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dopamine 2 receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473089/the-effects-of-cariprazine-and-aripiprazole-on-pcp-induced-deficits-on-attention-assessed-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#1
Samuel A Barnes, Jared W Young, Athina Markou, Nika Adham, István Gyertyán, Béla Kiss
RATIONALE: Attentional processing deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, likely contributing to the persistent functional and occupational disability observed in patients with schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is hypothesized to involve dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission, contributing to disruptions in normal dopamine transmission. Preclinical investigations often use NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP), to induce cognitive disruptions relevant to schizophrenia...
February 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472382/dopamine-d2-receptor-up-regulates-leptin-and-il-6-in-adipocytes
#2
Xiaoyan Wang, Van A Villar, Andrew Tiu, Kiran K Upadhyay, Santiago Cuevas
Leptin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by the adipose tissue. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) have anti-inflammatory effects in the brain and kidney tissues. Mouse and human adipocytes express the (D2R); D2R protein was 10-fold greater in adipocytes from human visceral than subcutaneous tissue. However, the function of D2R in adipocytes is not well understood. The D2-like receptor agonist Quinpirole increased the protein expression of leptin and IL-6, not adiponectin and Visfatin, along with their mRNA expression (24 hr)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470766/haloperidol-attenuates-methylphenidate-and-modafinil-induced-behavioural-sensitization-and-cognitive-enhancement
#3
Nausheen Alam, Kulsoom Choudhary
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468191/a-neural-circuit-mechanism-for-the-involvements-of-dopamine-in-effort-related-choices-decay-of-learned-values-secondary-effects-of-depletion-and-calculation-of-temporal-difference-error
#4
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467627/basal-ganglia-neuromodulation-over-multiple-temporal-and-structural-scales-simulations-of-direct-pathway-msns-investigate-the-fast-onset-of-dopaminergic-effects-and-predict-the-role-of-kv4-2
#5
Robert Lindroos, Matthijs C Dorst, Kai Du, Marko Filipović, Daniel Keller, Maya Ketzef, Alexander K Kozlov, Arvind Kumar, Mikael Lindahl, Anu G Nair, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner, Gilad Silberberg, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466326/structure-of-the-d-2-dopamine-receptor-bound-to-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone
#6
Sheng Wang, Tao Che, Anat Levit, Brian K Shoichet, Daniel Wacker, Bryan L Roth
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in processes as diverse as reward, addiction, control of coordinated movement, metabolism and hormonal secretion. Correspondingly, dysregulation of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nausea and vomiting, among others. Dopamine's actions are mediated by a family of five G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (viz. D1 , D2 , D3 , D4 and D5 )1 ...
January 24, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464302/nicotine-drug-discrimination-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-differentially-reared-rats
#7
Charles S Bockman, Wanyun Zeng, Jamie Hall, Beth Mittelstet, Liz Schwarzkopf, Dustin J Stairs
RATIONALE: Individuals vary in sensitivity to the behavioral effects of nicotine, resulting in differences in vulnerability to nicotine addiction. The role of rearing environment in determining individual sensitivity to nicotine is unclear. The neuropharmacological mechanisms mediating the effect of rearing environment on the behavioral actions of nicotine are also poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The contribution of rearing environment in determining the sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of nicotine was determined in rats reared in isolated conditions (IC) or enriched conditions (EC)...
February 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464190/identification-of-neurotensin-receptor-expressing-cells-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-across-the-lifespan
#8
Hillary L Woodworth, Patricia A Perez-Bonilla, Bethany G Beekly, Trevor J Lewis, Gina M Leinninger
Neurotensin (Nts) promotes activation of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Nts can signal via the G protein-coupled Nts receptors 1 and 2 (NtsR1 and NtsR2), but the lack of methods to detect NtsR1- and NtsR2-expressing cells has limited mechanistic understanding of Nts action. To overcome this challenge, we generated dual recombinase mice that express FlpO-dependent Cre recombinase in NtsR1 or NtsR2 cells. This strategy permitted temporal control over recombination, such that we could identify NtsR1- or NtsR2-expressing cells and determine whether their distributions differed between the developing and adult brain...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463910/several-behavioral-traits-relevant-for-alcoholism-are-controlled-by-%C3%A9-2-subunit-containing-gaba-a-receptors-on-dopamine-neurons-in-mice
#9
Andrea Stojakovic, Magdalena Walczak, Przemysław E Cieślak, Aleksandra Trenk, Johan Sköld, Joanna Zajdel, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Camilla Karlsson, Annika Thorsell, Markus Heilig, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Tomasz Błasiak, David Engblom
The risk factors for developing alcohol addiction include impulsivity, high sensitivity to the rewarding action of ethanol, and low sensitivity to its sedative and intoxicating effects. Genetic variation in GABAA receptor subunits, including the ɣ2 subunit (Gabrg2), affects the risk for developing alcoholism. Alcohol directly potentiates GABAA receptors and activates the mesolimbic dopamine system. Here, we deleted Gabrg2 selectively in dopamine cells of adult mice. The deletion resulted in elevated firing of dopamine neurons and made them less sensitive to drugs acting at GABAA receptors...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462693/two-novel-dual-glp-1-gip-receptor-agonists-are-neuroprotective-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Peng Feng, Xiangjian Zhang, Dongfang Li, Chenhui Ji, Ziyue Yuan, Ruifang Wang, Guofang Xue, Guanglai Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factors for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Insulin desensitization is observed in the brains of PD patients, which may be an underlying mechanism that promotes neurodegeneration. Incretin hormones are growth factors that can re-sensitize insulin signalling. We have previously shown that analogues of the incretins GLP-1 or GIP have neuroprotective effects in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists have been developed as treatments for T2DM...
February 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462652/the-role-of-intraamygdaloid-neurotensin-and-dopamine-interaction-in-conditioned-place-preference
#11
K László, L Péczely, A Kovács, O Zagoracz, T Ollmann, E Kertes, V Kállai, B Csetényi, Z Karádi, L Lénárd
Tridecapeptide Neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the central nervous system where it acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, anxiety and reinforcing mechanisms. Our previous data showed that NT microinjected into the CeA has positive reinforcing properties. We supposed that these effects might be due to modulations of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The aim of our study was to examine in the CeA the possible effects of NT and dopamine interaction on reinforcement by conditioned place preference test...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458998/role-of-striatal-direct-pathway-2-arachidonoylglycerol-signaling-in-sociability-and-repetitive-behavior
#12
Brian C Shonesy, Walker P Parrish, Hala K Haddad, Jason R Stephenson, Rita Báldi, Rebecca J Bluett, Christian R Marks, Samuel W Centanni, Oakleigh M Folkes, Keeley Spiess, Shana M Augustin, Ken Mackie, David M Lovinger, Danny G Winder, Sachin Patel, Roger J Colbran
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoid signaling plays an important role in regulating synaptic transmission in the striatum, a brain region implicated as a central node of dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder. Deficits in signaling mediated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have been reported in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder, but a causal role for striatal 2-AG deficiency in phenotypes relevant to autism spectrum disorder has not been explored. METHODS: Using conditional knockout mice, we examined the electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of 2-AG deficiency by deleting its primary synthetic enzyme, diacylglycerol lipase α (DGLα), from dopamine D1 receptor-expressing or adenosine A2a receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) to determine the role of 2-AG signaling in striatal direct or indirect pathways, respectively...
December 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455579/vmat2-inhibitors-for-tardive-dyskinesia-practice-implications
#13
Alyssa M Peckham, Jessica A Nicewonder
Tardive dyskinesia is a potentially irreversible, debilitating, hyperkinetic movement disorder that can result from dopamine receptor antagonists. Prompt recognition and resolution of symptoms are instrumental in preventing disease irreversibility, though current treatment options have fallen short of robust, effective, and long-term symptom control. In April 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 2 new vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, for chorea related to Huntington's disease and tardive dyskinesia, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455292/effects-of-the-nicotinic-agonist-varenicline-nicotinic-antagonist-r-bpidi-and-dat-inhibitor-r-modafinil-on-co-use-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-in-female-p-rats
#14
Sarah E Maggio, Meredith A Saunders, Thomas A Baxter, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A Prendergast, Guangrong Zheng, Peter Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin, Rachel D Slack, Amy H Newman, Richard L Bell, Michael T Bardo
RATIONALE: Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. OBJECTIVES: Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455021/effect-of-dopamine-receptor-d4-drd4-haplotypes-on-general-psychopathology-in-patients-with-eating-disorders
#15
Guillermo Gervasini, Luz M González, Carmen Gamero-Villarroel, Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Juan Antonio Carrillo, Isalud Flores, Angustias Garcia-Herráiz
Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feeding behavior, the distortion of body image, hyperactivity and reward and reinforcement processes. We aimed to determine the effect of functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) gene on general psychopathological symptoms in ED patients. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three ED patients [199 with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and 74 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN)] completed the SCL-90R inventory and were genotyped for four functional, clinically relevant DRD4 polymorphisms: three variants in the promoter region [120-bp tandem repeat (TR, long vs...
February 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454493/updating-the-recommendations-for-treatment-of-tardive-syndromes-a-systematic-review-of-new-evidence-and-practical-treatment-algorithm
#16
REVIEW
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453947/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-rp5063-a-novel-multimodal-serotonin-receptor-modulator-as-single-agent-therapy-and-co-administrated-with-sildenafil-bosentan-and-treprostinil-in-a-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-rat-model
#17
Laxminarayan Bhat, Jon Hawkinson, Marc Cantillon, Dasharatha G Reddy, Seema R Bhat, Charles-E Laurent, Annie Bouchard, Marzena Biernat, Dany Salvail
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition that is defined by pulmonary vasculature constriction and remodeling, involves dysfunctional signaling of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors, 5-HT 2/2B/7 . In a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH, the effectiveness of RP5063 (RP), a dopamine and 5-HT receptor modulator, was evaluated as monotherapy and as an adjunct to standard PAH treatments. After a single 60mg/kg dose of MCT, rats received vehicle (MCT+Veh; gavage twice-daily [b.i.d.]), RP (10mg/kg; gavage b...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451703/mechanisms-of-imidazoline-i-2-receptor-agonist-induced-antinociception-in-rats-involvement-of-monoaminergic-neurotransmission
#18
Justin N Siemian, Kaixuan Wang, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although studies have established the antinociceptive efficacies of imidazoline I2 receptor (I2 R) agonists, its exact post-receptor mechanism remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that monoaminergic transmission is critical for I2 R agonist-induced antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The von Frey filament test was used to examine the antinociceptive effects of the I2 R agonists 2-BFI and CR4056 on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445764/quantified-coexpression-analysis-of-central-amygdala-subpopulations
#19
Kenneth M McCullough, Filomene G Morrison, Jakob Hartmann, William A Carlezon, Kerry J Ressler
Molecular identification and characterization of fear controlling circuitries is a promising path towards developing targeted treatments of fear-related disorders. Three-color in situ hybridization analysis was used to determine whether somatostatin (SOM, Sst ), neurotensin (NTS, Nts ), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, Crf ), tachykinin 2 (TAC2, Tac2 ), protein kinase c-δ (PKC-δ, Prkcd ), and dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2, Drd2 ) mRNA colocalize in male mouse amygdala neurons. Expression and colocalization was examined across capsular (CeC), lateral (CeL), and medial (CeM) compartments of the central amygdala...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440997/layer-and-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-excitatory-neuronal-activity-in-the-neocortex
#20
REVIEW
Gabriele Radnikow, Dirk Feldmeyer
From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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