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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637216/qualitative-analysis-and-detection-of-the-pyrolytic-products-of-jwh-018-and-11-additional-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-presence-of-common-herbal-smoking-substrates
#1
Stephen Raso, Suzanne Bell
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a ubiquitous challenge in forensic toxicology and seized drug analysis. Thermal degradation products have yet to be identified and evaluated for toxicity in comparison to parent and metabolic compounds. An investigation into these pyrolytic products, as the major route of ingestion is inhalation, may produce additional insight to understand the toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids. The pyrolysis of JWH-018 and 11 additional synthetic cannabinoids and six herbal plant substrates were conducted using an in-house constructed smoking simulator...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636089/geographic-substructure-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-contemporary-american-populations
#2
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates heterogeneity in craniometrically-derived estimates of admixture in order to reveal population substructure in a sample of Black, White, Hispanic, and Native American individuals from the FDB. It reports evidence of spatial trends in population-specific patterns of admixture and contextualizes its results in terms of demographic diversity in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FDB was sampled to capture the population variation within forensic casework, skeletal collections, and the U...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635869/-the-topical-problems-of-expert-mistakes-and-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-forensic-medical-expertises-based-on-the-analysis-of-the-reports-published-in-the-journal-sudebno-meditsinskaya-ekspertiza-forensic-medical-expertise-during-the-period-from-1958-till
#3
L A Shmarov
The objective of the present study was the thematic analysis of the reports published in the journal 'Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza' (Forensic Medical Expertise) during the period from 1958 till 2015 that contain the authors' characteristics of the mistakes made in connection with the performance of various forms of forensic medical expertise with special reference to their quality and time schedules. A total of 268 issues of the journal were looked through from which 25 articles were selected dealing with the analysis of expert mistakes...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635868/-the-modern-possibilities-for-the-application-of-photogrammetry-in-forensic-medical-traumatology
#4
V A Fetisov, I Yu Makarov, A A Gusarov, A S Lorents, S A Smirenin, V B Stragis
The authors discuss the modern possibilities and prospects for the application of photogrammetry (FM) in forensic medical traumatology based on the results of the analysis of the many-year experience reported in the foreign periodicals with special reference to road traffic injuries, gunshot wounds, and animals' bites. The examples of objective difficulties and promising prospects for the further application of the FM techniques in the practical work of forensic medical experts and medical criminalists are considered with reference to the use of various FM-based methods and equipment including 3D laser scanners, chambers, stereoscopic mounting attachments, etc...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#5
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634759/current-applications-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634680/stability-of-upper-face-sexual-dimorphism-in-central-european-populations-czech-republic-during-the-modern-age
#7
Šárka Bejdová, Ján Dupej, Václav Krajíček, Jana Velemínská, Petr Velemínský
One of the most fundamental issues in forensic anthropology is the determination of sex and population affinity based on various skeletal elements. Therefore, we compared the sexual dimorphism of the upper facial skeleton from a recent Czech population (twenty-first century) with that of a population from Early Modern Age Bohemia (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). Methods of geometric morphometrics were applied. According to the results, sexual dimorphism in terms of size, shape, and form was statistically significant in both populations...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634679/establishment-of-two-forensic-medicine-osce-stations-on-the-subject-of-external-post-mortem-examination
#8
S Heide, R Lessig, V Hachmann, D Stiller, M Rönsch, D Stoevesandt, A Biolik, S Watzke, J Kellner
An improvement in quality of medical external post-mortem examinations among others can be achieved by more intensive training of medical students. Modern learning and teaching methods such as e-learning modules and SkillsLab stations should be used for this. The introduction of corresponding methods of assessment such as the OSCE procedure is necessary to test the success of learning. In Halle (Germany), two OSCE stations on the subject of external post-mortem examinations were introduced in 2016. The 'practical external post-mortem examination' station test skills and abilities students have learned during practical external post-mortem examination in small group classes on a simulation doll...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634678/the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-evaluation-of-three-methods-in-pelvis-x-rays
#9
Viola Bartolini, Vilma Pinchi, Barbara Gualco, Stefano Vanin, Giusto Chiaracane, Giovanni D'Elia, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Martina Focardi
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant forensic issue. It is requested not only in evaluating criminal responsibility in youths without proper identification documents, often in relation to age thresholds, but also for release of a residency permit, and asylum seekers of minors. The analysis of the Risser sign and the iliac crest ossification process has been proposed as a useful tool for forensic age estimation. We evaluated the applicability of three different age estimation methods on a sample of 497 pelvic radiographs of Italian individuals between 10 and 25 years of age...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631433/forensic-radiology-pitfalls-ct-imaging-in-gunshot-wounds-of-the-head
#10
Mark A Giffen, Jason A Powell, Jerri McLemore
Computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasingly used in emergency departments and trauma services and is being offered as a supplemental tool with autopsy in coroner's and medical examiner's offices throughout the United States. The availability of CT images in lieu of traditional X-rays for medicolegal autopsies may lead to misinterpretation of images for forensic pathologists who are not familiar with these types of images. Forensic pathologists must become familiar with CT imaging, the basis of CT image formation and how to interpret CT images appropriately...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631411/function-of-bacterial-community-dynamics-in-the-formation-of-cadaveric-semiochemicals-during-in-situ-carcass-decomposition
#11
Javier Pascual, Christian von Hoermann, Ann-Marie Rottler-Hoermann, Omer Nevo, Alicia Geppert, Johannes Sikorski, Katharina J Huber, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse, Jörg Overmann
The decomposition of dead mammalian tissue involves a complex temporal succession of epinecrotic bacteria. Microbial activity may release different cadaveric volatile organic compounds which in turn attract other key players of carcass decomposition such as scavenger insects. To elucidate the dynamics and potential functions of epinecrotic bacteria on carcasses, we monitored bacterial communities developing on still-born piglets incubated in different forest ecosystems by combining high-throughput Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatiles...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631395/a-univariate-approach-to-sex-estimation-for-the-fragmentary-upper-limb
#12
Rosanne Bongiovanni, Carrie B LeGarde
Although there are numerous reliable multivariate models for sex estimation, many scenarios, both forensic and archaeological, result in the recovery of fragmentary remains, which prevents the collection of various standard measurements. The purpose of this research was to establish metric applications for sex estimation from the distal humerus and distal radius of European/American Whites and American Blacks. Data for this research were retrieved from a sample consisting of a larger database from multiple skeletal collections...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631383/benford-s-law-for-quality-assurance-of-manner-of-death-counts-in-small-and-large-databases
#13
Jeremy Daniels, Samantha-Jo Caetano, Dirk Huyer, Andrew Stephen, John Fernandes, Alice Lytwyn, Fred M Hoppe
To assess if Benford's law, a mathematical law used for quality assurance in accounting, can be applied as a quality assurance measure for the manner of death determination. We examined a regional forensic pathology service's monthly manner of death counts (N = 2352) from 2011 to 2013, and provincial monthly and weekly death counts from 2009 to 2013 (N = 81,831). We tested whether each dataset's leading digit followed Benford's law via the chi-square test. For each database, we assessed whether number 1 was the most common leading digit...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631278/effects-of-different-temperatures-on-the-development-of-dermestes-frischii-and-dermestes-undulatus-coleoptera-dermestidae-comparison-between-species
#14
Simonetta Lambiase, Giulia Murgia, Roberto Sacchi, Michele Ghitti, Valeria di Lucia
Dermestidae could be useful in forensic investigations to assess the PMI as adults and larvae colonize dried remains. We reared two species of Dermestidae (Dermestes frischii and Dermestes undulatus) to understand the effects of different temperatures on the length of their whole life cycle and on their immature stages. Both species were reared at 23°C ± 0.5, RH 75% and at 26°C ± 0.5, 75% RH. Our result shows that the temperature is the main factor that influences the development of those species; in fact, increasing temperature leads to a shorter development cycle (59...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631109/increasing-the-reach-of-forensic-genetics-with-massively-parallel-sequencing
#15
REVIEW
Bruce Budowle, Sarah E Schmedes, Frank R Wendt
The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629615/a-simple-method-to-compare-firing-pin-marks-using-stereomicroscope-and-microsoft-office-windows-8-tools
#16
R Suresh
Pertinent marks of fired cartridge cases such as firing pin, breech face, extractor, ejector, etc. are used for firearm identification. A non-standard semiautomatic pistol and four .22rim fire cartridges (head stamp KF) is used for known source comparison study. Two test fired cartridge cases are examined under stereomicroscope. The characteristic marks are captured by digital camera and comparative analysis of striation marks is done by using different tools available in the Microsoft word (Windows 8) of a computer system...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629236/advances-in-new-psychoactive-substances-identification-the-u-r-i-to-n-consortium
#17
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Francesco Mari, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran, Fabrizio Carta
Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in biological and non-biological samples represents a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. Their great chemical variety and the speed with which new NPS are synthesised and spread make stringent the need of advanced tools for their detection based on multidisciplinary approaches. For this reason, in August 2016, the "Unit of Research and Innovation in Forensic Toxicology and Neuroscience of Addiction" (U.R.I.To.N.) was founded by the Forensic Toxicology Division of the University of Florence...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628900/evaluation-of-the-innotyper-%C3%A2-21-genotyping-kit-in-multi-ethnic-populations
#18
Peter Gustav Ristow, Nicole Barnes, Gina Pineda Murphy, Hiromi Brown, Kevin Wesley Cloete, Maria Eugenia D'Amato
We report the findings of the evaluation of the InnoTyper(®) 21 genotyping kit for the use of human identification (HID) and paternity testing in South Africa. This novel forensic kit evaluates 20 retrotransposable elements (AC4027, MLS26, ALU79712, NBC216, NBC106, RG148, NBC13, AC2265, MLS09, AC1141, TARBP, AC2305, HS4.69, NBC51, ACA1766, NBC120, NBC10, NBC102, SB19.12 and NBC148) and the Amelogenin locus for sex determination. The evaluation of the genotyping performance showed no significant spectral pull-up for peak heights between 100 and 30,000 RFUs...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628826/different-yet-similar-prisoners-versus-psychiatric-patients%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-comparison-of-their-mental-health
#19
S Otte, N Vasic, S Nigel, J Streb, T Ross, C Spitzer, H J Grabe, M Dudeck
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that prisoners have severe psychological distress. To assess their distress level and potential need for treatment, the present study compared the subjective psychological distress of long- and short-term prisoners with that of psychiatric and forensic patients. METHODS: Long- (n=98) and short-term prisoners (n=94) and forensic (n=102) and psychiatric (n=199) patients completed the German versions of the Symptom Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)...
April 26, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628783/automatic-retrieval-of-shoeprint-images-using-blocked-sparse-representation
#20
Sayyad Alizadeh, Cemal Kose
Shoe marks are regarded as remarkable clues which can be usually detected in crime scenes where forensic experts use them for investigating crimes and identifying the criminals. Hence, developing a robust method for matching shoeprints with one another is of critical significance which can be used for recognizing criminals. In this paper, a promising method is proposed for retrieving shoe marks by means of developing blocking sparse representation technique. In the proposed method, the queried image was divided into two blocks...
June 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
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