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Lei Fang, Dedi Kong, Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy in human endocrine system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-625-3p (miR-625-3p) on thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, as well as underlying potential mechanism. METHODS: The relative expressions of miR-625-3p in tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues of 20 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Cell transfection was used to up-regulate or down-regulate the expressions of miR-625-3p in thyroid cancer SW579 and TPC-1 cells...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Ying Huang, Fang Liu, Fang Zhang, Pingsheng Liu, Tao Xu, Wenjun Ding
Numerous studies have demonstrated that vanadium compounds are able to improve lipemia and triglyceridemia in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of vanadium(IV) complex with 4-chlorodipicolinic acid (VOdipic-Cl)-induced autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. To explore the possible underlying mechanisms, primary rat hepatocytes, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and liver tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Tetsuya Higashiyama
Many receptor-like kinases localized at the pollen tube tip precisely control tube functions in flowering plants. Two recent reports have identified autocrine peptide ligands and receptor systems, providing insight into the molecular machinery that controls pollen tube growth and termination.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zsolt Zador, Andrew T King, Nophar Geifman
BACKGROUND: Atypical meningiomas are common central nervous system neoplasms with high recurrence rate and poorer prognosis compared to their grade I counterparts. Surgical excision and radiotherapy remains the mainstay therapy but medical treatments are limited. We explore new drug candidates using computational drug repurposing based on the gene expression signature of atypical meningioma tissue with subsequent analysis of drug-generated expression profiles. We further explore possible mechanisms of action for the identified drug candidates using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2018: PloS One
Quanwei Zhang, Qi Wang, Jishang Gong, Jiaxing Du, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) recapitulates many of the activities of insulin and promotes differentiation of myoblasts and osteoblasts, which likely contribute to genetic variations of growth potential. However, little is known about the functions and signaling properties of IGF2 variants in yaks. The over-expression vector and knockdown sequence of yak IGF2 were transfected into yak fibroblasts, and the effects were detected by a series of assays. IGF2 expression in yak muscle tissues was significantly lower than that of other tissues...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Jeffrey K Holden, Christian N Cunningham
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Jill N Tirabassi, Lucianne Olewinski, Morteza Khodaee
BACKGROUND: Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury can occur as a result of running an ultramarathon. HYPOTHESIS: Traditional serum biomarker levels of liver injury will significantly increase as the result of participating in this 161-km race at altitude. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 64 (before) and 83 (after) volunteer runners participated in a prospective observational field-based study at the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race...
March 1, 2018: Sports Health
Jia-Nan Wang, Hao-Jian Zhang, Jia-Qi Li, Wan-Jing Ding, Zhong-Jun Ma
Nine new indolocarbazoles (1-9) were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. DT-A61. Among them compounds 1-8 featured a hydroxy group at the C-3 or C-9 position. All purified compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of 4-6, 8, and 9 were determined by electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic data. Compound 7 exhibited significant activity against human prostate PC-3 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 0.16 μM. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 9 showed moderate inhibition against the same cell line with IC50 values of 8...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Filip M Szymański, Anna E Płatek, Rafał Dziadziuszko, Paweł Łęgosz, Piotr Palczewski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kardiologia Polska
Yoon Hee Park, Soyeon Cho, Jeong Yee, Jae Youn Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Hye Sun Gwak
Gefitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for non-small-cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. Although a few studies have analyzed the causes of gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity, research focusing on the time intervals before and after hepatotoxicity has yet to be reported. Therefore, this study investigated two types of factors: the time to reach gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity and the time for recovery. From January 2013 to December 2014, a retrospective study was carried out on 473 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who were treated with gefitinib...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Flora Pirozzi, Kai Ren, Alessandra Murabito, Alessandra Ghigo
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder characterized by irreversible chronic inflammation and airflow obstruction. It affects more than 64 million patients worldwide and it is predicted to become the third cause of death in the industrialized world by 2030. Current available therapies are not able to block disease progression and to reduce mortality, underlying the need of a better understanding of COPD pathophysiological mechanisms to identify new molecular therapeutic targets...
March 20, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Delia De Lisi, Ugo De Giorgi, Cristian Lolli, Giuseppe Schepisi, Vincenza Conteduca, Cecilia Menna, Giuseppe Tonini, Daniele Santini, Alberto Farolfi
To date, results of combination therapy studies have shown no meaningful clinical benefit over monotherapy and an unacceptably high degree of toxicity in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with the exception of a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and the association of lenvatinib with everolimus. Lenvatinib is a potent multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR pathways. Everolimus inhibits primarily mTORC1 complex, a downstream effecter of the intracellular PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ruoxing Lei, Jessica P Lee, Matthew B Francis, Sanjay Kumar
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play central roles in numerous cellular processes. While IDP structure and function are often regulated by multisite phosphorylation, the biophysical mechanisms linking these post-translational modifications to IDP structure remain elusive. For example, the intrinsically disordered C-terminal sidearm domain of the neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH-SA) forms a dense brush along axonal NF backbones and is subject to extensive serine phosphorylation. Yet, biophysical insight into the relationship between phosphorylation and structure has been limited by the lack of paradigms in which NF brush conformational responses can be measured in the setting of controlled phosphorylation...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Hitoshi Okazawa
Tau phosphorylation has come into the limelight again, this time as a critical player in the earliest stages of dementia pathology. Mislocalization of phosphorylated tau to dendritic spines and the resultant degeneration of synapses are observed across multiple neurodegenerative diseases, even in the absence of tau aggregation. Moreover, other molecules phosphorylated by the same kinases, such as MARCKS, might contribute to ultra-early phase pathology by promoting synapse dysfunction.
March 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Wen Qin Wang, Wei Liu, Ning Zhang, Peng Hui Wang, Jian Zhong Cao, Jie Min Chen, Bing Lu Li, Xiao Dong He
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Growing evidence has shown that M2-PK is involved in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (M2-PK) in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of M2-PK for BTC. METHODS: The online PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies published until August 8th, 2017...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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