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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#1
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335578/exploring-the-antitumor-mechanism-of-high-dose-cytarabine-through-the-metabolic-perturbations-of-ribonucleotide-and-deoxyribonucleotide-in-human-promyelocytic-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#2
Zheng Li, Jian-Ru Guo, Qian-Qian Chen, Cai-Yun Wang, Wei-Jia Zhang, Mei-Cun Yao, Wei Zhang
Despite the apparent clinical benefits of high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) over lower dose Ara-C in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy, the mechanism behind high-dose Ara-C therapy remains uncertain. In this study, a LC-MS-based method was carried out to investigate the metabolic alteration of ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after treatment with Ara-C to reveal its antitumor mechanism. The metabolic results revealed that four nucleotides (ATP, ADP, CDP, and dCTP) could be used as potential biomarkers indicating the benefit of high-dose Ara-C over lower dose Ara-C treatment...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335576/genome-wide-identification-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-sarcocystis-neurona-protein-kinases
#3
Edwin K Murungi, Henry M Kariithi
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans...
March 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#4
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335524/roles-of-cdk-and-ddk-in-genome-duplication-and-maintenance-meiotic-singularities
#5
REVIEW
Blanca Gómez-Escoda, Pei-Yun Jenny Wu
Cells reproduce using two types of divisions: mitosis, which generates two daughter cells each with the same genomic content as the mother cell, and meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes of the parent cell by half and gives rise to four gametes. The mechanisms that promote the proper progression of the mitotic and meiotic cycles are highly conserved and controlled. They require the activities of two types of serine-threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)...
March 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335434/induction-of-g2m-arrest-by-flavokawain-a-a-kava-chalcone-increases-the-responsiveness-of-her2-overexpressing-breast-cancer-cells-to-herceptin
#7
Danielle D Jandial, Lauren S Krill, Lixia Chen, Chunli Wu, Yu Ke, Jun Xie, Bang H Hoang, Xiaolin Zi
HER2/neu positive breast tumors predict a high mortality and comprise 25%-30% of breast cancer. We have shown that Flavokawain A (FKA) preferentially reduces the viabilities of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines (i.e., SKBR3 and MCF7/HER2) versus those with less HER2 expression (i.e., MCF7 and MDA-MB-468). FKA at cytotoxic concentrations to breast cancer cell lines also has a minimal effect on the growth of non-malignant breast epithelial MCF10A cells. FKA induces G2M arrest in cell cycle progression of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines through inhibition of Cdc2 and Cdc25C phosphorylation and downregulation of expression of Myt1 and Wee1 leading to increased Cdc2 kinase activities...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335429/the-adverse-effect-of-hypertension-in-the-treatment-of-thyroid-cancer-with-multi-kinase-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Ole Vincent Ancker, Markus Wehland, Johann Bauer, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm
The treatment of thyroid cancer has promising prospects, mostly through the use of surgical or radioactive iodine therapy. However, some thyroid cancers, such as progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma, are not remediable with conventional types of treatment. In these cases, a treatment regimen with multi-kinase inhibitors is advisable. Unfortunately, clinical trials have shown a large number of patients, treated with multi-kinase inhibitors, being adversely affected by hypertension...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335387/dectin-1-mediated-pathway-contributes-to-fusarium-proliferatum-induced-cxcl-8-release-from-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#9
Chang-Ching Yeh, Huann-Cheng Horng, Hong Chou, Hsiao-Yun Tai, Horng-Der Shen, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Peng-Hui Wang
Fusarium species are causative agents of human respiratory disorders and are distributed widely in our environment. Little is known of their interaction with human respiratory epithelial cells, which may contribute to allergic airway responses. In this study, we report on the release of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL-8) from human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells upon stimulation with Fusarium proliferatum extracts. F. proliferatum-induced cytokine release from BEAS-2B cells was determined by cytokine array and CXCL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335379/the-role-of-adenosine-signaling-in-headache-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Nathan T Fried, Melanie B Elliott, Michael L Oshinsky
Migraine is the third most prevalent disease on the planet, yet our understanding of its mechanisms and pathophysiology is surprisingly incomplete. Recent studies have built upon decades of evidence that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that can act as a neuromodulator, is involved in pain transmission and sensitization. Clinical evidence and rodent studies have suggested that adenosine signaling also plays a critical role in migraine headache. This is further supported by the widespread use of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in several headache treatments...
March 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335251/nanostructured-tio%C3%A2-surfaces-promote-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation-to-osteoblasts
#11
Marco Vercellino, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Francesco Cristofaro, Martina Balli, Federico Bertoglio, Gianna Bruni, Laura Benedetti, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Marcello Imbriani, Livia Visai
Micro- and nano-patterning/modification are emerging strategies to improve surfaces properties that may influence critically cells adherence and differentiation. Aim of this work was to study the in vitro biological reactivity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to a nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO₂) surface in comparison to a coverglass (Glass) in two different culture conditions: with (osteogenic medium (OM)) and without (proliferative medium (PM)) osteogenic factors. To evaluate cell adhesion, hBMSCs phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) foci were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 24 h: the TiO₂ surface showed a higher number of pFAK foci with respect to Glass...
June 24, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334974/efficacy-and-safety-of-sequential-use-of-everolimus-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-after-failure-of-first-line-treatment-with-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-a-multicenter-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#13
Masafumi Oyama, Takayuki Sugiyama, Masahiro Nozawa, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Takeshi Kishida, Go Kimura, Noriaki Tokuda, Shiro Hinotsu, Kojiro Shimozuma, Hideyuki Akaza, Seiichiro Ozono
Objective: Many studies have shown the efficacy of everolimus after pretreatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated the efficacy and safety of everolimus as a second-line treatment after the failure of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial conducted in Japan through the central registration system...
March 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#14
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Bo Simona, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G>A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G>A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism.We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G>A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
March 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334900/cdk12-regulates-alternative-last-exon-mrna-splicing-and-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-invasion
#15
Jerry F Tien, Alborz Mazloomian, S-W Grace Cheng, Christopher S Hughes, Christalle C T Chow, Leanna T Canapi, Arusha Oloumi, Genny Trigo-Gonzalez, Ali Bashashati, James Xu, Vicky C-D Chang, Sohrab P Shah, Samuel Aparicio, Gregg B Morin
CDK12 (cyclin-dependent kinase 12) is a regulatory kinase with evolutionarily conserved roles in modulating transcription elongation. Recent tumor genome studies of breast and ovarian cancers highlighted recurrent CDK12 mutations, which have been shown to disrupt DNA repair in cell-based assays. In breast cancers, CDK12 is also frequently co-amplified with the HER2 (ERBB2) oncogene. The mechanisms underlying functions of CDK12 in general and in cancer remain poorly defined. Based on global analysis of mRNA transcripts in normal and breast cancer cell lines with and without CDK12 amplification, we demonstrate that CDK12 primarily regulates alternative last exon (ALE) splicing, a specialized subtype of alternative mRNA splicing, that is both gene- and cell type-specific...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334878/high-expression-of-ire1-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-is-associated-with-a-lower-rate-of-recurrence
#16
Toshio Sakatani, Keita Maemura, Noriko Hiyama, Yosuke Amano, Kousuke Watanabe, Hidenori Kage, Masashi Fukayama, Jun Nakajima, Yutaka Yatomi, Takahide Nagase, Daiya Takai
Objective: Recent reports have shown that endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with cancer. However, the impacts of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the prognosis of lung cancer are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to reveal the relationship between the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes (endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1L, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, activating transcription factor 6 and inositol-requiring kinase 1) and the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma...
March 17, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334876/pdgfrb-gain-of-function-mutations-in-sporadic-infantile-myofibromatosis
#17
Florence A Arts, Raf Sciot, Bénédicte Brichard, Marleen Renard, Audrey de Rocca Serra, Guillaume Dachy, Laura A Noël, Amélie I Velghe, Christine Galant, Maria Debiec-Rychter, An Van Damme, Miikka Vikkula, Raphaël Helaers, Nisha Limaye, Hélène A Poirel, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin
Infantile myofibromatosis is one of the most prevalent soft tissue tumors of infancy and childhood. Multifocal nodules with visceral lesions are associated with a poor prognosis. A few familial cases have been linked to mutations in various genes including PDGFRB. In this study, we sequenced PDGFRB, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, in 16 cases of myofibromatosis or solitary myofibroma. Mutations in the coding sequence of PDGFRB were identified in 6 out of 8 patients with the sporadic multicentric form of the disease and in 1 out of 8 patients with isolated myofibroma...
March 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334808/downregulation-of-pathways-implicated-in-liver-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-of-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-mice-receiving-gene-therapy
#18
Goo-Young Kim, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jun-Ho Cho, Lisa Zhang, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term risks of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). We have shown that the non-tumor-bearing (NT), recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-treated GSD-Ia mice (AAV-NT mice) expressing a wide range (0.9-63%) of normal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity maintain glucose homeostasis and display physiologic features mimicking animals living under calorie restriction (CR). We now show that in AAV-NT mice, the signaling pathways of the CR mediators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin-1 are activated...
March 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334731/characterisation-of-cct271850-a-selective-oral-and-potent-mps1-inhibitor-used-to-directly-measure-in-vivo-mps1-inhibition-vs-therapeutic-efficacy
#19
Amir Faisal, Grace W Y Mak, Mark D Gurden, Cristina P R Xavier, Simon J Anderhub, Paolo Innocenti, Isaac M Westwood, Sébastien Naud, Angela Hayes, Gary Box, Melanie R Valenti, Alexis K De Haven Brandon, Lisa O'Fee, Jessica Schmitt, Hannah L Woodward, Rosemary Burke, Rob L M vanMontfort, Julian Blagg, Florence I Raynaud, Suzanne A Eccles, Swen Hoelder, Spiros Linardopoulos
BACKGROUND: The main role of the cell cycle is to enable error-free DNA replication, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. One of the best characterised checkpoint pathways is the spindle assembly checkpoint, which prevents anaphase onset until the appropriate attachment and tension across kinetochores is achieved. MPS1 kinase activity is essential for the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and has been shown to be deregulated in human tumours with chromosomal instability and aneuploidy...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334721/microrna-9-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-human-atherosclerosis-inflammation-cell-models-through-the-jak1-stat-signaling-pathway
#20
Yue Wang, Zhihua Han, Yuqi Fan, Junfeng Zhang, Kan Chen, Lin Gao, Huasu Zeng, Jiatian Cao, Changqian Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is involved in inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis; however, its function and regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to uncover the exact roles of miR-9 and downstream signaling pathways using in vitro human atherosclerosis models. METHODS: We used oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages, oxLDL-stimulated human primary peripheral blood monocytes and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or Alum-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages as in vitro atherosclerosis inflammation models...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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