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SPRINT Trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315164/effects-of-strength-training-on-postpubertal-adolescent-distance-runners
#1
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302753/a-comparison-between-the-force-velocity-relationships-of-unloaded-and-sled-resisted-sprinting-single-vs-multiple-trial-methods
#2
Matt R Cross, Pierre Samozino, Scott R Brown, Jean-Benoît Morin
PURPOSE: We sought to compare force-velocity relationships developed from unloaded sprinting acceleration to that compiled from multiple sled-resisted sprints. METHODS: Twenty-seven mixed-code athletes performed six to seven maximal sprints, unloaded and towing a sled (20-120% of body-mass), while measured using a sports radar. Two methods were used to draw force-velocity relationships for each athlete: A multiple trial method compiling kinetic data using pre-determined friction coefficients and aerodynamic drag at maximum velocity from each sprint; and a validated single trial method plotting external force due to acceleration and aerodynamic drag and velocity throughout an acceleration phase of an unloaded sprint (only)...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300979/high-intensity-exercise-decreases-ip6k1-muscle-content-improves-insulin-sensitivity-si2-in-glucose-intolerant-individuals
#3
Jane Naufahu, Bradley Elliott, Anatoliy Markiv, Petra Dunning-Foreman, Maggie McGrady, David Howard, Peter Watt, Richard W A Mackenzie
Context: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle contributes to whole body hyperglycaemia and the secondary complications associated with type 2 diabetes. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 (IP6K1) may inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose transport in this tissue type. Objective: Muscle and plasma IP6K1 were correlated with two-compartment models of glucose control in insulin-resistant hyperinsulimic individuals. Muscle IP6K1 was also compared following two different exercise trials...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300245/sprint-in-context-meta-analysis-of-trials-with-baseline-normotension-and-low-levels-of-previous-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Mattias Brunström, Bo Carlberg
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of antihypertensive treatment in trials with baseline normotension and low levels of previous cardiovascular disease. To test if the results from SPRINT are compatible with those from other trials, and test the impact of SPRINT results on overall effect estimates. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with at least 1000 patient-years of follow-up, comparing antihypertensive treatment versus placebo, or different blood pressure goals against each other...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273586/incremental-effects-of-antihypertensive-drugs-instrumental-variable-analysis
#5
Adam A Markovitz, Jacob A Mack, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, John Z Ayanian, Andrew M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental effects of adding extra antihypertensive drugs from a new class to a patient's regimen. DESIGN: Instrumental variable analysis of data from SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). To account for confounding by indication-when treatments seem less effective if they are administered to sicker patients-randomization status was used as the instrumental variable. Patients' randomization status was either intensive (systolic blood pressure target <120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic blood pressure target <140 mm Hg) treatment...
December 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225881/recovery-benefits-of-using-a-heat-and-moisture-exchange-mask-during-sprint-exercise-in-cold-temperatures
#7
John G Seifert, Jeremy Frost, John A St Cyr
Objectives: Breathing cold air can lead to bronchoconstriction and peripheral vasoconstriction, both of which could impact muscular performance by affecting metabolic demands during exercise. Successful solutions dealing with these physiological changes during exercise in the cold has been lacking; therefore, we investigated the influence of a heat and moisture exchange mask during exercise in the cold. Methods: There were three trial arms within this study: wearing the heat and moisture exchange mask during the rest periods in the cold, no-mask application during the rest periods in the cold, and a trial at room temperature (22°C)...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220311/quantifying-the-effects-of-acute-hypoxic-exposure-on-exercise-performance-and-capacity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#8
Sanjoy K Deb, Daniel R Brown, Lewis A Gough, Christopher P McLellan, Paul A Swinton, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of acute hypoxic exposure on exercise capacity and performance, which includes continuous and intermittent forms of exercise. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted with a three-level mixed effects meta-regression. The ratio of means method was used to evaluate main effects and moderators providing practical interpretations with percentage change. DATA SOURCES: A systemic search was performed using three databases (Google scholar, PubMed and SPORTDiscus)...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218880/causal-inference-on-electronic-health-records-to-assess-blood-pressure-treatment-targets-an-application-of-the-parametric-g-formula
#9
Kipp W Johnson, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Rachel A Hodos, Khader Shameer, Joel T Dudley
Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, which are respectively the primary and secondary most common causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe. To alleviate the risks of hypertension, there are a number of effective antihypertensive drugs available. However, the optimal treatment blood pressure goal for antihypertensive therapy remains an area of controversy. The results of the recent Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) trial, which found benefits for intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure, have been debated for several reasons...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217665/critical-determinants-of-combined-sprint-and-endurance-performance-an-integrative-analysis-from-muscle-fiber-to-the-human-body
#10
Stephan van der Zwaard, Willem J van der Laarse, Guido Weide, Frank W Bloemers, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Koen Levels, Dionne A Noordhof, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Optimizing physical performance is a major goal in current physiology. However, basic understanding of combining high sprint and endurance performance is currently lacking. This study identifies critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance using multiple regression analyses of physiologic determinants at different biologic levels. Cyclists, including 6 international sprint, 8 team pursuit, and 14 road cyclists, completed a Wingate test and 15-km time trial to obtain sprint and endurance performance results, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212825/intensive-blood-pressure-lowering-in-patients-with-and-patients-without-type-2-diabetes-a-pooled-analysis-from-two-randomized-trials
#11
Tom F Brouwer, Jim T Vehmeijer, Deborah N Kalkman, Wouter R Berger, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Ron J Peters, Reinoud E Knops
OBJECTIVE: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) study did not find a significant beneficial effect of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering on cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) did find a significant beneficial effect in patients without T2DM. The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of both T2DM and baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on the treatment effect of intensive blood pressure lowering...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210957/the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-caffeine-gum-consumed-during-a-simulated-half-time-by-professional-academy-rugby-union-players
#12
Russell M, Reynolds N A, Crewther B T, Cook C J, Kilduff L
Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210955/comparison-between-power-off-ice-test-and-performance-on-ice-anaerobic-testing
#13
Vincent Gosselin Boucher, Andrée-Anne Parent, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Mario Leone, Alain Steve Comtois
The importance of specific testing has been shown in ice hockey performance and the understanding and connection between them may lead to adapting training and follow up in elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare two off-ice power tests with performances on ice with a complete professional hockey team. The broad jump test and the vertical jump test were used for the off-ice evaluations, while the SAS-40 and the repeated skate sprint modify (RSSm) tests were used as the performance variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203565/the-tale-of-an-innocent-intensive-treatment-and-the-j-curve-in-the-sprint-trial-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial
#14
EDITORIAL
Paolo Verdecchia, Fabio Angeli, Gianpaolo Reboldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203043/-blood-pressure-target-in-2017
#15
A Yannoutsos, A Bura-Rivière, P Priollet, J Blacher
OBJECTIVE: The issue of how far blood pressure (BP) should be lowered under antihypertensive treatment is still an important matter of scientific debate. The aim of the present review is to consider the clinical relevance of individualized BP goal under treatment in hypertensive patients according to their age, comorbidities or established cardio-vascular (CV) disease. DATA FROM THE LITERATURE: The French and European recommendations propose a systolic BP target between 130 and 139mmHg (<150mmHg after 80 years) and diastolic BP target <90mmHg in hypertensive patients whatever their level of risk...
December 2017: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193019/prospective-subgroup-analyses-of-the-randomized-mcl-002-sprint-study-lenalidomide-versus-investigator-s-choice-in-relapsed-or-refractory-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#16
Luca Arcaini, Thierry Lamy, Jan Walewski, David Belada, Jiri Mayer, John Radford, Wojciech Jurczak, Franck Morschhauser, Julia Alexeeva, Simon Rule, José Cabeçadas, Elias Campo, Stefano A Pileri, Tsvetan Biyukov, Meera Patturajan, Marie-Laure Casadebaig Bravo, Marek Trnĕný
In the mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)-002 study, lenalidomide demonstrated significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with investigator's choice (IC) in patients with relapsed/refractory MCL. Here we present the long-term follow-up data and results of preplanned subgroup exploratory analyses from MCL-002 to evaluate the potential impact of demographic factors, baseline clinical characteristics and prior therapies on PFS. In MCL-002, patients with relapsed/refractory MCL were randomized 2:1 to receive lenalidomide (25 mg/day orally on days 1-21; 28-day cycles) or single-agent IC therapy (rituximab, gemcitabine, fludarabine, chlorambucil or cytarabine)...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192837/effects-of-the-nordic-hamstring-exercise-on-sprint-capacity-in-male-football-players-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Lasse Ishøi, Per Hölmich, Per Aagaard, Kristian Thorborg, Thomas Bandholm, Andreas Serner
This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17) or to 10-weeks of supervised strength training using the NHE in-season (IG; n = 18). A repeated-sprint test, consisting of 4 × 6 10 m sprints, with 15 s recovery period between sprints and 180 s between sets, was conducted to evaluate total sprint time as the primary outcome...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176391/the-relationship-of-all-cause-mortality-to-average-on-treatment-systolic-blood-pressure-is-significantly-related-to-baseline-systolic-blood-pressure-implications-for-interpretation-of-the-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-study
#18
Peter M Okin, Sverre E Kjeldsen, Richard B Devereux
BACKGROUND: The SPRINT study demonstrated that targeting systolic blood pressure (SBP) less than 120 mmHg was associated with lower cardiovascular event and mortality rates. In the LIFE study, however, a lower achieved SBP was associated with increased mortality. Mean baseline SBP in SPRINT was 140 mmHg and a third of the population had a baseline SBP 132 mmHg or less, raising the question of whether the lower baseline SBP in SPRINT could in part account for these differences. METHODS: All-cause mortality during 4...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176387/effects-of-plyometric-and-directional-training-on-speed-and-jump-performance-in-elite-youth-soccer-players
#19
Marco Beato, Mattia Bianchi, Giuseppe Coratella, Michele Merlini, Barry Drust
Soccer players perform approximately 1350 activities (every 4-6 s), such as accelerations/decelerations, and changes of direction (COD) during matches. It is well established that COD and plyometric training have a positive impact on fitness parameters in football players. This study analyzed the effect of a complex COD and plyometric protocol (CODJ-G) compared to an isolated COD protocol (COD-G) training on elite football players.A randomized pre-post parallel group trial was used in this study. Twenty-one youth players were enrolled in this study (mean ± SDs; age 17 ± 0...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162340/effects-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-on-acute-kidney-injury-events-in-the-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-sprint
#20
Michael V Rocco, Kaycee M Sink, Laura C Lovato, Dawn F Wolfgram, Thomas B Wiegmann, Barry M Wall, Kausik Umanath, Frederic Rahbari-Oskoui, Anna C Porter, Roberto Pisoni, Cora E Lewis, Julia B Lewis, James P Lash, Lois A Katz, Amret T Hawfield, William E Haley, Barry I Freedman, Jamie P Dwyer, Paul E Drawz, Mirela Dobre, Alfred K Cheung, Ruth C Campbell, Udayan Bhatt, Srinivasan Beddhu, Paul L Kimmel, David M Reboussin, Glenn M Chertow
BACKGROUND: Treating to a lower blood pressure (BP) may increase acute kidney injury (AKI) events. STUDY DESIGN: Data for AKI resulting in or during hospitalization or emergency department visits were collected as part of the serious adverse events reporting process of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 9,361 participants 50 years or older with 1 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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