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Autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145701/tnf-antagonists-killing-two-birds-with-one-biologic-stone
#1
EDITORIAL
Joan M Bathon, Jon T Giles, Daniel H Solomon
Forty years have passed since it was first recognized that patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease have an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events (1) Although initial reports focused on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), similar findings were verified subsequently in patients with psoriasis (Ps) and/or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and spondyloarthritis. An early feature of the atherosclerotic lesion is infiltration with inflammatory cells, particularly monocytes/macrophages, and the presence of these cells in mature plaque elevates the risk of plaque rupture and thrombosis (2)...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145678/-thrombocytosis-and-thrombocytopenia-background-and-clinical-relevance
#2
Kai Wille, Parvis Sadjadian, Martin Griesshammer
Due to the central role of platelets in hemostasis, the clinical relevance of quantitative changes in platelet counts (< 150 G/l or > 450 G/l) may be significant. Thrombopoesis (= production of platelets) occurs in the bone marrow, and the hormone thrombopoetin takes control on its regulation.In thrombocytosis, primary causes have to be distinguished from the far more common reactive (= secondary) reasons. The most important form of primary thrombocytosis occurs in myeloproliferative neoplasms especially in essential thrombocythemia (ET)...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145473/suppression-and-resolution-of-autoimmune-arthritis-by-rhesus-%C3%AE-defensin-1-an-immunomodulatory-macrocyclic-peptide
#3
Justin B Schaal, Dat Q Tran, Akshay Subramanian, Reshma Patel, Teresina Laragione, Kevin D Roberts, Katie Trinh, Prasad Tongaonkar, Patti A Tran, Dmitriy Minond, Gregg B Fields, Paul Beringer, André J Ouellette, Percio S Gulko, Michael E Selsted
θ-defensins constitute a family of macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in Old World monkeys. The peptides are pleiotropic effectors of innate immunity, possessing broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and immunoregulatory properties. Here we report that rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1) is highly effective in arresting and reversing joint disease in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Parenteral RTD-1 treatment of DA/OlaHsd rats with established pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) rapidly suppressed joint disease progression, restored limb mobility, and preserved normal joint architecture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145318/an-unusual-cause-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-with-enlarged-lymph-nodes-relapsing-polychondritis-a-case-report
#4
Wei Liu, Hongli Jiang, Han Jing, Bing Mao
INTRODUCTION: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a common initial presentation leading to a diagnostic challenge. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 3-month history of moderate-to-high fever was reported in an otherwise healthy 54-year-old man. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of his chest showed a remarkable progressive enlargement of bilateral cervical, supraclavicular, hilar, and mediastinal lymph nodes within 2 weeks. Bronchofibroscopy manifested obvious luminal stenosis with swelling, thick pale mucosa, and disappearing of structures of trachea cricoid cartilage, followed by a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) with intense symmetric FDG uptake in larynx, tracheobronchial tree, and hilar, mediastinal, and axillary lymph nodes being demonstrated...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145204/comparing-the-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-hepatitis-e-viral-infections-with-those-of-acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-infections-in-korea
#5
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
November 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#6
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145168/frontal-infraslow-activity-marks-the-motor-spasms-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#7
Richard Wennberg, Claude Steriade, Robert Chen, Danielle Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145157/bmscs-derived-mir-223-containing-exosomes-contribute-to-liver-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-hepatitis
#8
Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Da-Zhi Chen, Jin-Lu Wu, En-de Hu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yong-Ping Chen
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the liver with potential to the development of liver fibrosis. Recent evidences suggest that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may exert its therapeutic activity through exosomes. Moreover, miR-223 is highly expressed in BMSCs and plays an important role in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, in this study, hepatoprotective role of BMSCs and miR-223 was investigated in both mice and hepatocytes. Liver antigen S100 was used to establish autoimmune hepatitis model in mice while LPS and ATP were used to establish cell injury model in hepatocyte...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145032/intravenous-immunoglobulin-improves-glucose-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-human-iapp-transgenic-mice-by-attenuating-islet-inflammation-and-reducing-iapp-oligomers
#9
Yue Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yu, Jie Zhu, Shu-Ying Liu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Quan-Xiu Dong, Jia-Qian Chai, Rui-Tian Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by β-cell loss, insulin resistance, islet inflammation and amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Reducing toxic IAPP oligomers and inhibiting islet inflammation may provide therapeutic benefit in treating T2DM. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an efficient anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory neurological diseases. However, whether IVIg has therapeutic potential on T2DM remains unclear...
November 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#10
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144542/autoimmune-diseases-and-breast-cancer-risk-by-tumor-hormone-receptor-status-among-elderly-women
#11
Catherine Schairer, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Shahinaz M Gadalla
The female preponderance of many autoimmune diseases suggests a possible hormonal etiology. Little research exists on systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases and risk of breast cancer by tumor estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)- status. Here we evaluate associations between selected systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases and breast cancer risk overall and by tumor ER- and PR-status. We used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, with first female breast cancer cases ages ≥66 years identified by SEER registries (years 1992-2011) (N = 209,929)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#12
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143786/dietary-factors-associated-with-plasma-thyroid-peroxidase-and-thyroglobulin-antibodies
#13
Antonela Matana, Vesela Torlak, Dubravka Brdar, Marijana Popović, Bernarda Lozić, Maja Barbalić, Vesna Boraska Perica, Ante Punda, Ozren Polašek, Caroline Hayward, Tatijana Zemunik
The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled 1887 participants originating from the South Croatia. Participants with elevated plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab were defined as cases (n = 462) and those with TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab within referent values were defined as controls (n = 1425)...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143151/next-generation-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibodies-in-autoimmune-disease-treatment
#14
Fanny Huynh Du, Elizabeth A Mills, Yang Mao-Draayer
The clinical success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated B cell depletion therapy has contributed to the understanding of B cells as major players in several autoimmune diseases. The first therapeutic anti-CD20 mAb, rituximab, is a murine-human chimera to which many patients develop antibodies and/or experience infusion-related reactions. A second generation of anti-CD20 mAbs has been designed to be more effective, better tolerated, and of lower immunogenicity. These include the humanized versions: ocrelizumab, obinutuzumab, and veltuzumab, and the fully human, ofatumumab...
November 16, 2017: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142962/what-genetics-tells-us-about-the-pathogenesis-of-iga-nephropathy-the%C3%A2-role%C3%A2-of-immune-factors-and-infection
#15
REVIEW
Yue-Miao Zhang, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by IgA1-containing immune-deposits in the glomerular mesangium. The epidemiologic observations of familial clustering as well as ethnic and regional discrepancies indicate a genetic component to IgAN. Large, international, genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility genes and loci for IgAN, many of which have been implicated in immune regulation and are shared with other autoimmune diseases...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142942/complement-activation-induces-neutrophil-adhesion-and-neutrophil-platelet-aggregate-formation-on-vascular-endothelial-cells
#16
Magdalena Riedl, Damien G Noone, Meraj A Khan, Fred G Pluthero, Walter H A Kahr, Nades Palaniyar, Christoph Licht
Introduction: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a thrombotic microangiopathy, which is linked to hereditary or autoimmune defects in complement activators or regulators present in blood and on vascular endothelial cells. Acute thrombotic microangiopathy episodes are typically preceded by infections, which by themselves would not be expected to manifest HUS. Thus, it is possible that the host immune response contributes to the precipitation of aHUS. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood...
January 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142837/preoperative-management-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#17
REVIEW
Eliana Piantanida
Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient geographical areas and is characterized by the presence in patients' serum of autoantibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) that cause overproduction and release of thyroid hormones. Clinical presentation results from both hyperthyroidism and underlying autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical features and biochemical abnormalities. If serum thyrotropin (TSH) is low, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations should be measured to distinguish between subclinical (with normal circulating thyroid hormones) and overt hyperthyroidism (with increased circulating thyroid hormones)...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142737/cloning-expression-and-identification-of-ktx-sp4-a-selective-kv1-3-peptidic-blocker-from-scorpiops-pococki
#18
Yan Zou, Feng Zhang, Yaxian Li, Yuanfang Wang, Yi Li, Zhengtao Long, Shujuan Shi, Li Shuai, Jiukai Liu, Zhiyong Di, Shijin Yin
Background: Specific and selective peptidic blockers of Kv1.3 channels can serve as a valuable drug lead for treating T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, and scorpion venom is an important source of kv1.3 channel inhibitors. Through conducting transcriptomic sequencing for the venom gland of Scorpiops pococki from Xizang province of China, this research aims to discover a novel functional gene encoding peptidic blocker of Kv1.3, and identify its function. Results: We screened out a new peptide toxin KTX-Sp4 which had 43 amino acids including six cysteine residues...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142667/towards-a-further-understanding-of-prenatal-thyroid-theory-of-homosexuality-autoimmune-thyroiditis-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-autism-and-low-birth-weight
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142547/an-evaluation-of-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-beta-thalassemia-minor-a-case-control-study
#20
Ali Ramazan Benli, Sati Sena Yildiz, Mehmet Ali Cikrikcioglu
Objective: The tendency to autoimmune diseases has been reported to be increased in beta thalassemia minor (BTM). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether thyroid autoimmunity is higher in BTM. Methods: Patients with BTM (n=86) and a healthy control group (n=93) were included in this cross-sectional case-control study. The two groups were compared in terms of anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroid hormones. Results: In the BTM group, thyroid hormones and serum anti-TG and anti-TPO antibody levels were not statistically different from those of the control group...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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