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Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Cecilia Grinsvall, Hans Törnblom, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Magnus Simrén
Background and objective: Psychological states may interfere with visceral sensitivity. Here we investigate associations between psychosocial factors and visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: Two IBS patient cohorts (Cohort 1: n  = 231, Rome II; Cohort 2: n  = 141, Rome III) underwent rectal barostat testing, and completed questionnaires for anxiety, depression, somatization, and abuse. The associations between questionnaire measures and visceral sensitivity parameters were analyzed in three-step general linear models (step1: demographic and abuse variables; step 2: anxiety and depression; step 3: somatization)...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Jana Uher, Irina Trofimova, William Sulis, Petra Netter, Luiz Pessoa, Michael I Posner, Mary K Rothbart, Vladimir Rusalov, Isaac T Peterson, Louis A Schmidt
Throughout the last 2500 years, the classification of individual differences in healthy people and their extreme expressions in mental disorders has remained one of the most difficult challenges in science that affects our ability to explore individuals' functioning, underlying psychobiological processes and pathways of development. To facilitate analyses of the principles required for studying individual differences, this theme issue brought together prominent scholars from diverse backgrounds of which many bring unique combinations of cross-disciplinary experiences and perspectives that help establish connections and promote exchange across disciplines...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Yakov Shapiro
Psychodynamic psychiatry is not limited to psychotherapy practice. It is defined by systematic attention to the "common factors" underlying both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology outcomes, which include the patient's subjective systems of meaning and the complex flow of the patient-provider relationship in addition to the patient's "objective" psychopathology. It allows for a non-reductionist milieu where the meaning of the illness and the full complexity of the treatment process can be explored in order to achieve a qualitative and lasting change in the patient's psychopathology...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Oskar Lundgren, Peter Garvin, Gerhard Andersson, Lena Jonasson, Margareta Kristenson
Psychological resources and risk factors influence risk of coronary heart disease. We evaluated whether inverted items in the Self-esteem, Mastery, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scales compromise validity in the context of coronary heart disease. In a population-based sample, validity was investigated by calculating correlations with other scales ( n  = 1004) and interleukin-6 ( n  = 374), and by analyzing the relationship with 8-year coronary heart disease risk ( n  = 1000)...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Lora Capobianco, Julie A Morris, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have been linked to repetitive negative self-regulation styles in the form of worry and rumination respectively. Following predictions of the metacognitive model [Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum], the current study compared the effect on recovery from stress of three strategies: worry, rumination, and distraction using a stress exposure paradigm. It was predicted that worry and/or rumination would be associated with delayed recovery on physiological and/or self-report indices when compared to distraction...
February 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Laszlo Pogany
The placebo-effect is present in almost every field of medicine, however, in the assessment of the effect of psychotropic drugs it is a major problem. The rise of the placebo-effect in clinical trials is observed during the last decades, in spite of all efforts to introduce new methods in clinical trials to overcome this problem and the number of studies aiming to unveil the mechanisms that lie in the background that this phenomenon have risen. A considerable amount of data has accumulated regarding the psychobiological background of placeboeffect, however, the details of underlying mechanisms are still not clear...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Dirk Hellhammer, Gunther Meinlschmidt, Jens C Pruessner
Psychobiological research has generated a tremendous amount of findings on the psychological, neuroendocrine, molecular and environmental processes that are directly relevant for mental and physical health, but have overwhelmed our capacity to meaningfully absorb, integrate, and utilize this knowledge base. Here, we reflect about suitable strategies to improve the translational success of psychoneuroendocrinological research in the era of precision medicine. Following a strategy advocated by the National Research Council and the tradition of endophenotype-based research, we advance here a new approach, termed "conceptual endophenotypes"...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Johanna M Doerr, Urs M Nater, Ulrike Ehlert, Beate Ditzen
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge about how fatigue develops and worsens and what influences fluctuations in daily fatigue. Stress was found to influence fatigue, and being in a relationship seems to either increase or decrease stress depending on the couple interaction. In this study, co-variation of fatigue, self-reported stress, and biological stress markers in couples' everyday lives was investigated. Specifically, we examined a) whether momentary couple interactions moderated dyadic outcomes and b) whether and how stress and relationship measures influenced individual momentary fatigue...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michael Lukas Meier, Philipp Stämpfli, Barry Kim Humphreys, Andrea Vrana, Erich Seifritz, Petra Schweinhardt
Introduction: Pain-related fear plays a substantial role in chronic low back pain (LBP) by amplifying the experienced disability. Related dysfunctional emotions and cognitions may also affect sensory aspects of pain through a modulatory pathway in which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the amygdala play key roles. Objectives: We therefore hypothesized a differential amygdala-PAG functional connectivity (FC) in patients with chronic LBP that is modulated by the degree of pain-related fear...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Ueli Kramer
The present introduction to the Special Section on Mechanisms of Change in Treatments of Personality Disorders explains the value of research focusing on processes of change in psychotherapy by referring to a variety of methodologies. Whereas outcome for these treatments has been repeatedly demonstrated, it remains an open question what the core psychobiological features of change are. Taking a radically empirical perspective, this introduction focuses on patient and therapeutic relationship variables, such as emotional and socio-cognitive processing...
January 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Kevin M Crombie, Angelique G Brellenthin, Cecilia J Hillard, Kelli F Koltyn
Previous reports have shown improvements in mood and increases in endocannabinoids in healthy adults following a session of aerobic exercise, but it is unclear whether adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience similar responses. The purpose of this study was to examine psychobiological responses (plasma endocannabinoids [eCBs], mood, and pain) to aerobic exercise in a sample of adults with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants engaged in an aerobic exercise session in which they ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (70 to 75% maximum heart rate [MHR])...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Robert Miller, Jan-Georg Wojtyniak, Lisa J Weckesser, Nina C Alexander, Veronika Engert, Thorsten Lehr
This article seeks to address the prevailing issue of how to measure specific process components of psychobiological stress responses. Particularly the change of cortisol secretion due to stress exposure has been discussed as an endophenotype of many psychosomatic health outcomes. To assess its process components, a large variety of non-compartmental parameters (i.e., composite measures of substance concentrations at different points in time) like the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) are commonly utilized...
December 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Gabriella Santangelo, Federica Garramone, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Fausta Piscopo, Simona Raimo, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: Personality changes are considered pre-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional studies revealed that PD patients were more introvert, apprehensive, and cautious than healthy subjects (HS), whereas other studies failed to disclose these behavioural traits. Some studies found mixed results concerning Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) profiles in PD patients. To better clarify the personality profile in PD we performed a meta-analysis on studies exploring such topic according to both Cloninger's Psychobiological Model (PM) and Big Five Model (BFM) METHODS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies evaluating the personality in PD patients compared with HS...
January 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Emilou Noser, Susanne Fischer, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity associated with vital exhaustion (VE), the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Allostatic load may constitute the missing link between VE and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether men with different degrees of VE would differ in terms of allostatic load, chronic stress, and social support. METHODS: The Men Stress 40+ study sample consisted of N=121 apparently healthy men aged 40 to 75years...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Heidi C Saavedra Pérez, M Arfan Ikram, Nese Direk, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Bereavement can result in unresolved and prolonged grief, often termed prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The impact of PGD on cognitive functioning is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive decline, assessed by repeated measures of different cognition domains, between persons with normal and PGD and a non-grieving reference population in a 7-year follow-up study. METHODS: The study sample comprised 3126 non-demented persons, mean age: 64 years, of the Rotterdam Study...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Roland von Känel, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Jürgen Barth, Hansjörg Znoj, Ulrich Schnyder, Mary Princip
Self-rated health (SRH) is independently associated with all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease. We examined whether SRH relates to haemostatic factors of a hypercoagulable state with prognostic impact in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed 190 patients (median age: 59 years; all Caucasian; 83% men) within 48 hours of an acute coronary intervention in terms of demographic factors, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, health behaviours, cardiac-related variables and psychosocial characteristics...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Naoki Aoyama, Osamu Fujii, Toshikatsu Yamamoto
Objectives: Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture is a quick and effective microsystem of acupuncture used for treating various symptoms for which the somatotopic area is the scalp. This article describes Parietal Acupoint Therapy (PAPT), which is another approach, using a different scalp somatotopy, and to evaluate PAPT's effect on neck/shoulder stiffness and related mood disturbances. Materials and Methods:Subjects: Forty-six volunteers suffering from chronic neck/shoulder stiffness with various symptoms (headache, dizziness, and related mood disturbance) participated in this study and were randomly divided into 2 groups: treatment (26 subjects) and control (20 subjects)...
December 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance...
December 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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