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Yan Gong, Steven M Smith, Eileen M Handberg, Carl J Pepine, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
The objective of this analysis is to determine the effect of intensive (<120 mm Hg) versus standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure (SBP) targets on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among SPRINT participants with low-normal or high-normal fasting glucose (FG). We categorized the 5425 SPRINT participants with FG <100 mg/dL into 2 groups: <85 mg/dL (low-normal) and 85 to <100 mg/dL (high-normal). Among participants with low-normal glucose, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome (PO) between the 2 treatment arms (adjusted hazard ratio, HR: 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Karen C Johnson, Paul K Whelton, William C Cushman, Jeffrey A Cutler, Gregory W Evans, Joni K Snyder, Walter T Ambrosius, Srinivasan Beddhu, Alfred K Cheung, Lawrence J Fine, Cora E Lewis, Mahboob Rahman, David M Reboussin, Michael V Rocco, Suzanne Oparil, Jackson T Wright
Recent publications have stated that the blood pressure (BP) measurement technique used in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was unattended. However, the SPRINT protocol does not address the issue of attendance. A survey was conducted immediately after SPRINT closeout visits were completed to inquire whether BP measurements were usually attended or unattended by staff. There were 4082 participants at 38 sites that measured BP after leaving the participant alone the entire time (always alone), 2247 at 25 sites that had personnel in the room the entire time (never alone), 1746 at 19 sites that left the participant alone only during the rest period (alone for rest), and 570 at 6 sites that left the participant alone only during the BP readings (alone for BP measurement)...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Robert A Phillips, Jiaqiong Xu, Leif E Peterson, Ryan M Arnold, Joseph A Diamond, Adam E Schussheim
BACKGROUND: The lower rate of primary outcome events in the intensive treatment group in SPRINT (Systolic Pressure Intervention Trial) was associated with increased clinically significant serious adverse events (SAEs). In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued risk-based blood pressure treatment guidelines. The authors hypothesized that stratification of the SPRINT population by degree of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk might identify a group which could benefit the most from intensive treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Panos Xaplanteris, Georgios Lazaros, Dimitrios Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Recent data advocate adoption of a more intensive treatment strategy for management of blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the overall effects of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) are applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. METHOD: In a post-hoc analysis we analyzed data from SPRINT that randomly assigned 9361 individuals to a systolic BP (SBP) target of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or <140 mmHg (standard treatment)...
March 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Scott Powers, Junyang Qian, Kenneth Jung, Alejandro Schuler, Nigam H Shah, Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani
When devising a course of treatment for a patient, doctors often have little quantitative evidence on which to base their decisions, beyond their medical education and published clinical trials. Stanford Health Care alone has millions of electronic medical records that are only just recently being leveraged to inform better treatment recommendations. These data present a unique challenge because they are high dimensional and observational. Our goal is to make personalized treatment recommendations based on the outcomes for past patients similar to a new patient...
March 6, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Capri G Foy, Laura C Lovato, Mara Z Vitolins, Jeffrey T Bates, Ruth Campbell, William C Cushman, Stephen P Glasser, Avrum Gillespie, William J Kostis, Marie Krousel-Wood, Joseph B Muhlestein, Suzanne Oparil, Kwame Osei, Roberto Pisoni, Mark S Segal, Alan Wiggers, Karen C Johnson
BACKGROUND: To determine if the effects of intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure (goal of less than 120 mmHg) versus standard lowering (goal of less than 140 mmHg) upon cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes differed by gender. METHODS: Nine thousand three hundred and sixty-one men and women aged 50 years or older with systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or greater, taking 0-4 antihypertensive medications, and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but free of diabetes, were randomly assigned to either a systolic blood pressure target of less than 120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mmHg (standard treatment)...
April 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Rahul Aggarwal, Haares Mirzan, Nicholas Chiu, Jackson Steinkamp
BACKGROUND: ACCORD and SPRINT are the best randomized controlled trial data evaluating the effects of blood pressure targets below 140 mmHg. These trials had contradictory results regarding the benefits of intensive antihypertensive therapy. We investigate if this discordance was driven by SPRINT's inclusion of Heart Failure in its primary outcome, as this is a parameter not included in ACCORD's original primary outcome. This analysis helps to resolve a significant area of contention...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Stephan van der Zwaard, Guido Weide, Koen Levels, Michelle R I Eikelboom, Dionne A Noordhof, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Willem J van der Laarse, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Rowers need to combine high sprint and endurance capacities. Muscle morphology largely explains muscle power generating capacity, however, little is known on how muscle morphology relates to rowing performance measures. The aim was to determine how muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis relates to rowing ergometer performance, sprint and endurance capacity of Olympic rowers. Eighteen rowers (12♂, 6♀, who competed at 2016 Olympics) performed an incremental rowing test to obtain maximal oxygen consumption, reflecting endurance capacity...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Frank A Bourgeois, Paul Gamble, Nic D Gill, Mike R McGuigan
Bourgeois, FA II, Gamble, P, Gill, ND, and McGuigan, MR. The relationship between multidirectional jumping and performance in change of direction tasks. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 690-699, 2018-This study investigated the test-retest reliability of 2 change of direction (COD; 180 and 45° COD) sprints and 3 multidirectional jump (MDJ) tests. Variables examined were approach time (sprint before plant-step), exit time (sprint after plant-step), total time (time to completion) and MDJ approach time, and distance, respectively...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E Swanson, Matthew T Wittbrodt
Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of "nurture" versus "nature" remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Roland von Känel, Jürgen Barth, Mary Princip, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Hansjörg Znoj, Claudia Herbert, Ulrich Schnyder
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinically significant PTSD symptoms (PTSS) are found in 4 and 12% of patients, respectively. We hypothesized that trauma-focused counseling prevents the incidence of ACS-induced PTSS. METHODS: Within 48 h of hospital admission, 190 patients with high distress during ACS were randomized to a single-session intervention of either trauma-focused counseling or an active control intervention targeting the general role of stress in patients with heart disease...
February 21, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Amanda Sparkman, Stephen Howe, Stephanie Hynes, Brooke Hobbs, Karina Handal
The spread of urban development has dramatically altered natural habitats, modifying community relationships, abiotic factors, and structural features. Animal populations living in these areas must perish, emigrate, or find ways to adjust to a suite of new selective pressures. Those that successfully inhabit the urban environment may make behavioral, physiological, and/or morphological adjustments that represent either evolutionary change and/or phenotypic plasticity. We tested for effects of urbanization on antipredator behavior and associated morphology across an urban-wild gradient in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) in two California counties, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo...
2018: PloS One
U Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The systolic blood pressure intervention trial (SPRINT) published in 2015 has opened up new discussions on whether a lower blood pressure target as recommended by the current guidelines would be better for some patient groups. OBJECTIVES: To review patient groups in which lower blood pressure targets would not be better. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The results of SPRINT, its post-hoc and subgroup analyses, other studies and newer studies, as well as metaanalyses on the topic of blood pressure targets are reviewed and discussed...
February 9, 2018: Der Internist
Muthiah Vaduganathan, Manan Pareek, Arman Qamar, Ambarish Pandey, Michael H Olsen, Deepak L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: The 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (SBP≥130mmHg or DBP≥80mmHg) compared with the JNC 7 guidelines (SBP≥140mmHg or DBP≥90mmHg)...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Matthias W Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Ted Polglaze, Jürgen Freiwald
This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction...
2018: PloS One
Giuseppe Coratella, Marco Beato, Chiara Milanese, Stefano Longo, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Angela Valentina Bisconti, F Schena, F Esposito
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in an off-season randomized controlled-trial. Before and after an eight-week training intervention, vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, LM, squat 1-RM, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic peak-torque, agility T-test, 10 and 30m sprint and squat-jump (SJ) were measured...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lama Ghazi, Suzanne Oparil
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial is the first large prospective randomized controlled trial to demonstrate the benefit of an intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment target (<120 mm Hg) compared to a standard target (<140 mm Hg) in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in high-risk hypertensive patients. The impact of SPRINT on hypertension treatment has been large, but major questions remain about the feasibility of achieving the SPRINT intensive SBP target in routine practice, the generalizability of the SPRINT findings to hypertensive populations that were excluded from the trial, and the cost effectiveness of adopting the SPRINT intensive treatment goal...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Doo Sun Sim, Myung Ho Jeong, Young Joon Hong, Ju Han Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Keun Ho Park, Sun Ho Hwang, Dong Goo Kang, Seung Uk Lee, Joon Woo Kim, Jong Pil Park, Jay Young Rhew, Sang Rok Lee, Jei Keon Chae, Kyeong Ho Yun, Seok Kyu Oh, Won You Kang, Su Hyun Kim, Jang Hyun Cho
The Endeavor Resolute® (ER) is a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) with a biocompatible BioLinx polymer. This study prospectively compared the clinical outcomes of 2 versions of ZES, ER and Endeavor Sprint® (ES), in patients with multivessel disease. A total of 488 patients who underwent multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were divided into 2 groups the ER group (n=288) and the ES group (n=200). The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) consisting of death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization after 12 months...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
David N Borg, John O Osborne, Ian B Stewart, Joseph T Costello, Jesse N L Sims, Geoffrey M Minett
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. DESIGN: Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. METHODS: During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Felipe García-Pinillos, Javier Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Irineu Loturco, Helmi Chaabene, Jason Moran, Mikel Izquierdo
This study aimed to compare the effects of drop-jump training using a fixed drop-box height (i.e., 30-cm [FIXED]) versus an optimal drop-box height (i.e, 10-cm to 40-cm: generating an optimal [OPT] reactive strength index [RSI]) in youth soccer players' physical fitness. Athletes were randomly allocated to a control-group (CG: n=24; age=13.7 years), a fixed drop-box height group (FIXED, n=25; age=13.9 years) or an optimal drop-box height group (OPT, n=24; age=13.1 years). Before and after 7 weeks of training, tests for the assessment of jumping (countermovement jump [CMJ], five multiple bounds [MB]), speed (20-m sprint time), change of direction (Illinois change of direction test [CODT]), strength (RSI and 5 maximal squat repetition test [5RM]), endurance (2...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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