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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334070/detection-of-drug-drug-interactions-through-data-mining-studies-using-clinical-sources-scientific-literature-and-social-media
#1
Santiago Vilar, Carol Friedman, George Hripcsak
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) constitute an important concern in drug development and postmarketing pharmacovigilance. They are considered the cause of many adverse drug effects exposing patients to higher risks and increasing public health system costs. Methods to follow-up and discover possible DDIs causing harm to the population are a primary aim of drug safety researchers. Here, we review different methodologies and recent advances using data mining to detect DDIs with impact on patients. We focus on data mining of different pharmacovigilance sources, such as the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and electronic health records from medical institutions, as well as on the diverse data mining studies that use narrative text available in the scientific biomedical literature and social media...
February 17, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333388/central-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#2
Alexander Tups, Jonas Benzler, Domenico Sergi, Sharon R Ladyman, Lynda M Williams
The ability of the brain to directly control glucose levels in the blood independently of its effects on food intake and body weight has been known ever since 1854 when Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, discovered that lesioning the floor of the fourth ventricle in rabbits led to a rise of sugar in the blood. Despite this outstanding discovery at that time, it took more than 140 years before progress started to be made in identifying the underlying mechanisms of brain-mediated control of glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#3
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332162/isolation-of-taxol-producing-endophytic-fungi-from-iranian-yew-through-novel-molecular-approach-and-their-effects-on-human-breast-cancer-cell-line
#4
Abdollah Kasaei, Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi, Foruzandeh Mahjoubi, Behnaz Saffar
Taxol or paclitaxel, an approved drug by the Food and Drug Administration, is being used for the treatment of human cancers. This study aimed to isolate and determine different species of native endophytic fungi from Iranian Taxus baccata (yew) plants located in the northern forests of Iran. To do so, a novel molecular screening approach was performed for 50 isolated endophytic fungi through amplification of exon No. 1 of taxadine synthase as a key gene in taxol production pathway. We used effective colony-polymerase chain reaction technique for rapid screening of potent taxol-producing fungi instead of genomic DNA extraction...
March 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331505/fear-of-vomiting-and-low-body-weight-in-two-pediatric-patients-diagnostic-challenges
#5
Charlotte Maertens, Jennifer Couturier, Christina Grant, Natasha Johnson
Fear of vomiting can be a symptom associated with several disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED), Specific Phobia (Emetophobia), Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), making proper diagnosis challenging. At this time the literature exploring this symptom is limited, and to our knowledge very few cases have been described in the child and adolescent population. We report here the cases of one child and one adolescent presenting with significant weight loss, food restriction and fear of vomiting...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327566/wholegrain-rye-but-not-wholegrain-wheat-lowers-body-weight-and-fat-mass-compared-with-refined-wheat-a-6-week-randomized-study
#6
J Suhr, S Vuholm, K N Iversen, R Landberg, M Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR)...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324829/interactive-effects-of-an-insecticide-and-a-fungicide-on-different-organism-groups-and-ecosystem-functioning-in-a-stream-detrital-food-web
#7
Mohab Dawoud, Mirco Bundschuh, Willem Goedkoop, Brendan G McKie
Freshwater ecosystems are often affected by cocktails of multiple pesticides targeting different organism groups. Prediction and evaluation of the ecosystem-level effects of these mixtures is complicated by the potential not only for interactions among the pesticides themselves, but also for the pesticides to alter biotic interactions across trophic levels. In a stream microcosm experiment, we investigated the effects of two pesticides targeting two organism groups (the insecticide lindane and fungicide azoxystrobin) on the functioning of a model stream detrital food web consisting of a detritivore (Ispoda: Asellus aquaticus) and microbes (an assemblage of fungal hyphomycetes) consuming leaf litter...
March 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322934/comparative-immunogenomics-of-molluscs
#8
Jonathan H Schultz, Coen M Adema
Comparative immunology, studying both vertebrates and invertebrates, provided the earliest descriptions of phagocytosis as a general immune mechanism. However, the large scale of animal diversity challenges all-inclusive investigations and the field of immunology has developed by mostly emphasizing study of a few vertebrate species. In addressing the lack of comprehensive understanding of animal immunity, especially that of invertebrates, comparative immunology helps toward management of invertebrates that are food sources, agricultural pests, pathogens, or transmit diseases, and helps interpret the evolution of animal immunity...
March 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322524/-nudging-o-educazione-a-scelte-civiche-responsabili-l-esempio-dello-screening-della-mammella
#9
Mariachiara Tallacchini
"Nudge, or nudging, refers to a policy approach inspired by behavioral sciences: it promotes the conducts identified as desirable by regulators without applying prohibition and coercion. This approach has gained a lot of momentum in the domain of health policies. Policy strategies based on behavioral insights appear ideal as to implementing healthier life styles and public health programs while minimizing compliance costs: from organ donation to food choices, from fighting obesity and chronic diseases to screening policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321292/low-percentage-of-clinically-relevant-pistachio-nut-and-mango-co-sensitisation-in-cashew-nut-sensitised-children
#10
J P M van der Valk, R El Bouche, R Gerth van Wijk, H de Groot, H J Wichers, A E J Dubois, N W de Jong
BACKGROUND: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment (IDEAL trial number NTR3572) study showed that cashew nut sensitised children were co-sensitised to pistachio nut in 98% of cases and to mango in 21% of cases. The aim of this follow-up study to IDEAL is to assess the clinical relevance of co-sensitisation to pistachio nut and mango in cashew nut sensitised children...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319853/caloric-dose-responsive-genes-in-blood-cells-differentiate-the-metabolic-status-of-obese-men
#11
Doreen Gille, Nadine Zangger, Charlotte Soneson, Ueli Bütikofer, Mauro Delorenzi, Flurina Schwander, Katrin A Kopf-Bolanz, Magali Chollet, Barbara Walther, Kurt Laederach, Guy Vergères
We have investigated the postprandial transcriptional response of blood cells to increasing caloric doses of a meal challenge to test whether the dynamic response of the human organism to the ingestion of food is dependent on metabolic health. The randomized crossover study included seven normal weight and seven obese men consuming three doses (500/1000/1500 kcal) of a high-fat meal. The blood cell transcriptome was measured before and 2, 4, and 6 h after meal ingestion (168 samples). We applied univariate and multivariate statistics to investigate differentially expressed genes in both study groups...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319784/use-of-a-mixed-method-approach-to-evaluate-the-implementation-of-retention-promotion-strategies-in-the-new-york-state-wic-program
#12
Jackson P Sekhobo, Sanya R Peck, Youjung Byun, Marie A K Allsopp, MaryEllen K Holbrook, Lynn S Edmunds, Chengxuan Yu
This research assessed the implementation of strategies piloted at 10 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinics aimed at increasing retention in the program, by enhancing participants' shopping experiences. Under WIC Retention Promotion Study: Keep, Reconnect, Thrive (WIC RPS), clinics were recruited and assigned to implement one or a combination of strategies: a standardized Shopping Orientation (SO) curriculum, a Guided Shopping Tour (GST), and a Pictorial Foods Card (PFC) from November 2012 through August 2013...
March 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319656/the-role-of-pulses-in-sustainable-and-healthy-food-systems
#13
REVIEW
John McDermott, Amanda J Wyatt
Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319530/oral-chemical-burns-reported-to-the-poisons-information-centre-in-erfurt-germany-from-1997-to-2014
#14
Juliane Nehrlich, Hans-Peter Klöcking, Helmut Hentschel, Amelie Lupp
Devastating oral burns often followed by lifelong complications can result from ingestion of caustic substances. However, although being one of the most challenging situations in clinical practice, literature data on the epidemiology of oral burns are still scarce. Retrospective analysis of all cases of oral burns after ingestion of corrosive substances reported to the Poisons Information Centre in Erfurt, Germany, from 1997 to 2014 was performed. In total, 482 calls because of oral burns were registered, with no change in the numbers of cases during the years...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319055/rational-design-of-high-yield-and-superior-quality-rice
#15
Dali Zeng, Zhixi Tian, Yuchun Rao, Guojun Dong, Yaolong Yang, Lichao Huang, Yujia Leng, Jie Xu, Chuan Sun, Guangheng Zhang, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Xingming Hu, Longbiao Guo, Guosheng Xiong, Yonghong Wang, Jiayang Li, Qian Qian
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. To meet the ever-increasing demand for food, because of population growth and improved living standards, world rice production needs to double by 2030(1). The development of new elite rice varieties with high yield and superior quality is challenging for traditional breeding approaches, and new strategies need to be developed. Here, we report the successful development of new elite varieties by pyramiding major genes that significantly contribute to grain quality and yield from three parents over five years...
March 20, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318292/from-play-to-proficiency-the-ontogeny-of-stone-tool-use-in-coastal-foraging-long-tailed-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-from-a-comparative-perception-action-perspective
#16
Amanda W Y Tan
Macaques crack shellfish in coastal environments with specialized stone-hammering techniques. I provide the first examination of skill development from 866 object-manipulation and 7,400 tool-use bouts, collected over 15 months, using longitudinal analyses of infants' object manipulation (N = 7) and cross-sectional comparisons of manipulative and tool-use behavior (N = 69). I adopt a Perception-action approach, examining how the emergence of actions on objects relate to the spatial-relational and percussive challenges of tool use...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318190/successful-administration-of-measles-rubella-mumps-vaccine-by-graded-challenge-in-a-case-with-anaphylaxis-after-prior-vaccination
#17
Tuba Tuncel, Ozlem Sancakli, Ece Ozdogru
Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Although it is reported that the MMR vaccine is safe for that patients, there are some patients who developed anaphylaxis. Generally, the development of anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination is reported as a contraindication...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317606/metabolic-phenotyping-of-diet-and-dietary-intake
#18
J Brignardello, E Holmes, I Garcia-Perez
Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317605/use-of-foodomics-for-control-of-food-processing-and-assessing-of-food-safety
#19
D Josić, Ž Peršurić, D Rešetar, T Martinović, L Saftić, S Kraljević Pavelić
Food chain, food safety, and food-processing sectors face new challenges due to globalization of food chain and changes in the modern consumer preferences. In addition, gradually increasing microbial resistance, changes in climate, and human errors in food handling remain a pending barrier for the efficient global food safety management. Consequently, a need for development, validation, and implementation of rapid, sensitive, and accurate methods for assessment of food safety often termed as foodomics methods is required...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317602/nanotechnology-approaches-for-increasing-nutrient-bioavailability
#20
S M Jafari, D J McClements
Health-promoting ingredients such as phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals are being increasingly introduced into foods and beverages to produce "functional foods" specifically designed to improve human health, well-being, and performance. However, it is often challenging to incorporate these nutraceuticals into foods because they have poor solubility characteristics, impart undesirable flavor profiles, are chemically unstable, or have low bioavailability. This problem can often be overcome by encapsulating the bioactive components in nanoparticle-based delivery systems...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
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