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Lenka Zátopková, Martin Janík, Petra Urbanová, Jitka Mottlová, Petr Hejna
Laryngohyoid fractures in hanging victims are one of the most studied and paradoxically contradictory topics in forensic pathology. According to literary sources, the incidence of laryngohyoid fractures in hanging varies significantly, from 0% to 100%. To verify the diagnostic significance of these injuries in hanging, we prospectively and consecutively analyzed the occurrence of laryngohyoid fractures in a group of 178 suicidal hanging victims (M/F=150/28, aged 14-94years, mean age=50, complete suspension=111 cases, partial suspension=67 cases) in relation to selected variables (age, sex, weight, the completeness of body suspension, and ligature knot location)...
June 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
Maximilian J Spies, Victoria E Gibbon, Devin A Finaughty
Vertebrate scavenging can significantly accelerate the rate of decomposition, which can hinder estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). Patterns of decomposition and scavenging are highly specific to different environments in a forensic context, with no known data for South Africa. A better understanding of local decomposition patterns, taking scavenging into account, could increase the accuracy of PMI estimation and improve identification of human remains. Using a porcine model in the forensically significant thicketed Cape Flats Dune Strandveld habitat, the effect of vertebrate scavenging on the decomposition process was examined...
June 22, 2018: Forensic Science International
Aiying Song, Jiankang Wang, Gongxuan Lu, Zongping Jia, Jing Yang, Enlin Shi
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a lot of attention as effective sorbents due to their strong sorption properties and several potential applications in many fields. In this work, the acid oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) was coated onto a stainless steel wire by a simple physical adhesion approach to develop solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By combination of the MWCNTs-COOH coated fiber-based headspace SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the developed method demonstrates a good enhancement factor (288-651), low limits of detection (LODs, 0...
July 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Luis Chávez Reyes, César Elgueta López, Ana Briceño Barrios, Carlos Garrido Soto, Cristian Ibáñez, Fabiola Jamett Díaz
When a firearm is discharged, a gaseous cloud containing characteristic particles of gunshot residue (GSR) are released forward and behind at high speed, depositing on clothing, hands, face and hair, as well as being inhaled and therefore retained in the nostrils of the person who fired the weapon. GSRs have characteristic sizes and morphologies and consist of a combination of lead, antimony and barium, as well as other elements. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is a widely accepted technique for the analysis of these residues; however, little has been reported on samples taken from the nostrils of the suspect that discharged the shot...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sumiko Polacco, Paul Wilson, Mike Illes, Theresa Stotesbury
This study investigates the chemiluminescent reaction of whole ovine blood with a luminol solution in a time and dilution series. Replicate samples of both fresh and dried certified pathogen-free ovine blood were prepared and diluted. Seven dilution conditions from neat to 1:1000000 were created for testing. A luminol solution, created using the standard Weber protocol, was applied to all samples in controlled laboratory conditions. A SpectraMax® M3 microplate reader luminometer was used to quantify the chemiluminescence from the reactions as relative luminescence units (RLUs) every four seconds for three minutes...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Cecilie Hasselø Thaulow, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Sidsel Rogde, Jannike Mørch Andersen, Gudrun Høiseth, Marte Handal, Jørg Mørland, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: In heroin-related deaths, it is often of interest to determine the approximate time span between intake of heroin and death, and to decide whether heroin or other opioids have been administered. In some autopsy cases, peripheral blood cannot be sampled due to decomposition, injuries or burns. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether measurements of heroin metabolites in matrices other than peripheral blood can be used to differentiate between rapid and delayed heroin deaths, and if morphine/codeine ratios measured in other matrices can separate heroin from codeine intakes...
July 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Pia Simona Bruni, Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Susanne Nussbaumer, Stefan König, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
4-Hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine (4-HO-MET) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the chemical class of tryptamines. It shows structural similarities to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin, and is a serotonergic hallucinogen, affecting emotional, motoric, and cognitive functions. The knowledge about its biotransformation is mandatory to confirm the abuse of the substance by urine analysis in forensic cases. Therefore, phase I metabolites were generated by the use of the pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) in vitro model and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry with information-dependent acquisition (HPLC-IDA-HR-MS/MS)...
July 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Grace E Florence, William J Gee
Two commercially-available terbium and europium complexes, EuFOD and TbTMHD, provide luminescent visualisation of latent fingermarks placed on nonporous surfaces via sublimation. This is demonstrated using UV radiation from a forensic light source. The method was optimised on metal foil, with other archetypal nonporous surfaces (i.e. glass, ceramic) also suited to this method.
July 17, 2018: Analyst
Colin Aitken, Anders Nordgaard, Franco Taroni, Alex Biedermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Frida C A van der Veeken, Jacques Lucieer, Stefan Bogaerts
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160787.].
2018: PloS One
Nicholas T Vlachos, Kelly A Meiklejohn, James M Robertson
Illumina and Thermo Fisher Scientific have developed assays that permit the sequencing of forensically relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), along with software to determine the associated genotypes. Currently there is no method to either independently confirm the genotypes determined using the manufacturer's software, or to compare genotypes and quality metrics among samples processed using both platforms. This paper outlines an automated workflow developed in CLC Genomics Workbench that permits accurate, fast and independent analysis of SNP sequence data from either platform...
July 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Qingzhen Zhang, Zhe Zhou, Qiqi Liu, Liyan Liu, Liting Shao, Minli Zhang, Xiaoran Ding, Yue Gao, Shengqi Wang
The use of next generation sequencing is increasing in the field of forensic genomics. This study assesses the performance of Illumina's MiSeq FGx System in the recovery of forensic genomic sequencing information from degraded and low-template DNA. The analysis involved a sensitivity study where a range of 1 ng to 5 pg of 2800M DNA was utilized. DNA was artificially and systematically degraded by incubating 2800 M DNA at 98°C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 120 and 180 min (resulting in degradation index values ranging from 0...
July 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Lindsey G McIntosh, Morag Slesser, Suzanne O'Rourke, Lindsay D G Thomson
Background: On the Road to Recovery (OTRTR) is a brief low intensity group psychological therapy that aims to improve patients' insight into their mental disorder and develop adaptive coping skills to help manage distress. OTRTR is currently delivered in forensic mental health services in Scotland. However, to date, this therapy has not been evaluated as to its effectiveness or safety for forensic patients. Methods: This is a parallel-group feasibility randomized controlled trial with single-blind assessments comparing OTRTR therapy to treatment as usual (TAU) for forensic mental health patients...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Scott H Waltman
The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies initiative has a reported 50 percent recovery rate. Recently, Scott published a scathing report asserting that 9.2 percent is the correct rate. This alarming assertion requires a closer look and further scrutiny of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies. Scott's study is fundamentally flawed in many ways; chiefly, the small ( n = 87), forensically involved, convenience sample is not representative of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies population...
August 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Narin Sontigun, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Tunwadee Klong-Klaew, Sangob Sanit, Chutharat Samerjai, Pradya Somboon, Sa-Nguansak Thanapornpoonpong, Jens Amendt, Kom Sukontason
BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala is a blow fly species of medical and forensic importance worldwide. Understanding its bionomics is essential for both designing effective fly control programs and its use in forensic investigations. METHODS: The daily flight activity, seasonal abundance related to abiotic factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and reproductive potential of this species was investigated. Adult flies were sampled twice a month for one year from July 2013 to June 2014 in three different ecotypes (forest area, longan orchard and palm plantation) of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, using semi-automatic funnel traps...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Romolo Caniglia, Elena Fabbri, Pavel Hulva, Barbora Černá Bolfíková, Milena Jindřichová, Astrid Vik Stronen, Ihor Dykyy, Alessio Camatta, Paolo Carnier, Ettore Randi, Marco Galaverni
BACKGROUND: Genomic methods can provide extraordinary tools to explore the genetic background of wild species and domestic breeds, optimize breeding practices, monitor and limit the spread of recessive diseases, and discourage illegal crossings. In this study we analysed a panel of 170k Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with a combination of multivariate, Bayesian and outlier gene approaches to examine the genome-wide diversity and inbreeding levels in a recent wolf x dog cross-breed, the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, which is becoming increasingly popular across Europe...
July 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Attila J Trájer
Mosquitoes can be of importance in forensic context as a source of the perpretator's DNA. The aim of this study was to find how can we optimize the selection of appropriate mosquito individuals. The study was based on the data of 177833 trapped female mosquitoes and 105236 individuals which were collected directly from human skin. The mean human-specific biting willingness value of Aedes species was the highest (mean: 0.8). Significant differences were found between the human-specific biting willingness value variances of Aedes and Culex (p=0...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Luiz Eugenio Nigro Mazzilli, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Cesar Angelo Lascala, Luz Andrea Velandia Palacio, Roberto Cameriere
Age estimation plays an important role in clinical and forensic dentistry. Cameriere's 2007 open apices method for age estimation was applied in a sample of 612 digital panoramic orthopantomographs from Brazilian subadult individuals of known age and sex. The sample was composed of 290 males and 322 females individuals aged between four and 16 years of age from São Paulo metropolitan area who had undertaken radiographs for clinical purposes. Participant's ethnicity data was not available. An open code computer-aided drafting software (ImageJ) was used to measure the variables according to the author's published guidelines...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ling Chen, Yuxin Guo, Cheng Xiao, Weibin Wu, Qiong Lan, Yating Fang, Jiangang Chen, Bofeng Zhu
Aim: X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci are playing an increasingly important role in some complex kinship cases in recent years. To investigate the forensic efficiency of X-STRs of Mongolian minority group from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and further depict the genetic relationship among Xinjiang Mongolians and other populations, 267 blood samples from unrelated healthy Xinjiang Mongolians were amplified by an AGCU X-19 STR kit. Results: No deviations for all 19 X-STR loci were observed from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction ( p > 0...
2018: PeerJ
Sebastian K T S Wärmländer, Liivi Varul, Juuso Koskinen, Ragnar Saage, Stefan Schlager
Determining maximum heating temperatures of burnt bones is a long-standing problem in forensic science and archaeology. In this pilot study, controlled experiments were used to heat 14 fleshed and defleshed pig vertebrae (wet bones) and archaeological human vertebrae (dry bones) to temperatures of 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C. Specular component included (SCI) color values were recorded from the bone surfaces with a Konica-Minolta cm-2600d spectrophotometer. These color values were regressed onto heating temperature, using both a traditional linear model and the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) machine-learning algorithm...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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