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Psychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183288/towards-an-optimal-therapy-strategy-for-myogenous-tmd-physiotherapy-compared-with-occlusal-splint-therapy-in-an-rct-with-therapy-and-patient-specific-treatment-durations
#1
Robert J van Grootel, Rob Buchner, Daniël Wismeijer, Hilbert W van der Glas
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) may be characterized by pain and restricted jaw movements. In the absence of somatic factors in the temporomandibular joint, mainly myogenous, psychobiological, and psychosocial factors may be involved in the aetiology of myogenous TMD. An occlusal appliance (splint) is commonly used as a basic therapy of the dental practice. Alternatively, a type of physiotherapy which includes, apart from massage of sore muscles, aspects of cognitive-behavioural therapy might be a basic therapy for myogenous TMD...
February 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178272/psychobiological-factors-affecting-cortisol-variability-in-human-dog-dyads
#2
Iris Schöberl, Manuela Wedl, Andrea Beetz, Kurt Kotrschal
Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174137/reward-loss-and-addiction-opportunities-for-cross-pollination
#3
REVIEW
Leonardo A Ortega, José L Solano, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R Papini
Paradigms used to study the response to and consequences of exposure to reward loss have been underutilized in approaches to the psychobiology of substance use disorders. We propose here that bringing these two areas into contact will help expanding our understanding of both reward loss and addictive behavior, hence opening up opportunities for cross-pollination. This review focuses on two lines of research that point to parallels. First, several neurochemical systems involved in addiction are also involved in the modulation of the behavioral effects of reward loss, including opioid, GABA, and dopamine receptors...
February 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126053/impact-of-stress-in-childhood-psychobiological-alterations
#4
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND: An extremely high percentage of children worldwide are exposed to stress from the first months of life.  The aim of this review is to bring together the experimental results related to chronic early-life stress in both human and experimental models.  Methods: We aimed to achieve our objective via a thorough review of the literature. RESULTS: Early-life stress is a challenge for the developing organism and leads to negative effects in the medium and long term...
February 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114184/pain-has-an-element-of-blank-a-biobehavioral-approach-to-chronicity
#5
Herta Flor
The development of acute to chronic pain is characterized by a shift from nociceptive brain circuits to those involved in emotion, motivation, cognition and learning. Psychological, psychosocial, genetic and neurobiological determinants of these evolving brain circuits are discussed and it is suggested that different concepts ofchronicity may have a common psychobiological basis. The analysis of these chronicity factors leads to the identification of psychobiological mechanisms of chronicity andmay change the classification of pain syndromes from a mainly descriptive to a mechanistic basis...
January 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#6
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070408/new-approaches-to-divorce-with-children-a-problem-of-public-health
#7
REVIEW
Vittorio Carlo Vezzetti
This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children. So far, divorce involving minor children was unfortunately considered by authorities only as a purely juridical problem, and this approach has often allowed a completely different approach according to the Courts. Now, scientific research, also making use of animal models, is demonstrating the biological basis of the problem and the indisputable consequences on the well-being and health of children...
July 2016: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061976/neuroendocrine-underpinnings-of-increased-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-women
#8
M A Briscione, V Michopoulos, T Jovanovic, S D Norrholm
Women are particularly vulnerable to the effects of psychological trauma and the development of trauma-, stressor-, and anxiety-related mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the current chapter, we examine the female hormonal systems that interact with psychobiological stress response systems to elicit maladaptive behavior and mental disease states in traumatized female populations. In addition, we provide a contemporary translational example of a stress vulnerability genomic profile (coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) that may underlie the specific susceptibilities observed in women...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044281/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-physical-performance-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Samuele Marcora, Kevin De Pauw, Stephen Bailey, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030575/time-course-of-leptin-in-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-during-inpatient-treatment-longitudinal-relationships-to-bmi-and-psychological-factors
#11
Esther Stroe-Kunold, Magdalena Buckert, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Daniela Wesche, Stefan Kopf, Wolfgang Herzog, Beate Wild
BACKGROUND: Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time. OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004947/a-hierarchical-causal-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-across-the-life-span
#12
Benjamin B Lahey, Robert F Krueger, Paul J Rathouz, Irwin D Waldman, David H Zald
We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology)...
February 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995816/breaking-cycles-of-risk-the-mitigating-role-of-maternal-working-memory-in-associations-among-socioeconomic-status-early-caregiving-and-children-s-working-memory
#13
Jennifer H Suor, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael A Skibo
Previous research has documented socioeconomic-related disparities in children's working memory; however, the putative proximal caregiving mechanisms that underlie these effects are less known. The present study sought to examine whether the effects of early family socioeconomic status on children's working memory were mediated through experiences of caregiving, specifically maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness. Utilizing a psychobiological framework of parenting, the present study also tested whether maternal working memory moderated the initial paths between the family socioeconomic context and maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness in the mediation model...
December 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993603/the-neural-diathesis-stress-model-of-schizophrenia-revisited-an-update-on-recent-findings-considering-illness-stage-and-neurobiological-and-methodological-complexities
#14
REVIEW
Marita Pruessner, Alexis E Cullen, Monica Aas, Elaine F Walker
Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986469/a-systematic-review-of-the-psychobiological-burden-of-informal-caregiving-for-patients-with-dementia-focus-on-cognitive-and-biological-markers-of-chronic-stress
#15
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Eileen A Curran, Áine Duggan, John F Cryan, Aoife Ní Chorcoráin, Timothy G Dinan, D William Molloy, Patricia M Kearney, Gerard Clarke
As the physiological impact of chronic stress is difficult to study in humans, naturalistic stressors are invaluable sources of information in this area. This review systematically evaluates the research literature examining biomarkers of chronic stress, including neurocognition, in informal dementia caregivers. We identified 151 papers for inclusion in the final review, including papers examining differences between caregivers and controls as well as interventions aimed at counteracting the biological burden of chronic caregiving stress...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982786/reorienting-hypnosis-education
#16
David S Alter, Laurence Irwin Sugarman
The legacy model of professional clinical hypnosis training presents a restrictive frame increasingly incompatible with our evolving understanding of psychobiology, health, and care. Emerging science recognizes human experience not as disease and diagnosis, but as manifestations of individual, uniquely-endowed, adaptively self-regulating systems. Hypnosis is a particularly well-suited discipline for effecting beneficial change in this paradigm. Training in clinical hypnosis must progress from the current linearly-structured, diagnosis-based, reductionist model toward a more responsive, naturalistic, and client-centered curriculum in order to remain relevant and accessible to clinicians beginning to integrate it into their practices...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913193/neuropeptide-y-resilience-and-ptsd-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
Marin Kautz, Dennis S Charney, James W Murrough
Resilience to traumatic stress is a complex psychobiological process that protects individuals from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other untoward consequences of exposure to extreme stress, including depression. Progress in translational research points toward the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system - among others - as a key mediator of stress response and as a potential therapeutic focus for PTSD. Substantial preclinical evidence supports the role of NPY in the modulation of stress response and in the regulation of anxiety in animal models...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#18
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907235/the-2d-4d-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-the-risk-of-recidivism-after-court-mandated-intervention-program-for-intimate-partner-violence-perpetrators
#19
Angel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol
Differences in aggressive behavior could be partially explained by differential prenatal exposure to testosterone (T). A peripheral marker of prenatal T exposure is the 2D:4D ratio, which has shown a negative correlation with self-reported aggression in violent men. This study tested the direct association of the 2D:4D ratio with anger expression and the risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators after psychotherapeutic intervention program. The sample consisted of IPV perpetrators, whose 2D:4D ratio was measured before the intervention...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#20
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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