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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445861/the-application-of-silicon-sol-gel-technology-to-forensic-blood-substitute-development-investigation-of-the-spreading-dynamics-onto-a-paper-surface
#1
Theresa Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, Andrew J Vreugdenhil
This work investigates the spreading dynamics of three candidate sol-gel solutions, of ranging viscosities, surface tensions and densities, and compares them with water and two commercial blood substitute products. Droplets were created with different sizes (10 to75μL) and impact velocities (1.4 to 6.0m/s) to strike 176gsm cardstock. Over 2200 droplets were created using the six different fluids and their final dried stain diameter was measured. Droplet spread was plotted using the Scheller and Bousfield correlation and uses effective viscosity as a parameter for non-Newtonian fluids...
April 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445860/brephedrone-a-new-psychoactive-substance-seized-in-brazil
#2
Yuri Machado, José Coelho Neto, Paulo Eduardo Nunes Barbosa, Rogério Araújo Lordeiro, Rosemeire Brondi Alves
At the beginning of 2015, sixty-two capsules containing red-brown crystals seized in a historical city in Brazil were sent to this forensic laboratory for drug testing analysis. The material was identified as being Brephedrone, a new psychoactive substance and a bromine synthetic cathinone that is related to serotonin transportation. This substance was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, GC-MS, LC-MS, (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR. Brephedrone apprehensions have been previously reported in Finland, France and Spain. It was the first detection of this substance in the State of Minas Gerais...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445836/a-forensic-multiplex-of-nine-novel-pentameric-repeat-strs
#3
M de la Puente, C Phillips, M Fondevila, M Gelabert-Besada, Á Carracedo, M V Lareu
Pentameric-repeat short tandem repeats (STRs), consisting of loci with repeat units of five base-pairs, have the advantage of reduced stutter products compared to their tetrameric-repeat STR counterparts. This characteristic potentially helps the interpretation of mixed DNA profiles when minor component alleles may coincide with stutter peaks from the major components. To develop a simple but informative forensic multiplex with the capability to aid mixture interpretation, we designed an 11-plex assay of nine pentameric STRs new to forensic analysis plus two male- specific markers: DYS391 and the Y-Indel rs2032678 used in GlobalFiler™ (Life Technologies)...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445486/a-metamodel-for-mobile-forensics-investigation-domain
#4
Abdulalem Ali, Shukor Abd Razak, Siti Hajar Othman, Arafat Mohammed, Faisal Saeed
With the rapid development of technology, mobile phones have become an essential tool in terms of crime fighting and criminal investigation. However, many mobile forensics investigators face difficulties with the investigation process in their domain. These difficulties are due to the heavy reliance of the forensics field on knowledge which, although a valuable resource, is scattered and widely dispersed. The wide dispersion of mobile forensics knowledge not only makes investigation difficult for new investigators, resulting in substantial waste of time, but also leads to ambiguity in the concepts and terminologies of the mobile forensics domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444846/forensic-analysis-of-latent-fingermarks-by-silver-assisted-ldi-imaging-ms-on-non-conductive-surfaces
#5
Nidia Lauzon, Martin Dufresne, Alexandre Beaudoin, Pierre Chaurand
Silver-assisted laser desorption ionization (AgLDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been demonstrated to be a useful technology for fingermark analysis allowing for the detection of several classes of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. Ideally, in IMS analyses, the fingermarks are deposited under controlled conditions on metallized conductive target slides. However, in forensic investigations, fingermarks are often found on a variety of non-conductive surfaces. A sputtered silver layer renders the target surface conductive, which allows the analyses of insulating surfaces by time-of-flight (TOF) IMS...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444439/back-to-the-future-part-2-post-mortem-assessment-and-evolutionary-role-of-the-bio-medicolegal-sciences
#6
REVIEW
Santo Davide Ferrara, Giovanni Cecchetto, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Thomas Bajanowski
Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442769/improved-phylogenetic-resolution-for-y-chromosome-haplogroup-o2a1c-002611
#7
Xiaotian Yao, Senwei Tang, Beilei Bian, Xiaoli Wu, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 is one of the dominant lineages of East Asians and Southeast Asians. However, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we genotyped 89 new highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 305 individuals with Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 identified from 2139 Han Chinese males. Two major branches were identified, O2a1c1-F18 and O2a1c2-L133.2 and the first was further divided into two main subclades, O2a1c1a-F11 and O2a1c1b-F449, accounting for 11...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441635/validation-of-smartrank-a-likelihood-ratio-software-for-searching-national-dna-databases-with-complex-dna-profiles
#8
Corina C G Benschop, Linda van de Merwe, Jeroen de Jong, Vanessa Vanvooren, Morgane Kempenaers, C P Kees van der Beek, Filippo Barni, Eusebio López Reyes, Léa Moulin, Laurent Pene, Hinda Haned, Titia Sijen
Searching a national DNA database with complex and incomplete profiles usually yields very large numbers of possible matches that can present many candidate suspects to be further investigated by the forensic scientist and/or police. Current practice in most forensic laboratories consists of ordering these 'hits' based on the number of matching alleles with the searched profile. Thus, candidate profiles that share the same number of matching alleles are not differentiated and due to the lack of other ranking criteria for the candidate list it may be difficult to discern a true match from the false positives or notice that all candidates are in fact false positives...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441096/judicial-decision-making-and-juvenile-offenders-effects-of-medical-evidence-and-victim-age
#9
John Michael Falligant, Rebecca L Fix, Apryl A Alexander
A growing body of evidence suggests that jurors place greater weight on DNA or other types of forensic evidence than non-forensic evidence (Cole & Dioso-Villa, 2009). For cases involving child sexual abuse, certain types of evidence, including forensic medical evidence, may be viewed as more important or indicative of abuse than other types of evidence, such as victim statements or disclosure. The present study evaluated perceptions of juvenile offenders and victim credibility across four vignettes that systematically manipulated variables related to victim age and physical indicators of abuse...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#10
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439786/a-panel-of-130-autosomal-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-for-ancestry-assignment-in-five-asian-populations-and-in-caucasians
#11
Hsiao-Lin Hwa, Chih-Peng Lin, Tsun-Ying Huang, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Wei-Hsin Hsieh, Chun-Yen Lin, Hsiang-I Yin, Li-Hui Tseng, James Chun-I Lee
Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification...
April 24, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439696/back-to-the-future-part-1-the-medico-legal-autopsy-from-ancient-civilization-to-the-post-genomic-era
#12
REVIEW
Giovanni Cecchetto, Thomas Bajanowski, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Santo Davide Ferrara
Part 1 of the review "Back to the Future" examines the historical evolution of the medico-legal autopsy and microscopy techniques, from Ancient Civilization to the Post-Genomic Era. In the section focusing on "The Past", the study of historical sources concerning the origins and development of the medico-legal autopsy, from the Bronze Age until the Middle Ages, shows how, as early as 2000 BC, the performance of autopsies for medico-legal purposes was a known and widespread practice in some ancient civilizations in Egypt, the Far East and later in Europe...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439695/usefulness-of-telomere-length-in-dna-from-human-teeth-for-age-estimation
#13
Ana Belén Márquez-Ruiz, Lucas González-Herrera, Aurora Valenzuela
Age estimation is widely used to identify individuals in forensic medicine. However, the accuracy of the most commonly used procedures is markedly reduced in adulthood, and these methods cannot be applied in practice when morphological information is limited. Molecular methods for age estimation have been extensively developed in the last few years. The fact that telomeres shorten at each round of cell division has led to the hypothesis that telomere length can be used as a tool to predict age. The present study thus aimed to assess the correlation between telomere length measured in dental DNA and age, and the effect of sex and tooth type on telomere length; a further aim was to propose a statistical regression model to estimate the biological age based on telomere length...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438096/venous-air-embolism-an-under-recognised-entity-in-blunt-force-trauma-and-the-importance-of-radiology
#14
Marna du Plessis, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe. Three cases of blunt-force head injury are presented herein, with AE being diagnosed by conventional radiography using a Lodox Statscan® full-body digital X-ray machine in all cases...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437717/traumatic-axonal-injury-a-clinical-pathological-correlation
#15
N Davceva, A Sivevski
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a distinct clinicopathological entity that can cause serious impairment of the brain function and can sometimes be found as a concrete cause of death. It has been discussed from the perspective of its biomechanical importance, and also from the standpoint of certain criteria for the pathological diagnosis of TAI. However, since the time when DAI (diffuse axonal injury) was initially described, there have been few, if any, discussions about the clinical-pathological correlation in TAI...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436665/intra-and-interskeletal-proteome-variations-in-fresh-and-buried-bones
#16
Noemi Procopio, Andrew T Chamberlain, Michael Buckley
Proteomic methods are acquiring greater importance in archaeology and palaeontology due to the longevity of proteins in skeletal remains. There are also developing interests in forensic applications, offering the potential to shed light on post-mortem intervals and age at death estimation. However, our understanding of intra- and interskeletal proteome variations is currently severely limited. Here, we evaluated the proteomes obtained from five distinct subsamples of different skeletal elements from buried pig carcasses to ascertain the extent of variation within and between individuals...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436466/genome-wide-profiling-of-heritable-and-de-novo-str-variations
#17
Thomas Willems, Dina Zielinski, Jie Yuan, Assaf Gordon, Melissa Gymrek, Yaniv Erlich
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly variable elements that play a pivotal role in multiple genetic diseases, population genetics applications, and forensic casework. However, it has proven problematic to genotype STRs from high-throughput sequencing data. Here, we describe HipSTR, a novel haplotype-based method for robustly genotyping and phasing STRs from Illumina sequencing data, and we report a genome-wide analysis and validation of de novo STR mutations. HipSTR is freely available at https://hipstr-tool...
April 24, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436032/application-of-maldi-tof-ms-for-estimating-the-postmortem-interval-in-rat-muscle-samples
#18
Chengzhi Li, Dong Ma, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Ping Huang, Zhenyuan Wang
Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) is very important in the forensic sciences. Although many approaches have been used for estimating the PMI, accurate PMI calculations are still difficult. In this study, four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were sacrificed by suffocation, and muscle samples were collected by dissection at various time intervals (0, 48, 96, and 144 h) after death. All samples were probed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) to obtain molecular images and data for principal component analysis (PCA)...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434084/population-data-of-23-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-chinese-han-population-from-guangdong-province-in-southern-china
#19
Luyu Yang, Xiufeng Zhang, Lijuan Zhao, Yanan Sun, Jiajue Li, Renwu Huang, Liping Hu, Shengjie Nie
The genetic polymorphisms of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the HuaxiaTM Platinum kit were evaluated in 1533 unrelated healthy Guangdong Han individuals living in the Guangdong Province in southern China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Guangdong Han and other Chinese populations was also estimated. The combined discrimination power and the probability of excluding the paternity of 23 STR loci were 0...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433824/enfsi-collaborative-testing-programme-for-fingermarks-past-experiences-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
A Matte, J Fish, M Hilgert, T Lövby, M Svensson, J Vaughan, F Zampa
As early as 2004 the Fingerprint Working Group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) has organised proficiency tests (PT's) as well as collaborative exercises (CE's) as a way of raising standards within the fingerprint profession. Participation in PT's and CE's is a key element in the ISO/IEC accreditation process as they enable laboratories to monitor the quality of their analytical results. On the basis of the European Council Framework Decision 2009/905/JHA, of 30 November 2009, on Accreditation of forensic service providers carrying out laboratory activities[1], from November 15th of 2015, only accredited laboratories are allowed to exchange fingerprint data with other EU countries...
March 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
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