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Vitamin B5

Wenting He, Shengfeng Hu, Xialin Du, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Xinying Zhou, Chaoying Zhou, Wenjing Xiong, Yuchi Gao, Shimeng Zhang, Ruining Wang, Jiahui Yang, Li Ma
The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5) can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38), the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6) and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Francesca Romana Mancini, Courtney Dow, Aurélie Affret, Kalina Rajaobelina, Laureen Dartois, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play a key role in type 2 diabetes, but methodological difficulties arise from their collinearity and interdependencies with foods. The objective of the present study is to identify micronutrient dietary patterns in the E3N-EPIC cohort and to investigate their association with type 2 diabetes risk. METHODS: Principal component analysis was applied to identify micronutrient patterns among 71 270 women from the E3N-EPIC cohort. Associations between micronutrient patterns and type 2 diabetes risk were quantified by hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) from Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted on potential confounders...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Maree T Brinkman, Allison M Hodge, Julie K Bassett, Damien Bolton, Anthony Longano, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Dallas R English, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles
Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism may play a role in carcinogenesis through DNA replication, repair and methylation mechanisms. Most studies on urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have focused on folate. We sought to examine the association between B-group vitamins and methionine intake and UCC risk, overall and by subtype, and to test whether these associations are different for population subgroups whose nutritional status may be compromised. We followed participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N=41,513) for over 20 years, and observed 500 UCC cases (89% originating in the bladder; superficial: 279, invasive: 221)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Marion J Torres, Jean-Marc Sabate, Michel Bouchoucha, Camille Buscail, Serge Hercberg, Chantal Julia
Introduction: Diet plays an important role for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to compare the diets in terms of food consumption and nutrient intake between subjects with IBS and controls in a large French population. Methods: This study included 36,448 subjects from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study, who completed a questionnaire pertaining to functional bowel disorders based on the Rome III criteria. Dietary data were obtained from at least three self-administered 24 h records via the internet...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Lili Huang, Michal Pyc, Saleh Alseekh, Donald R McCarty, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Jesse F Gregory, Christopher S Henry, Alisdair R Fernie, Robert T Mullen, Andrew D Hanson
The pantothenate (vitamin B5) synthesis pathway in plants is not fully defined because the sub-cell-ular site of its ketopantoate → pantoate reduction step is unclear. However, the pathway is known to be split between cytosol, mit-o-chondria, and potentially plastids, and inferred to involve mitochondrial or plast-idial transport of ketopantoate or pantoate. No proteins that mediate these transport steps have been identified. Compar-at-ive genomic and transcriptomic analyses identified Arabidopsis thal-iana BASS1 (At1g78560) and its maize ( Zea mays ) ortholog as candidates for such a transport role...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical Journal
N Wybouw, T Van Leeuwen, W Dermauw
A number of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) have been identified in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate herbivore. However, the genome of this mite species has at present not been thoroughly mined for the presence of HGT genes. Here, we performed a systematic screen for HGT genes in the T. urticae genome using the h-index metric. Our results not only validated previously identified HGT genes but also uncovered 25 novel HGT genes. In addition to HGT genes with a predicted biochemical function in carbohydrate, lipid and folate metabolism, we also identified the horizontal transfer of a ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase and a pantoate β-alanine ligase gene...
January 29, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem, Hooman Hefzi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Xin Gao, Takashi Gojobori, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Neema Jamshidi
Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Yian Gu, Jennifer J Manly, Richard P Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and brain and cognitive health. It is unclear whether inflammation explains this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an inflammation-related nutrient pattern (INP) was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive measures of brain health. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study included 330 non-demented elderly (mean age 79 years at MRI scan) participants in a multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study who had information on nutritional intakes (estimated from food frequency questionnaire), circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (measured by ELISA), MRI scans, and cognition...
January 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Christina Spry, Alan L Sewell, Yuliya Hering, Mathew V J Villa, Jonas Weber, Stephen J Hobson, Suzannah J Harnor, Sheraz Gul, Rodolfo Marquez, Kevin J Saliba
Survival of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dependent on pantothenate (vitamin B5), a precursor of the fundamental enzyme cofactor coenzyme A. CJ-15,801, an enamide analogue of pantothenate isolated from the fungus Seimatosporium sp. CL28611, was previously shown to inhibit P. falciparum proliferation in vitro by targeting pantothenate utilization. To inform the design of next generation analogues, we set out to synthesize and test a series of synthetic enamide-bearing pantothenate analogues...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in close proximity in the Philippines...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Angela E Douglas
Insects generally cannot synthesize eight B vitamins that function as co-enzymes in various required enzymatic reactions. Most insects derive their B vitamin requirements from the diet, microbial symbionts, or a combination of these complementary sources. Exceptionally, the genomes of a few insects bear genes in vitamin B5 (pantothenate) and B7 (biotin) synthesis, horizontally acquired from bacteria. Biomarkers of B vitamin deficiency (e.g. vitamin titers, activity of vitamin-dependent enzymes) offer routes to investigate the incidence and the physiological and fitness consequences of B vitamin deficiency in laboratory and field populations of insects...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Gerrit Wienhausen, Beatriz E Noriega-Ortega, Jutta Niggemann, Thorsten Dittmar, Meinhard Simon
Recent studies applying Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) showed that the exometabolome of marine bacteria is composed of a surprisingly high molecular diversity. To shed more light on how this diversity is generated we examined the exometabolome of two model strains of the Roseobacter group, Phaeobacter inhibens and Dinoroseobacter shibae, grown on glutamate, glucose, acetate or succinate by FT-ICR-MS. We detected 2,767 and 3,354 molecular formulas in the exometabolome of each strain and 67 and 84 matched genome-predicted metabolites of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yiming Hu, Hongyu Li, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma
Pantetheinase, which catalyzes the cleavage of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, pantothenate recycling and cell migration. However, further elucidating the cellular function of this enzyme is largely limited by the lack of a suitable fluorescence imaging probe. By conjugating pantothenic acid with cresyl violet, herein we develop a new fluorescence probe CV-PA for the assay of pantetheinase. The probe not only possesses long analytical wavelengths but also displays linear ratiometric (I628/582 nm) fluorescence response to pantetheinase in the range of 5-400 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Ivano Di Meo, Cristina Colombelli, Balaji Srinivasan, Marianne de Villiers, Jeffrey Hamada, Suh Y Jeong, Rachel Fox, Randall L Woltjer, Pieter G Tepper, Liza L Lahaye, Emanuela Rizzetto, Clara H Harrs, Theo de Boer, Marianne van der Zwaag, Branko Jenko, Alen Čusak, Jerca Pahor, Gregor Kosec, Nicola A Grzeschik, Susan J Hayflick, Valeria Tiranti, Ody C M Sibon
Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4'-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Natalie Nemazannikova, Kathleen Mikkelsen, Lily Stojanovska, Gregory L Blatch, Vasso Apostolopoulos
BACKGROUND: Damage to the myelin sheath (demyelination) is one of the main manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interestingly, both MS and vitamin B deficiency results in severe myelin degeneration that leads to loss in neuronal signal transmission. OBJECTIVE: Deficiency in vitamin B complex vary, although common symptoms include fatigue, increased oxidative stress, inflammation and demyelination. In particular, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) has had increased attention for its role in the methylation process, involvement in myelination and re-myelination, and reversal of MS symptoms...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Charles Arber, Plamena R Angelova, Sarah Wiethoff, Yugo Tsuchiya, Francesca Mazzacuva, Elisavet Preza, Kailash P Bhatia, Kevin Mills, Ivan Gout, Andrey Y Abramov, John Hardy, James A Duce, Henry Houlden, Selina Wray
Mutations in PANK2 lead to neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. PANK2 has a role in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) from dietary vitamin B5, but the neuropathological mechanism and reasons for iron accumulation remain unknown. In this study, atypical patient-derived fibroblasts were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and subsequently differentiated into cortical neuronal cells for studying disease mechanisms in human neurons. We observed no changes in PANK2 expression between control and patient cells, but a reduction in protein levels was apparent in patient cells...
2017: PloS One
Ji-Long Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Miao Zhao, Ming-Yu Huang
It has been long recognized that decidualization is accompanied by significant changes in metabolic pathways. In the present study, we used the GC-TOF-MS approach to investigate the global metabolite profile changes associated with decidualization of mouse uterus on day 8 of pregnancy. We identified a total of 20 differentially accumulated metabolites, of which 9 metabolites were down-regulated and 11 metabolites were up-regulated. As expected, 7 differentially accumulated metabolites were involved in carbohydrate metabolism...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
Kimberly Braly, Nila Williamson, Michele L Shaffer, Dale Lee, Ghassan Wahbeh, Jani Klein, Matthew Giefer, David L Suskind
INTRODUCTION: The specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) is an exclusion diet used as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the SCD. METHODS: Prospective dietary data for 12 weeks were analyzed for pediatric patients on the SCD. Intake of 20 key nutrients was compared to dietary recommended intake levels and nutrient intake data from similarly aged children from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey in 2012...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
S Jung, M K Kim, B Y Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-grade inflammation, represented by minor C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, has a critical role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and pantothenic acid (PA) may have an antioxidant effect in inflammatory process. However, the long-term relationship between PA intake and CRP has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term relationship of PA intake to CRP concentration in healthy adults aged 40 years or older living in a rural area of South Korea...
September 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Cody J Buchanan, Andrew L Webb, Steven K Mutschall, Peter Kruczkiewicz, Dillon O R Barker, Benjamin M Hetman, Victor P J Gannon, D Wade Abbott, James E Thomas, G Douglas Inglis, Eduardo N Taboada
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human enteric pathogen worldwide and despite an improved understanding of its biology, ecology, and epidemiology, limited tools exist for identifying strains that are likely to cause disease. In the current study, we used subtyping data in a database representing over 24,000 isolates collected through various surveillance projects in Canada to identify 166 representative genomes from prevalent C. jejuni subtypes for whole genome sequencing. The sequence data was used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed at identifying accessory gene markers associated with clinically related C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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