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Autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934695/type-1-diabetes-and-viral-infections-what-is-the-relationship
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Maria Giulia Berioli, Sonia Bianchini, Susanna Esposito
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder in children. Epigenetic and environmental factors capable of altering the penetrance of major susceptibility genes or capable of increasing the penetrance of low-risk genes are currently thought to play a role in triggering autoimmunity and T1D development. This paper discusses the current knowledge of the role of viruses in T1D. Most studies that have evaluated the potential association between viral infections and T1D have indicated that it is highly likely that some of these infectious agents play a role in T1D development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934668/diabetes-mellitus-increased-all-cause-mortality-rate-among-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-in-an-asian-population-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#2
Po-Yen Ko, Shi-Dou Lin, Ming-Chia Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Chen
AIMS: To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. METHODS: The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#3
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934318/identification-of-lag3-high-affinity-aptamers-by-ht-selex-and-conserved-motif-accumulation-cma
#4
Mario Martínez Soldevilla, Sandra Hervas, Helena Villanueva, Teresa Lozano, Obdulia Rabal, Julen Oyarzabal, Juan José Lasarte, Maurizio Bendandi, Susana Inoges, Ascensión López-Díaz de Cerio, Fernando Pastor
LAG3 receptor belongs to a family of immune-checkpoints expressed in T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. It plays an important role as a rheostat of the immune response. Focus on this receptor as a potential therapeutic target in cancer immunotherapy has been underscored after the success of other immune-checkpoint blockade strategies in clinical trials. LAG3 showcases the interest in the field of autoimmunity as several studies show that LAG3-targeting antibodies can also be used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934246/discovery-of-pf-06928215-as-a-high-affinity-inhibitor-of-cgas-enabled-by-a-novel-fluorescence-polarization-assay
#5
Justin Hall, Amy Brault, Fabien Vincent, Shawn Weng, Hong Wang, Darren Dumlao, Ann Aulabaugh, Dikran Aivazian, Dana Castro, Ming Chen, Jeffrey Culp, Ken Dower, Joseph Gardner, Steven Hawrylik, Douglas Golenbock, David Hepworth, Mark Horn, Lyn Jones, Peter Jones, Eicke Latz, Jing Li, Lih-Ling Lin, Wen Lin, David Lin, Frank Lovering, Nootaree Niljanskul, Ryan Nistler, Betsy Pierce, Olga Plotnikova, Daniel Schmitt, Suman Shanker, James Smith, William Snyder, Timothy Subashi, John Trujillo, Edyta Tyminski, Guoxing Wang, Jimson Wong, Bruce Lefker, Leslie Dakin, Karen Leach
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2', 3' -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#6
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#7
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933417/serum-wisteria-floribunda-agglutinin-positive-mac-2-binding-protein-could-not-always-predict-early-cirrhosis-in-non-viral-liver-diseases
#8
Yuki Haga, Tatsuo Kanda, Reina Sasaki, Masato Nakamura, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Shin Yasui, Makoto Arai, Shingo Nakamoto, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein (WFA(+)-M2BP) is a novel non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. The goal of the study was to investigate whether the novel serum biomarker WFA(+)-M2BP or other non-invasive markers are useful for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS: We examined a significant correlation between serum WFA(+)-M2BP levels and histological staging of fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases, such as NASH, AIH, and PBC...
December 14, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933290/nutraceuticals-and-repurposed-drugs-of-phytochemical-origin-in-prevention-and-interception-of-chronic-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#9
Adriana Albini, Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Matteo Gallazzi, Paola Corradino, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan
Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933133/the-effect-of-nerve-mobilization-exercise-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-pilot-study
#10
C-N Lo, G Xia, B P Leung
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. The neurogenic inflammatory mechanism plays an important role in the inflammatory process of RA, and pathological changes in neural tissues in RA have also been noted. We aim to investigate treatment of the nervous system to relieve joint pain and inflammation in RA. Nerve mobilization, a nervous system-specific therapeutic exercise, was applied on RA patients to determine the effect of nerve mobilization on joint inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932896/-update-on-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#11
S Kovac, J Alferink, D Ahmetspahic, V Arolt, N Melzer
Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of autoimmune inflammatory disorders affecting both grey and white matter of the central nervous system. Encephalitis with autoantibodies against the N‑methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis syndrome presenting with a characteristic sequence of psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Treatment necessitates a close interdisciplinary cooperation. This article provides an update on the current knowledge on diagnostic standards, pathogenesis, and treatment strategies for anti-NMDA-R encephalitis from psychiatric and neurological perspectives...
September 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932763/a-co-culture-assay-to-determine-efficacy-of-tnf-%C3%AE-suppression-by-biomechanically-induced-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Miguel F Diaz, Siobahn M Evans, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cellular therapies are believed to be mediated primarily by the ability odansf MSCs to suppress inflammation associated with chronic or acute injury, infection, autoimmunity, and graft-versus-host disease. To specifically address the effects of frictional force caused by blood flow, or wall shear stress (WSS), on human MSC immunomodulatory function, we have utilized microfluidics to model WSS at the luminal wall of arteries. Anti-inflammatory potency of MSCs was subsequently quantified via measurement of TNF-α production by activated murine splenocytes in co-culture assays...
August 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932754/hair-growth-in-two-alopecia-patients-after-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#13
Dionne Rebello, Elaina Wang, Eugene Yen, Peter A Lio, Colleen R Kelly
Clostridium difficile infections can be life-threatening but are increasingly being treated successfully with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We report two patients with alopecia universalis who developed subsequent hair regrowth after FMT for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections. Gut microbiota may have immunomodulatory effects in autoimmune conditions such as alopecia areata, and further study may elucidate disease mechanisms and lead to alternative treatment options for these patients for whom treatment options are currently limited...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932736/mean-platelet-volume-and-immature-platelet-fraction-in-autoimmune-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Deonilson Schmoeller, Maria Mercedes Picarelli, Terezinha Paz Munhoz, Carlos Eduardo Poli de Figueiredo, Henrique Luiz Staub
Mean platelet volume (MPV), measured using automated blood analysers, has been appraised as a potential biomarker in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. The test, a useful tool in differentiation of thrombocytopenic states, has now been carried out for autoimmune disorders, but data are yet scarce. Controversial results have been obtained in systemic and organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Another test, the immature platelet fraction (IPF) reflects the amount of young, reticulated platelets...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932609/neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-nepalese-man
#15
Yogesh Subedi, Utsav Joshi, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Ashbina Pokharel, Ashbita Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system of autoimmune etiology that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Here, we present a case report detailing a patient with tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs who was neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G-positive. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old Nepalese man presented to the hospital with a history of tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs that developed over a period of two months...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932375/fever-of-unknown-origin-in-a-male-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
Duminda Bandara Basnayake, Thamara Kannangara, Laknath Welagedara, Vindhya Bandara, Janitha Herath
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder which is uncommon in men. It has a wide variety of clinical presentations. CASE REPORT: We report a 21-year-old male presented with one month history of fever, loss of appetite, weight loss and reduced hair growth with an examination revealing an oral ulcer, cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy simulating hematological malignancy. Investigations showed pancytopenia, positive anti-nuclear factor and double-stranded DNA, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate with normal C-reactive protein levels and hypocomplementemia...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932368/cancer-risk-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-cohort-study-in-isfahan-iran
#17
Masoud Etemadifar, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Sara Ghaffari, Maboobeh Fereidan-Esfahani, Hossein Changaei, Nazila Aghadoost, Ameneh Jahanbani Ardakani, Negin Moradkhani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorder, affects 2.3 million people around the world. Cancer kills around 7.5 million people annually. Both diseases have similar risks and intertwining molecular causes. Most studies focusing on MS and cancer have found an insignificant difference or reduction in the amount of cancer found in the MS community. METHODS: We performed a cohort study using data from Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) and Isfahan cancer society and followed-up for 8 years on average (2006-2014)...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932354/cardiovascular-involvement-in-celiac-disease
#18
REVIEW
Edward J Ciaccio, Suzanne K Lewis, Angelo B Biviano, Vivek Iyer, Hasan Garan, Peter H Green
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune response to ingestion of gluten protein, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley grains, and results in both small intestinal manifestations, including villous atrophy, as well as systemic manifestations. The main treatment for the disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which typically results in the restoration of the small intestinal villi, and restoration of other affected organ systems, to their normal functioning. In an increasing number of recently published studies, there has been great interest in the occurrence of alterations in the cardiovascular system in untreated CD...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932121/treatment-of-pretibial-myxedema-with-intralesional-immunomodulating-therapy
#19
Ziwei Ren, Min He, Fang Deng, Yan Chen, Liyin Chai, Bing Chen, Wuquan Deng
OBJECTIVE: Local immune regulation therapy has been one of the therapeutic methods used for the treatment of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with pretibial myxedema (PTM). However, the poor response rate and high recurrence rate are still major problems. Whether a premixed corticosteroid, compound betamethasone, could enhance remission rate and decrease recurrence rate in patients with PTM was investigated in the present study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We have performed a clinical utility observation of compound betamethasone with intralesional injections based on basic thyroid disease treatment in 32 PTM patients between January 2008 and August 2016...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932117/multifunctional-folate-receptor-targeting-and-ph-responsive-nanocarriers-loaded-with-methotrexate-for-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Jinlong Zhao, Menghui Zhao, Changhui Yu, Xueyan Zhang, Jiaxin Liu, Xinwei Cheng, Robert J Lee, Fengying Sun, Lesheng Teng, Youxin Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive cartilage and bone destruction. Activated macrophages that overexpress folic acid (FA) receptors play an important role in RA, due to their abundance in inflamed synovial membrane and joints. In an effort to deliver drugs to the inflamed tissues, multifunctional FA receptor-targeting and pH-responsive nanocarriers were developed. They were composed of lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) forming a hydrophilic shell, FA around the hydrophilic shell as a targeting ligand, and poly(cyclohexane-1,4-diylacetone dimethylene ketal) (PCADK) and PLGA as a hydrophobic core...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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