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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344721/post-mortem-mr-angiography-quantitative-investigation-and-intravascular-retention-of-perfusates-in-ex-situ-porcine-hearts
#1
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Sylvia Scheicher, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
As the implementation of minimally invasive imaging techniques in both forensic and pathological practice increases, research in this area focuses on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses of current approaches. Assessment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be considered one such area in which post-mortem imaging still shows diagnostic weaknesses. We hypothesise that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an angiographic adjunct may improve the visualisation and interpretation of cardiac pathologies in a post-mortem setting...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343872/-duties-and-liabilities-for-psychiatrists
#2
Anna Coluccia, Giulia Nucci, Alessandro Cuomo, Matteo Benvenuti, Felice Carabellese, Andrea Fagiolini, Mario Gabbrielli
This paper evaluates forensic duties and liabilities for psychiatrists, based on the current literature and based on our experience over several years of forensic medicine practice, involving both criminal and civil cases. We evaluated different scenarios, including cases of patients dangerous to themselves or others. We highlighted the importance to keep adequate and detailed clinical records, both in the inpatient and outpatient setting, given the absence of other objective items (e.g., laboratory records or other instrumental assessments) that may be of help for the judge and his/her counselors...
November 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342485/-driving-ability-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#3
Klaus Schmidtke
Executive functions, visuo-spatial processing and control of behaviour are pertinent for safe driving. In patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, these abilities can be impaired, in addition to age-related impairments, and driving ability can be compromised at an early stage. Neurologists and psychiatrists play an important role in the examination, counseling and, if required, the issuing of a medical driving ban. Mistakes in this process may ensue forensic sequelae for the involved physicians...
January 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341139/exploitation-of-the-ultraviolet-properties-and-machine-cut-edges-of-paper-to-associate-and-sequence-sheets-in-a-ream
#4
Nicola R Musgrave, Oliver T S Thorne
Previously unreported line patterns visible under ultraviolet light were observed on a proportion of plain white A4 printer/copier paper from different manufacturers. These Ultraviolet Line Patterns (UVLPs) usually appear as stripes down the vertical length of the paper. Typically, the UVLPs were found to "repeat" through the ream in a predictable way, while also changing. It is postulated that the repeating nature of the UVLPs is a result of the way that paper is manufactured. This leads to the ability to sequence the sheets compared to their original source paper...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341129/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-ii-visual-pattern-perception-and-diagnostic-accuracy
#5
Saty Satya-Murti, Joseph J Lockhart
Previously, we reviewed how general cognitive processes might be susceptible to bias across both forensic and clinical fields, and how interdisciplinary comparisons could reduce error. We discuss several examples of clinical tasks which are heavily dependent on visual processing, comparing them to eyewitness identification (EI). We review the "constructive" nature of visual processing, and how contextual factors influence both medical experts and witnesses in decision making and recall. Overall, studies suggest common cognitive factors uniting these visual tasks, in both their strengths and shortcomings...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341124/metric-assessment-of-the-pubic-bone-using-known-and-novel-data-points-for-sex-estimation
#6
Kathleen A S Blake, Kristen Hartnett-McCann
Biological sex estimation of skeletal remains is essential in forensic and archaeological analyses. Anthropologists most often use the pelvis, which is the most sexually dimorphic element both morphologically and metrically. While nonmetric pubic bone features have been studied extensively, few metric studies have examined this individual bone for dimorphism. For this study, three observers examined three previously identified and ten novel measurements of the pubic body on a modern sample of isolated pubic bones from the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center (FSC), in Phoenix, Arizona (n = 400)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339839/trends-in-trauma-related-mortality-among-adolescents-a-6-year-snapshot-from-a-teaching-hospital-s-post-mortem-data
#7
Sachil Kumar, Anoop K Verma
Introduction: The aim is to explore the trends in trauma mortality in children aged 0-18 years can help to co-ordinate resources toward research and programs to reduce the burden. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out on adolescents ≤18 years of age autopsied according to the attorney request at Forensic Medicine & Toxicology department of King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India in the period from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2014...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338906/virtual-computed-tomography-morphometry-of-the-patella-for-estimation-of-sex-using-postmortem-japanese-adult-data-in-forensic-identification
#8
Tomomi Michiue, Asmaa Mohammed Hishmat, Shigeki Oritani, Kazunori Miyamoto, Mohamed Farghally Amin, Takaki Ishikawa, Hitoshi Maeda
In forensic anthropological identification of human remains and single bones, computed tomography (CT) data analysis facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses, and a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance, accuracy, and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction. The present study aimed to investigate virtual CT morphometry of the patella for the estimation of sex using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese individuals aged ≥18 years (total n=220; 110 males and 110 females; estimated postmortem interval <88h), especially with regard to the efficacy of 3-D bone volumetry...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338274/frequency-and-correlation-of-lip-prints-fingerprints-and-abo-blood-groups-in-population-of-sriganganagar-district-rajasthan
#9
Harpreet Sandhu, Pradhuman Verma, Sarfaraz Padda, Seetharamaiha Sunder Raj
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and uniqueness of different lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and ABO Rh blood groups among a semi-urban population of Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 1200 healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years. The cheiloscopic and dermatographic data of each subject were obtained and were analysed according to the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi and Henry systems of classification, respectively...
November 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336854/morphologically-directed-raman-spectroscopy-for-forensic-soil-analysis
#10
Brooke W Kammrath, Andrew Koutrakos, Josemar Castillo, Cathryn Langley, Deborah Huck-Jones
Morphologically-directed Raman spectroscopy (MDRS) is a novel yet reliable analytical technique that can be used for a variety of forensic applications, enabling scientists to gain more information from samples than they obtain using more traditional methods. In soil forensics, MDRS delivers particle size distribution and microscopic morphological characteristics for the particles present, and at the same time allows secure mineral identification. In this article, we explore the benefits of utilizing soil in forensic investigations, and demonstrate the value of applying MDRS...
December 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336084/age-onset-of-offending-and-serious-mental-illness-among-forensic-psychiatric-patients-a-latent-profile-analysis
#11
Stephanie R Penney, Aaron Prosser, Alexander I F Simpson
BACKGROUND: Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. AIMS: To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. METHODS: Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records...
January 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335777/fully-automatic-ct-histogram-based-fat-estimation-in-dead-bodies
#12
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335037/is-freedom-still-therapy-the-40th-anniversary-of-the-italian-mental-health-care-reform
#13
A Fioritti
On 13 May 1978, the Italian Parliament approved Law 180, universally known as 'Basaglia Law' after the name of the leader of the anti-institutional movement which promoted this radical community mental health care reform. Forty years later, Italian psychiatry still runs a community care system, albeit with degrees of solidity and quality very varied along the peninsula. Mental health care is still an integral part of the National Health System, with liberal regulations on coercion and a lowest number of general hospital and residential facilities beds...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332838/rapid-and-sensitive-tapered-capillary-microextraction-combined-to-on-line-sample-stacking-capillary-electrophoresis-for-extraction-and-quantification-of-two-beta-blockers-in-human-urine
#14
Shucheng Sun, Yujia Wang, Xin Liu, Rao Fu, Li Yang
A tapered-capillary microextraction (tCap-μEx) combining with field-amplified stacking (FASI) method for CE analysis was developed. The tCap-μEx method is based on the construction of a micro solid phase extraction (SPE) column by narrowing the end of a silica capillary from 530µm (inner diameter) to 20µm, enabling the packing of 45µm sorbent particles without a frit. Various parameters that may affect the microextraction and FASI-CE analysis have been investigated and optimized. This study shows that microextraction exhibits advantages of small sample and sorbent volumes (less than 200μL sample and 2μL sorbent) and fast extraction time of 6min...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332700/corrigendum-to-preventing-miscarriages-of-justice-a-review-of-forensic-firearm-identification-sci-justice-56-2-2016-129-142
#15
Rachel S Bolton-King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332697/acid-alteration-of-several-ignitable-liquids-of-potential-use-in-arsons
#16
Carlos Martín-Alberca, Héctor Carrascosa, Itxaso San Román, Luis Bartolomé, Carmen García-Ruiz
Ignitable liquids such as fuels, alcohols and thinners can be used in criminal activities, for instance arsons. Forensic experts require to know their chemical compositions, as well as to understand how different modification effects could impact them, in order to detect, classify and identify them properly in fire debris. The acid alteration/acidification of ignitable liquids is a modification effect that sharply alters the chemical composition, for example, of gasoline and diesel fuel, interfering in the forensic analysis and result interpretation...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332694/score-based-procedures-for-the-calculation-of-forensic-likelihood-ratios-scores-should-take-account-of-both-similarity-and-typicality
#17
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Ewald Enzinger
Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios are popular across different branches of forensic science. They have two stages, first a function or model which takes measured features from known-source and questioned-source pairs as input and calculates scores as output, then a subsequent model which converts scores to likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that scores which are purely measures of similarity are not appropriate for calculating forensically interpretable likelihood ratios...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#18
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
April 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331840/post-mortem-vitreous-magnesium-in-adult-population
#19
R Tse, J Garland, K Kesha, P Morrow, L Lam, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, S Stables
BACKGROUND: The study of post mortem vitreous magnesium (Mg) is less common than sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) and potassium (K) in the forensic literature. There is no accepted normal range for post mortem vitreous Mg and the relationship between post mortem vitreous Mg levels and post mortem interval (PMI), other electrolyte levels, disease conditions, age and sex have not been fully established. AIM: To investigate the relationship of post mortem vitreous Mg with age, sex, PMI, vitreous electrolyte levels and diabetic status...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331769/source-identification-of-uranium-containing-materials-at-mine-legacy-sites-in-portugal
#20
A C Keatley, P G Martin, K R Hallam, O D Payton, R Awbery, F Carvalho, J M Oliveira, L Silva, M Malta, T B Scott
Whilst prior nuclear forensic studies have focused on identifying signatures to distinguish between different uranium deposit types, this paper focuses on providing a scientific basis for source identification of materials from different uranium mine sites within a single region, which can then be potentially used within nuclear forensics. A number of different tools, including gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, mineralogy and major and minor elemental analysis, have been utilised to determine the provenance of uranium mineral samples collected at eight mine sites, located within three different uranium provinces, in Portugal...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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