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Vitamin B5

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129284/the-b-vitamin-nutrition-of-insects-the-contributions-of-diet-microbiome-and-horizontally-acquired-genes
#1
REVIEW
Angela E Douglas
Insects generally cannot synthesize eight B vitamins that function as co-enzymes in various required enzymatic reactions. Most insects derive their B vitamin requirements from the diet, microbial symbionts, or a combination of these complementary sources. Exceptionally, the genomes of a few insects bear genes in vitamin B5 (pantothenate) and B7 (biotin) synthesis, horizontally acquired from bacteria. Biomarkers of B vitamin deficiency (e.g. vitamin titers, activity of vitamin-dependent enzymes) offer routes to investigate the incidence and the physiological and fitness consequences of B vitamin deficiency in laboratory and field populations of insects...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075248/the-exometabolome-of-two-model-strains-of-the-roseobacter-group-a-marketplace-of-microbial-metabolites
#2
Gerrit Wienhausen, Beatriz E Noriega-Ortega, Jutta Niggemann, Thorsten Dittmar, Meinhard Simon
Recent studies applying Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) showed that the exometabolome of marine bacteria is composed of a surprisingly high molecular diversity. To shed more light on how this diversity is generated we examined the exometabolome of two model strains of the Roseobacter group, Phaeobacter inhibens and Dinoroseobacter shibae, grown on glutamate, glucose, acetate or succinate by FT-ICR-MS. We detected 2,767 and 3,354 molecular formulas in the exometabolome of each strain and 67 and 84 matched genome-predicted metabolites of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911222/ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-for-imaging-of-pantetheinase-in-living-cells
#3
Yiming Hu, Hongyu Li, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma
Pantetheinase, which catalyzes the cleavage of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, pantothenate recycling and cell migration. However, further elucidating the cellular function of this enzyme is largely limited by the lack of a suitable fluorescence imaging probe. By conjugating pantothenic acid with cresyl violet, herein we develop a new fluorescence probe CV-PA for the assay of pantetheinase. The probe not only possesses long analytical wavelengths but also displays linear ratiometric (I628/582 nm) fluorescence response to pantetheinase in the range of 5-400 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900161/acetyl-4-phosphopantetheine-is-stable-in-serum-and-prevents-phenotypes-induced-by-pantothenate-kinase-deficiency
#4
Ivano Di Meo, Cristina Colombelli, Balaji Srinivasan, Marianne de Villiers, Jeffrey Hamada, Suh Y Jeong, Rachel Fox, Randall L Woltjer, Pieter G Tepper, Liza L Lahaye, Emanuela Rizzetto, Clara H Harrs, Theo de Boer, Marianne van der Zwaag, Branko Jenko, Alen Čusak, Jerca Pahor, Gregor Kosec, Nicola A Grzeschik, Susan J Hayflick, Valeria Tiranti, Ody C M Sibon
Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4'-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875857/is-there-a-link-between-vitamin-b-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Natalie Nemazannikova, Kathleen Mikkelsen, Lily Stojanovska, Gregory L Blatch, Vasso Apostolopoulos
BACKGROUND: Damage to the myelin sheath (demyelination) is one of the main manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interestingly, both MS and vitamin B deficiency results in severe myelin degeneration that leads to loss in neuronal signal transmission. OBJECTIVE: Deficiency in vitamin B complex vary, although common symptoms include fatigue, increased oxidative stress, inflammation and demyelination. In particular, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) has had increased attention for its role in the methylation process, involvement in myelination and re-myelination, and reversal of MS symptoms...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863176/ipsc-derived-neuronal-models-of-pank2-associated-neurodegeneration-reveal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-contributing-to-early-disease
#6
Charles Arber, Plamena R Angelova, Sarah Wiethoff, Yugo Tsuchiya, Francesca Mazzacuva, Elisavet Preza, Kailash P Bhatia, Kevin Mills, Ivan Gout, Andrey Y Abramov, John Hardy, James A Duce, Henry Houlden, Selina Wray
Mutations in PANK2 lead to neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. PANK2 has a role in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) from dietary vitamin B5, but the neuropathological mechanism and reasons for iron accumulation remain unknown. In this study, atypical patient-derived fibroblasts were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and subsequently differentiated into cortical neuronal cells for studying disease mechanisms in human neurons. We observed no changes in PANK2 expression between control and patient cells, but a reduction in protein levels was apparent in patient cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857456/integration-of-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-reveals-enhanced-steroid-hormone-biosynthesis-in-mouse-uterus-during-decidualization
#7
Ji-Long Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Miao Zhao, Ming-Yu Huang
It has been long recognized that decidualization is accompanied by significant changes in metabolic pathways. In the present study, we used the GC-TOF-MS approach to investigate the global metabolite profile changes associated with decidualization of mouse uterus on day 8 of pregnancy. We identified a total of 20 differentially accumulated metabolites, of which 9 metabolites were down-regulated and 11 metabolites were up-regulated. As expected, 7 differentially accumulated metabolites were involved in carbohydrate metabolism...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825603/nutritional-adequacy-of-the-specific-carbohydrate-diet-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Kimberly Braly, Nila Williamson, Michele L Shaffer, Dale Lee, Ghassan Wahbeh, Jani Klein, Matthew Giefer, David L Suskind
INTRODUCTION: The specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) is an exclusion diet used as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the SCD. METHODS: Prospective dietary data for 12 weeks were analyzed for pediatric patients on the SCD. Intake of 20 key nutrients was compared to dietary recommended intake levels and nutrient intake data from similarly aged children from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey in 2012...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739188/the-long-term-relationship-between-dietary-pantothenic-acid-vitamin-b5-intake-and-c-reactive-protein-concentration-in-adults-aged-40-years-and-older
#9
S Jung, M K Kim, B Y Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-grade inflammation, represented by minor C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, has a critical role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and pantothenic acid (PA) may have an antioxidant effect in inflammatory process. However, the long-term relationship between PA intake and CRP has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term relationship of PA intake to CRP concentration in healthy adults aged 40 years or older living in a rural area of South Korea...
September 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713351/a-genome-wide-association-study-to-identify-diagnostic-markers-for-human-pathogenic-campylobacter-jejuni-strains
#10
Cody J Buchanan, Andrew L Webb, Steven K Mutschall, Peter Kruczkiewicz, Dillon O R Barker, Benjamin M Hetman, Victor P J Gannon, D Wade Abbott, James E Thomas, G Douglas Inglis, Eduardo N Taboada
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human enteric pathogen worldwide and despite an improved understanding of its biology, ecology, and epidemiology, limited tools exist for identifying strains that are likely to cause disease. In the current study, we used subtyping data in a database representing over 24,000 isolates collected through various surveillance projects in Canada to identify 166 representative genomes from prevalent C. jejuni subtypes for whole genome sequencing. The sequence data was used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed at identifying accessory gene markers associated with clinically related C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676844/genetic-characterization-of-coenzyme-a-biosynthesis-reveals-essential-distinctive-functions-during-malaria-parasite-development-in-blood-and-mosquito
#11
Robert J Hart, Amanah Abraham, Ahmed S I Aly
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential universal cofactor for all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In nearly all non-photosynthetic cells, CoA biosynthesis depends on the uptake and phosphorylation of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid or pantothenate). Recently, putative pantothenate transporter (PAT) and pantothenate kinases (PanKs) were functionally characterized in P. yoelii. PAT and PanKs were shown to be dispensable for blood stage development, but they were essential for mosquito stages development. Yet, little is known about the cellular functions of the other enzymes of the CoA biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasite life cycle stages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448444/role-of-the-vanins-myeloperoxidase-axis-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Mariani, Luca Roncucci
The presence of chronic inflammation in the colonic mucosa leads to an increased risk of cancer. Among proteins involved in the regulation of mucosal inflammation and that may contribute both to structural damage of the intestinal mucosa and to intestinal carcinogenesis, there are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and vanins. The infiltration of colonic mucosa by neutrophils may promote carcinogenesis through MPO, a key enzyme contained in the lysosomes of neutrophils that regulates local inflammation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutagenic species...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424769/folates-in-plants-research-advances-and-progress-in-crop-biofortification
#13
REVIEW
Vera Gorelova, Lars Ambach, Fabrice Rébeillé, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419279/primates-lice-and-bacteria-speciation-and-genome-evolution-in-the-symbionts-of-hominid-lice
#14
Bret M Boyd, Julie M Allen, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Zachary S Quicksall, Tandy Warnow, Lawrence Mugisha, Kevin P Johnson, David L Reed
Insects with restricted diets rely on symbiotic bacteria to provide essential metabolites missing in their diet. The blood-sucking lice are obligate, host-specific parasites of mammals and are themselves host to symbiotic bacteria. In human lice, these bacterial symbionts supply the lice with B-vitamins. Here, we sequenced the genomes of symbiotic and heritable bacterial of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and monkey lice and used phylogenomics to investigate their evolutionary relationships. We find that these symbionts have a phylogenetic history reflecting the louse phylogeny, a finding contrary to previous reports of symbiont replacement...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410378/metabolic-changes-and-inflammation-in-cultured-astrocytes-from-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-alleviation-by-pantethine
#15
Manuel van Gijsel-Bonnello, Kévin Baranger, Philippe Benech, Santiago Rivera, Michel Khrestchatisky, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib
Astrocytes play critical roles in central nervous system homeostasis and support of neuronal function. A better knowledge of their response may both help understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and implement new therapeutic strategies. We used the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg thereafter) to generate astrocyte cultures and investigate the impact of the genotype on metabolic changes and astrocytes activation. Metabolomic analysis showed that Tg astrocytes exhibited changes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compared to wild type (WT) cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275666/data-representing-two-separate-lc-ms-methods-for-detection-and-quantification-of-water-soluble-and-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-tears-and-blood-serum
#16
Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Chunhai Ruan, Robert T Kennedy, Adrienne R Minerick
Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide), B5, B6 (pyridoxine), B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OH)D3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025000/determination-of-water-soluble-and-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-tears-and-blood-serum-of-infants-and-parents-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#17
Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Chunhai Ruan, Robert T Kennedy, Adrienne R Minerick
Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes...
February 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999767/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-chlorhexidine-digluconate-and-dexpanthenol
#18
Axel Kramer, Ojan Assadian, Torsten Koburger-Janssen
Objective: The objective of this standardised experimental study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and the anti-inflammatory pro-vitamin dexpanthenol, which stimulates wound-healing, in the form of Bepanthen(®) Antiseptic Wound Cream, in order to rule out possible antagonistic combination effects of CHX and the alcohol analogue of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) dexpanthenol. Method: Testing was carried out using the quantitative suspension test at conditions simulating wound bio-burden...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900284/effect-of-pantethine-on-ovarian-tumor-progression-and-choline-metabolism
#19
Marie-France Penet, Balaji Krishnamachary, Flonne Wildes, Yelena Mironchik, Delia Mezzanzanica, Franca Podo, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib, Zaver M Bhujwalla
Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy among women in developed countries. New therapeutic strategies evaluated with relevant preclinical models are urgently needed to improve survival rates. Here, we have assessed the effect of pantethine on tumor growth and metabolism using magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a model of ovarian cancer. To evaluate treatment strategies, it is important to use models that closely mimic tumor growth in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758107/untargeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-abcc6-deficient-mice-discloses-an-altered-metabolic-liver-profile
#20
Mie R Rasmussen, Kirstine L Nielsen, Mia R Laursen, Camilla B Nielsen, Pia Svendsen, Henrik Dimke, Erik I Christensen, Mogens Johannsen, Søren K Moestrup
Loss-of-function mutations in the transmembrane ABCC6 transport protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an ectopic, metabolic mineralization disorder that affects the skin, eye, and vessels. ABCC6 is assumed to mediate efflux of one or several small molecule compounds from the liver cytosol to the circulation. Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to inspect liver cytosolic extracts from mice with targeted disruption of the Abcc6 gene. Absence of the ABCC6 protein induced an altered profile of metabolites in the liver causing accumulation of compounds as more features were upregulated than downregulated in ABCC6-deficient mice...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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