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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321194/mindfulness-and-emotion-regulation-insights-from-neurobiological-psychological-and-clinical-studies
#1
REVIEW
Simón Guendelman, Sebastián Medeiros, Hagen Rampes
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314518/the-interface-between-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-depression-a-psychobiological-and-neurophysiological-conundrum
#2
Derek Larkin, Colin R Martin
The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains a contentious and controversial presentation despite decades of systematic research from a variety of medical specialties and associated disciplines. Variously championed as a condition of immunological, neurological, neurophysiological, psychiatric or psychological origin, consensus on a cogent and evidenced-based pathway has yet to be achieved. Irrespective of the ambiguity regarding aetiology, what is incontrovertible is the experience of significant depression, which often accompanies this most distressing clinical presentation...
March 14, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288405/the-association-between-well-being-and-the-comt-gene-dispositional-gratitude-and-forgiveness-as-mediators
#3
Jinting Liu, Pingyuan Gong, Xiaoxue Gao, Xiaolin Zhou
BACKROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic variants and positive psychological traits (e.g. gratitude and forgiveness) to well-being. However, little is known about how genes interact with positive traits to affect well-being. METHODS: To investigate to what extent the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates well-being and to what extent dispositional gratitude and forgiveness mediate the individual differences in well-being, 445 participants were recruited and required to complete a battery of questionnaires...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#4
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time-trial (TT) endurance performance by ~3,5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT-performance. METHODS: In 30 °C and 30% relative humidity, ten endurance-trained male athletes (Age: 22 ± 3 y; Wmax: 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
March 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276806/psychobiological-impact-of-ethnic-discrimination-in-turkish-immigrants-living-in-germany
#5
Susanne Fischer, Urs M Nater, Jana Strahler, Nadine Skoluda, Leander Dieterich, Orgun Oezcan, Ricarda Mewes
Perceived ethnic discrimination has a negative impact on health. One of the key mechanisms may be a dysregulation of stress-responsive systems. Our aims were to investigate whether (1) acute face-to-face ethnic discrimination induces a stress response, and (2) to compare long-term endocrine functioning between immigrants and nonimmigrants. 30 male Turkish immigrants living in Germany underwent an ethnic discrimination condition and a control condition in the laboratory. Perceived ethnic discrimination, stress, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured four times...
March 5, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256555/selection-characterization-and-application-of-artificial-dna-aptamer-containing-appended-bases-with-sub-nanomolar-affinity-for-a-salivary-biomarker
#6
Hirotaka Minagawa, Kentaro Onodera, Hiroto Fujita, Taiichi Sakamoto, Joe Akitomi, Naoto Kaneko, Ikuo Shiratori, Masayasu Kuwahara, Katsunori Horii, Iwao Waga
We have attained a chemically modified DNA aptamer against salivary α-amylase (sAA), which attracts researchers' attention as a useful biomarker for assessing human psychobiological and social behavioural processes, although high affinity aptamers have not been isolated from a random natural DNA library to date. For the selection, we used the base-appended base (BAB) modification, that is, a modified-base DNA library containing (E)-5-(2-(N-(2-(N6-adeninyl)ethyl))carbamylvinyl)-uracil in place of thymine. After eight rounds of selection, a 75 mer aptamer, AMYm1, which binds to sAA with extremely high affinity (Kd < 1 nM), was isolated...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249354/placebo-response-in-pain-fatigue-and-performance-possible-implications-for-neuromuscular-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Aziz Shaibani, Elisa Frisaldi, Fabrizio Benedetti
The placebo response in neuromuscular disorders is not well understood. The only available data regarding the underlying mechanisms are related to neuropathic pain. In this review, we describe the factors that contribute to improved outcomes in the placebo arm, with specific attention to pain and fatigue, as well as some of the most important psychobiological mechanisms that may explain such a response. This approach might also improve our insight into the symptomatology and therapeutic responses of other neuromuscular disorders...
March 1, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243209/editorial-psychobiological-research-in-psychosomatic-medicine
#8
EDITORIAL
Silvia Ouakinin, Marco Torrado, Susana Eusébio, David Barreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237673/the-placebo-and-nocebo-phenomena-their-clinical-management-and-impact-on-treatment-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Victor Chavarria, João Vian, Círia Pereira, João Data-Franco, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
PURPOSE: This overview focuses on placebo and nocebo effects in clinical trials and routine care. Our goal was to propose strategies to improve outcomes in clinical practice, maximizing placebo effects and reducing nocebo effects, as well as managing these phenomena in clinical trials. METHODS: A narrative literature search of PubMed was conducted (January 1980-September 2016). Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on placebo or nocebo effects in clinical practice were included in the qualitative synthesis...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183288/towards-an-optimal-therapy-strategy-for-myogenous-tmd-physiotherapy-compared-with-occlusal-splint-therapy-in-an-rct-with-therapy-and-patient-specific-treatment-durations
#10
Robert J van Grootel, Rob Buchner, Daniël Wismeijer, Hilbert W van der Glas
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) may be characterized by pain and restricted jaw movements. In the absence of somatic factors in the temporomandibular joint, mainly myogenous, psychobiological, and psychosocial factors may be involved in the aetiology of myogenous TMD. An occlusal appliance (splint) is commonly used as a basic therapy of the dental practice. Alternatively, a type of physiotherapy which includes, apart from massage of sore muscles, aspects of cognitive-behavioural therapy might be a basic therapy for myogenous TMD...
February 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178272/psychobiological-factors-affecting-cortisol-variability-in-human-dog-dyads
#11
Iris Schöberl, Manuela Wedl, Andrea Beetz, Kurt Kotrschal
Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174137/reward-loss-and-addiction-opportunities-for-cross-pollination
#12
REVIEW
Leonardo A Ortega, José L Solano, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R Papini
Paradigms used to study the response to and consequences of exposure to reward loss have been underutilized in approaches to the psychobiology of substance use disorders. We propose here that bringing these two areas into contact will help expanding our understanding of both reward loss and addictive behavior, hence opening up opportunities for cross-pollination. This review focuses on two lines of research that point to parallels. First, several neurochemical systems involved in addiction are also involved in the modulation of the behavioral effects of reward loss, including opioid, GABA, and dopamine receptors...
March 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126053/impact-of-stress-in-childhood-psychobiological-alterations
#13
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND: An extremely high percentage of children worldwide are exposed to stress from the first months of life.  The aim of this review is to bring together the experimental results related to chronic early-life stress in both human and experimental models.  Methods: We aimed to achieve our objective via a thorough review of the literature. RESULTS: Early-life stress is a challenge for the developing organism and leads to negative effects in the medium and long term...
February 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114184/pain-has-an-element-of-blank-a-biobehavioral-approach-to-chronicity
#14
Herta Flor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#15
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070408/new-approaches-to-divorce-with-children-a-problem-of-public-health
#16
REVIEW
Vittorio Carlo Vezzetti
This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children. So far, divorce involving minor children was unfortunately considered by authorities only as a purely juridical problem, and this approach has often allowed a completely different approach according to the Courts. Now, scientific research, also making use of animal models, is demonstrating the biological basis of the problem and the indisputable consequences on the well-being and health of children...
July 2016: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061976/neuroendocrine-underpinnings-of-increased-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-women
#17
M A Briscione, V Michopoulos, T Jovanovic, S D Norrholm
Women are particularly vulnerable to the effects of psychological trauma and the development of trauma-, stressor-, and anxiety-related mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the current chapter, we examine the female hormonal systems that interact with psychobiological stress response systems to elicit maladaptive behavior and mental disease states in traumatized female populations. In addition, we provide a contemporary translational example of a stress vulnerability genomic profile (coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) that may underlie the specific susceptibilities observed in women...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044281/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-physical-performance-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Samuele Marcora, Kevin De Pauw, Stephen Bailey, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030575/time-course-of-leptin-in-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-during-inpatient-treatment-longitudinal-relationships-to-bmi-and-psychological-factors
#20
Esther Stroe-Kunold, Magdalena Buckert, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Daniela Wesche, Stefan Kopf, Wolfgang Herzog, Beate Wild
BACKGROUND: Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time. OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients...
2016: PloS One
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