an apoptotic process. However, no correlation could be established between these changes and HIV dementia (HIVD). From our study of HIV infected patients, it appeared that neuronal apoptosis is probably not related to a single cause. Microglial and glial activation, directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, plays a major role in neuronal apoptosis possibly through the mediation of oxidative stress...
July 2001: Clinical Neuropathology
K Matsushita, W Meng, X Wang, M Asahi, K Asahi, M A Moskowitz, E H Lo
The overall hypothesis that cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage is mediated in part by apoptotic mechanisms was tested. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced in rats using stereotactic infusions of 0.5 U of collagenase (1-microL volume) into the striatum. After 24 hours, large numbers of TUNEL-positive stained cells with morphologies suggestive of apoptosis were present in the center and periphery of the hemorrhage. Double staining with Nissl and immunocytochemical labeling with antibodies against neuronal nuclei and glial fibrillary acidic protein suggested that these TUNEL-positive cells were mostly neurons and astrocytes...
February 2000: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
U Felderhoff-Mueser, M A Rutherford, W V Squier, P Cox, E F Maalouf, S J Counsell, G M Bydder, A D Edwards
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging can now be used safely in extremely preterm infants. The aim of this study was to compare the MR imaging appearance of the immature brain with neuropathologic findings at postmortem examination. METHODS: Seven extremely sick preterm infants, born at a median of 24 weeks' gestation, were studied using T1- and T2-weighted MR sequences. Infants died at a median of 3 days after initial MR imaging, and postmortem examinations were carried out...
August 1999: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
E C Hirsch
The etiology of Parkinson's disease remains unknown, making it difficult to develop therapeutical approaches to stop the progression of the disease. The best known treatment to date is based on the use of L-DOPA or dopaminergic agonists. These are merely substitutive therapies and have limitations because of their side effects. Thus, the development of new therapeutical strategies will require a far better knowledge of the mechanism and the consequences of nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is characterized by a selective vulnerability of sub-populations of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon...
1999: Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum
H Adle-Biassette, F Chrétien, L Wingertsmann, C Héry, T Ereau, F Scaravilli, M Tardieu, F Gray
To characterize the distribution of apoptotic neurons and their relationships with the stage of disease, a history of HIV-dementia, and the degree of productive HIV infection, microglial activation and axonal damage, we examined the brains of 40 patients. Samples of frontal and temporal cortex, basal ganglia and brain stem were taken post-mortem from 20 patients with AIDS (including three with HIV-dementia, and eight with cognitive disorders that did not fulfil the criteria for HIV-dementia), 10 HIV-positive asymptomatic cases and 10 seronegative controls...
April 1999: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
A Dorandeu, L Wingertsmann, F Chrétien, M B Delisle, C Vital, P Parchi, P Montagna, E Lugaresi, J W Ironside, H Budka, P Gambetti, F Gray
The possibility that neuronal loss in prion diseases occurs through an apoptotic process has been postulated and is consistent with the lack of inflammation in these disorders. In order to test this hypothesis in FFI, in which neuronal loss is the predominant neuropathological feature, we examined samples of thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla from 10 subjects with FFI. All the patients had the characteristic 178 N mutation of the PrP gene. Eight subjects were homozygous methionine/methionine at codon 129 and 2 were heterozygous methionine/valine...
July 1998: Brain Pathology
H Adle-Biassette, L Wingertsmann, F J Authier, H Kondo, F Poron, C Héry, J Bell, M Tardieu, R Gherardi, F Gray
Apart from the unique changes characteristic of "HIV encephalitis", the productive infection of central nervous system by HIV, which predominantly involves the white matter and basal ganglia, evidence is accumulating that the cerebral cortex may also be affected in AIDS patients. Neuronal loss, suspected at microscopic examination, has been demonstrated by a number of morphometric studies. However, the cause and mechanism of neuronal damage in HIV infection, are still unclear. In an attempt to look for an apoptotic process at the origin of neuronal loss in AIDS, we examined samples of frontal cortex, temporal cortex and basal ganglia from 12 patients who died from AIDS and 4 asymptomatic HIV-positive cases using in situ end labelling to demonstrate characteristic DNA fragmentation...
1997: Archives D'anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques
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