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Black rice

Dongsheng Jia, Yu Han, Xiang Sun, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhenguo Du, Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
BACKGROUND: Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) are two closely related fijiviruses transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), respectively. SRBSDV has a latent period 4 days shorter than that of RBSDV, implying a more efficient spread in insect vector. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this higher efficiency are poorly understood. However, our recent studies have implicated a role of virus induced tubular structures in the dissemination of fijiiruses within their insect vectors...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Pei Li, Fei Li, Yongqiang Han, Lang Yang, Xiaolan Liao, Maolin Hou
Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S...
2016: PloS One
Terence A Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Nature Plants
Sumiko Nakamura, Takashi Hara, Toshio Joh, Atsushi Kobayashi, Akira Yamazaki, Kensaku Kasuga, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Erin M Schumer, Jonathan D Rice, Amanda M Kistler, Jaimin R Trivedi, Matthew C Black, Michael Bousamra, Victor van Berkel
BACKGROUND: Survival following retransplantation with a single lung is worse than after double lung transplant. We sought to characterize survival of patients who underwent lung retransplantation based on the type of their initial transplant, single or double. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for adult patients who underwent lung retransplantation from 2005 onward. Patients were excluded if they underwent more than one retransplantation...
September 24, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Orranuch Norkaew, Pittayaporn Boontakham, Kanchana Dumri, Acharaporn Na Lampang Noenplab, Phumon Sookwong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont
Because black rice is rich in antioxidants, appropriate methods of post-harvest treatment are necessary for maintaining these bioactive phytochemicals. Drying methods, storage temperatures, storage duration, and packaging methods affected the contents of some bioactive compounds in the two varieties of Thai black rice used in this research. Sun drying reduces the loss of anthocyanins and γ-oryzanols more than does hot air drying. Glutinous black rice stored as paddy at cool room temperature retains more anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and vitamin E than does paddy stored at room temperature...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Osamu Yamada, Masayuki Machida, Akira Hosoyama, Masatoshi Goto, Toru Takahashi, Taiki Futagami, Youhei Yamagata, Michio Takeuchi, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Hideaki Koike, Keietsu Abe, Kiyoshi Asai, Masanori Arita, Nobuyuki Fujita, Kazuro Fukuda, Ken-Ichi Higa, Hiroshi Horikawa, Takeaki Ishikawa, Koji Jinno, Yumiko Kato, Kohtaro Kirimura, Osamu Mizutani, Kaoru Nakasone, Motoaki Sano, Yohei Shiraishi, Masatoshi Tsukahara, Katsuya Gomi
Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A...
September 20, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Sangkyu Park, Min Ji Choi, Jong Yeol Lee, Jae Kwang Kim, Sun-Hwa Ha, Sun-Hyung Lim
Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the major flavonoids in black and red rice grains, respectively, are mainly derived from 3',4'-dihydroxylated leucocyanidin. 3'-Hydroxylation of flavonoids in rice is catalyzed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC We isolated cDNA clones of the two rice F3'H genes (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4) from Korean varieties of white, black, and red rice. Sequence analysis revealed allelic variants of each gene containing one or two amino acid substitutions. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CYP75B3 preferred kaempferol to other substrates, and had a low preference for dihydrokaempferol...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yu Zhou, Qingchang Meng, Yanping Chen, Jirong Wu, Zhuanfang Hao, Zhenhua Wang, Degui Zhang, Mingshun Li, Hongjun Yong, Shihuang Zhang, Xinhai Li, Jianfeng Weng
To analyze the variation in rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) in an area with high incidence of maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), the RBSDV S1 segment in a collection of 100 maize isolates (sample population A100) from Jining, Shandong Province, was sequenced. An additional 21 maize and rice isolates (subpopulation B21) that were sampled from nine other geographic locations in China in 2012 and 2013 were used as a control. A total of 914 nucleotide mutations, including 239 singleton variable and 675 parsimony-informative sites were detected among the segment 1 (S1) sequences from A100...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
Chenxi Bai, Linfeng Zhu, Feng Shen, Xinhua Qi
Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Valmor Ziegler, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Jorge Tiago Schwanz Goebel, Shanise Lisie Mello El Halal, Gabriela Soster Santetti, Luiz Carlos Gutkoski, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Moacir Cardoso Elias
The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hiroshi Awata, Stephen Linder, Laura E Mitchell, George L Delclos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among US Asians. METHODS: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hour dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total dietary study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression...
September 2, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Masahito Hashimoto, Mami Ozono, Maiko Furuyashiki, Risako Baba, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Yasuo Suda, Koichi Fukase, Yukari Fujimoto
Acetobacter pasteurianus is an aerobic Gram-negative rod that is used in the fermentation process used to produce the traditional Japanese black rice vinegar kurozu. Previously, we found that a hydrophobic fraction derived from kurozu stimulates Toll-like receptors to produce cytokines. LPSs, particularly LPS from A. pasteurianus, are strong candidates for the immunostimulatory component of kurozu. The LPS of A. pasteurianus remains stable in acidic conditions during the 2 years of the abovementioned fermentation process...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Donglin Xu, Ting Zhong, Wendi Feng, Guohui Zhou
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a newly emerged fijivirus causing great loss to rice production in eastern and southeastern Asian countries in recent years, is efficiently transmitted by a rice pest, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent, circulative propagative manner and can be considered as an insect virus. In this study, SRBSDV infection in WBPH was found to increase the vector's death rate under extreme cold stress but improve its survival rate under extreme heat stress...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Sarwar Jahan, Fahmida Haris, M Mostafizur Rahman, Purabi Rani Samaddar, Shrikanta Sutradhar
Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Lisa R Jewett, Linda Kwakkenbos, Marie-Eve Carrier, Vanessa L Malcarne, Susan J Bartlett, Daniel E Furst, Karen Gottesman, Maureen D Mayes, Shervin Assassi, Diana Harcourt, Heidi Williamson, Sindhu R Johnson, Annett Körner, Virginia Steen, Rina S Fox, Shadi Gholizadeh, Sarah D Mills, Jacqueline C Molnar, Danielle B Rice, Brett D Thombs
OBJECTIVES: Appearance concerns are common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and have been linked to younger age and more severe disease. No study has examined their association with sex or race/ethnicity. METHODS: SSc patients were sampled from the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort. Presence of appearance concerns was assessed with a single item, and medical and sociodemographic information were collected. RESULTS: Of 644 patients, appearance concerns were present in 72%, including 421 of 565 women (75%), 42 of 79 men (53%), 392 of 550 patients who identified as White (71%), 35 of 41 who identified as Black (85%), and 36 of 53 who identified as another race/ethnicity (68%)...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Yu Zhou, Zhennan Xu, Canxing Duan, Yanping Chen, Qingchang Meng, Jirong Wu, Zhuanfang Hao, Zhenhua Wang, Mingshun Li, Hongjun Yong, Degui Zhang, Shihuang Zhang, Jianfeng Weng, Xinhai Li
Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wenbin Lei, Pei Li, Yongqiang Han, Shaolong Gong, Lang Yang, Maolin Hou
Plant viruses are primarily transmitted by insect vectors and virus infection may influence on the vectors' feeding behaviors. Using an electrical penetration graph, we detected that infection with the Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) and in rice plants both altered the vector's feeding behavior. When viruliferous WBPH (carrying SRBSDV) were fed on uninfected plants, they spent more time in salivation and phloem sap ingestion than non-viruliferous insects...
2016: Scientific Reports
R Chelliah, S R Ramakrishnan, D Premkumar, U Antony
Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed...
June 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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