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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214756/multifarious-applications-of-atomic-force-microscopy-in-forensic-science-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Gaurav Pandey, Maithri Tharmavaram, Deepak Rawtani, Sumit Kumar, Y Agrawal
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences...
February 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214712/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-in-epilepsy-in-a-spanish-population
#2
María Isabel Chamorro-Muñoz, Guillermina García-Martín, Francisco Pérez-Errazquin, Manuel Romero-Acebal, Antonio García-Rodríguez, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar
PURPOSE: Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. METHOD: We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries...
February 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#3
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#4
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213867/re-establishment-of-rigor-mortis-evidence-for-a-considerably-longer-post-mortem-time-span
#5
Chiara Crostack, Susanne Sehner, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213242/cocaine-profiling-implementation-of-a-predictive-model-by-atr-ftir-coupled-with-chemometrics-in-forensic-chemistry
#6
Stefano Materazzi, Adolfo Gregori, Luigi Ripani, Azzurra Apriceno, Roberta Risoluti
In this study, a strategy based on Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transformed and Attenuated Total Reflectance associated with chemometrics (ATR-FTIR) is proposed to identify the chemical "fingerprint" of cocaine samples. To this end, standard mixtures of cocaine and cuttings at differents ratio were investigated in order to develop a multivariate classification model to simultaneously predict the composition of the samples and to obtain a profile of adulteration of cocaine seizures. In addition, the application of a Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) calibration approaches were found to be a useful tool to predict the content of cocaine, caffeine, procaine, lidocaine and phenacetin in drug seizures...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213186/enantioseparation-of-methamphetamine-by-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-with-cellulose-based-packed-column
#7
Hiroki Segawa, Yuko T Iwata, Tadashi Yamamuro, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Hiroyuki Inoue
The enantiomers of methamphetamine were differentiated by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with an enantioselective cellulose-based packed column. The optimization of the chromatographic conditions was achieved by changing column temperature, co-solvent proportion, additive concentration, flow rate and back pressure. In particular, the additive concentration crucially changed the resolution between the enantiomers. After determining the optimized conditions, the enantiomers of methamphetamine were successfully separated...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213185/a-comparative-study-of-photogrammetric-methods-using-panoramic-photography-in-a-forensic-context
#8
Kayleigh Sheppard, John P Cassella, Sarah Fieldhouse
Taking measurements of a scene is an integral aspect of the crime scene documentation process, and accepted limits of accuracy for taking measurements at a crime scene vary throughout the world. In the UK, there is no published accepted limit of accuracy, whereas the United States has an accepted limit of accuracy of 0.25 inch. As part of the International organisation for Standardisation 17020 accreditation competency testing is required for all work conducted at the crime scene. As part of this, all measuring devices need to be calibrated within known tolerances in order to meet the required standard, and measurements will be required to have a clearly defined limit of accuracy...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213184/forensic-applications-fluorescence-properties-of-tooth-coloured-restorative-materials-using-a-fluorescence-dslr-camera
#9
Ramya Kiran, James Chapman, Alexander Forrest, Marc Tennant, Laurence J Walsh
The objective of this study was to compare the fluorescence properties of dry and wet samples of contemporary tooth-coloured restorative materials using a fluorescence based DSLR camera and a variety of LEDs emitting different wavelengths of visible light as excitation sources. The materials examined included resin composites; ceramics and hybrid restorative materials such as ormocers, Vita Enamic™ and resin reinforced glass-ionomer cements. The levels of fluorescence for each sample under different combinations of incident light wavelengths and filters was analysed by using histogram data for colour channels from Adobe Photoshop software...
February 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#10
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212198/forensic-nursing-provides-closure-in-workplace-fatality
#11
Colin Harris
The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212195/suicide-in-guyana-nurses-perspectives
#12
Maureen Anthony, Carla Groh, Jean Gash
Guyana, an English-speaking country on the north coast of South America, has the highest suicide rate in the world. Nurses are an integral part of the healthcare team working with patients experiencing psychological distress and are uniquely qualified to add to the discourse on factors contributing to the high suicide rate in Guyana. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of nurses and nurse assistants in Guyana related to suicide. Nine registered nurses and nurse assistants who worked at a private hospital in Georgetown, Guyana, were recruited to participate in a focus group...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212194/creating-a-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-an-empirically-supported-planning-framework
#13
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral, Sheena Horsford
In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212065/children-s-knowledge-of-genital-anatomy-and-its-relationship-with-children-s-use-of-the-word-inside-during-questioning-about-possible-sexual-abuse
#14
Lisa J Milam, William R Nugent
This study was designed to examine the relationship between children's understanding of their genital anatomy and their use of the word "inside" in response to questions about genital touch during a forensic medical examination. This study involved a secondary data analysis of 674 records of children at a sexual abuse clinic in a large city in a southern state. Data were analyzed using contingency table, binary logistic, and multinomial logistic regression analysis methods. An association between children's understanding of genital anatomy and their use of the word "inside" to describe genital touch was found...
January 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#15
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211539/genetic-analysis-of-19-x-chromosome-str-loci-for-forensic-purposes-in-four-chinese-ethnic-groups
#16
Xingyi Yang, Xiaofang Zhang, Junyong Zhu, Linli Chen, Changhui Liu, Xingling Feng, Ling Chen, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210994/factors-related-to-the-quality-of-life-of-older-prisoners
#17
Stefaan De Smet, Liesbeth De Donder, Denis Ryan, Sofie Van Regenmortel, Dorien Brosens, Stijn Vandevelde
PURPOSES: There is evidence of an increasing emphasis on the relevance of the quality of life-paradigm as an outcome measure for clients in geriatric, forensic, as well as correctional care. This paper aims to explore to what extent variables that were categorized according to the main areas of the Good Lives Model ('the self', 'the body' and 'social life') are related to the quality of life domains of older imprisoned offenders. METHODS: Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire administered in individual interviews with 93 older prisoners aged 60 years and over in 16 prisons of the Dutch-speaking region in Belgium...
February 16, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#18
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207195/increasing-the-linear-dynamic-range-in-lc-ms-is-it-valid-to-use-a-less-abundant-isotopologue
#19
Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott
Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has quickly become the analytical method of choice in forensic toxicology laboratories due to its ability to detect a very wide range of compounds in a single analysis. One of the major limitations of LC/MS however, is a relatively limited linear dynamic range for quantitation. A new approach to combating this problem is to use the [(+1) M + H](+) isotope mass peak for quantitation, thereby reducing saturation at the detector and extending the linear range...
February 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206818/sudden-death-due-to-aortic-dissection-in-early-pregnancy-a-case-report
#20
Akshith Rs Shetty, Y P Girish Chandra, S Praveen, Somusekhar Gajula
Forensic pathologists come across many deaths due to natural causes which are sudden. Sudden natural deaths in females who are pregnant warrant thorough investigation and a medico-legal autopsy to rule out any foul play. Here, we report a case of 21-year-old primigravida in her first trimester who suddenly complained of severe chest pain and was brought dead to the hospital with no history suggestive of prior natural disease. At autopsy, the death was attributed to dissection of ascending aorta.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
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