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Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Annelies De Decker, Bart De Clercq, Sandra Verbeken, C K Wells Jonathan, Caroline Braet, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Isabelle Sioen
'Reward sensitivity' explains inter-individual differences in the motivation to obtain rewards when reward cues are perceived. This psychobiological trait has been linked to higher consumption of palatable food when exposed to palatable food cues. The current study aims to examine if reward sensitivity explains differences in patterns of fat and lean tissue accretion over time in children. A longitudinal observational study with measurement waves in 2011 (baseline), 2012, 2013, and 2015 was conducted. The sample was a population-based Flemish cohort of children (n = 446, 50% boys and 5...
October 14, 2016: Appetite
Alexander J Shackman, Do P M Tromp, Melissa D Stockbridge, Claire M Kaplan, Rachael M Tillman, Andrew S Fox
Dispositional negativity-the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, or enduring negative affect-is a fundamental dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity can have profound consequences for health, wealth, and happiness, drawing the attention of clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the psychological and neurobiological processes linking stable individual differences in dispositional negativity to momentary emotional states...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Ana Lúcia de Medeiros, Sérgio Ribeiro Dos Santos, Rômulo Wanderley de Lima Cabral, Juliana Paiva Góes Silva, Neyce de Matos Nascimento
Objective: To evaluate the use of nursing diagnoses and interventions proposed for women in labour and high-risk pregnancies. Method: This is a descriptive, retrospective study with documentary analysis of 1000 medical records and a checklist conducted from July to September 2014, at a maternity hospital in Paraiba, Brazil. It consisted of analysing descriptive measures and comparing the relationship between nursing diagnoses and interventions using NANDA - International and the Nursing Interventions Classification...
September 29, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Alessandra D Fisher, Giovanni Castellini, Jiska Ristori, Helen Casale, Emanuele Cassioli, Carolina Sensi, Egidia Fanni, Anna Maria Letizia Amato, Eva Bettini, Maddalena Mosconi, Davide Dèttore, Valdo Ricca, Mario Maggi
CONTEXT: To date, there are few studies investigating the impact of body changes induced by cross-sex hormonal treatment (CHT) on psychobiological well-being in gender-dysphoric persons (GDs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess whether CHT-related body changes affect psychobiological well-being in GDs. METHODS: A consecutive series of 359 GDs was considered for a cross-sectional section of the study. In addition, 54 GDs were studied in a 2-year follow-up...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diego A Pizzagalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Erik Monasterio, Omer Mei-Dan, Anthony C Hackney, Amy R Lane, Igor Zwir, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing...
September 29, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jennifer C Zering, Denver M Y Brown, Jeffrey D Graham, Steven R Bray
We investigated effects of a brief (10.5 min) cognitively demanding task on graded exercise test performance. Untrained, university students (N = 15) completed two graded exercise tests in counterbalanced, randomised order. One test was preceded by restful viewing of a documentary video (control); the other by a stop-signal task. Cardiorespiratory functions and perceived exertion were monitored during exercise. Peak power output (W) was lower following the stop-signal task (M = 240.03, SD = 53.37) compared to control (M = 246...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andrew C Parrott
Most research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has debated its psychobiological effects in relation to neurotransmission. This article debates the contributory roles of the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol for their psychobiological effects in humans. The empirical literature on these neurohormones is reviewed and suggestions for future research outlined. Acute MDMA or 'ecstasy' can generate increased levels of oxytocin and cortisol, and these neurohormonal changes may be important for its mood-enhancing and energy-activation effects in humans...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei, Masome Rashno, Shahab Ghaderi, Majid Askaripour
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Vincenzo Guidetti, Noemi Faedda, Michael Siniatchkin
It is well documented that headache is a multifactorial disorder which includes not only genetic, biological, medical and neuropsychological factor but also psychological and personality traits. The close relationship between stress and migraine attacks and the significant psychiatric comorbidities in migraine provide evidence of a "paradigm" of tight interaction between somatic and psychological aspects in paediatric migraine. In particular in younger children, an uncomfortable situation, a psychological problem or an emotional distress is rarely expressed directly but usually through physical symptoms...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Katharina Kircanski, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah Ordaz, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Although approximately half of adults diagnosed with a depressive or anxiety disorder exhibit their simultaneous co-occurrence, traditional research has centered on single-target diagnoses, overlooking comorbidities within samples. In this article, we review and extend the literature that directly investigates co-occurring depression and anxiety, with the goal of shifting the focus from co-occurring diagnoses to symptom dimensions. METHODS: First, we review studies that have directly compared psychobiological features (neural, neuroendocrine, autonomic) across depression, anxiety, and their co-occurrence, defined either categorically or dimensionally...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
P-M Wippert, C Wiebking
The genesis of chronic pain is predominantly explained by a multidimensional pain model approach that is based on the dysfunctional influence of biological, psychological and social variables as key risk factors inducing aberrant long-term changes. Biological facets comprise adaptation processes on the neuronal, musculoskeletal and (psycho) biological level that can be influenced by physical training or psychosocial factors, such as stress. These factors can play a causative role in developing dysfunctional adaptation mechanisms, which in turn prepare the biological ground to facilitate negative long-term changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems...
October 2016: Der Schmerz
Nicole Wiggert, Frank H Wilhelm, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Both chronic smoking and trait anxiety have been associated with dysregulations in psychobiological stress response systems. However, these factors have not been studied in conjunction. We expected trait anxiety and smoking status to attenuate stress reactivity. Furthermore, we expected an allostatic load effect resulting in particularly attenuated stress reactivity in high-anxious smokers. In addition, high-anxious smokers were expected to exhibit increased urges to smoke in response to stress...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
L M van Vliet, S van Dulmen, P Mistiaen, J M Bensing
- Good communication is important for patients and can elicit placebo effects: true psychobiological effects not attributable to the medical-technical intervention.- It is, however, often unclear which communication behaviours influence specific patient outcomes.- In this article we present insights into the potential effect of specific communication, via specific mechanisms, on specific patient outcomes, including patients' perception of pain.- A recent systematic review and additional literature demonstrate that (a) manipulating patients' expectations, (b) demonstrating empathy, and (c) providing procedural information, might influence patient outcomes...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Paul R McHugh
This lecture, given to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Service at Johns Hopkins, addresses the career and contributions to psychiatry and neurology of Adolf Meyer, the first Phipps Professor. It reviews his achievements historically describing the bleak clinical situation of psychiatry when he began as a neuropathologist at Kankakee Hospital in Illinois in 1892, what he did to address them, the sources of help he found and exploited from leading figures in the emerging Progressive Era (1890-1917) in American life, and how he confronted and overcame resistances to his empirical, psychobiological conceptions of mental illness as he advanced...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lee T Gettler, Rahul C Oka
Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes...
August 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Kristy Martin, Walter Staiano, Paolo Menaspà, Tom Hennessey, Samuele Marcora, Richard Keegan, Kevin G Thompson, David Martin, Shona Halson, Ben Rattray
PURPOSE: Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists. METHODS: After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control) for 30 min (mental exertion condition), or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition) in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order...
2016: PloS One
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