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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102520/us-fda-perspective-on-elbasvir-grazoprevir-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#1
Sarita D Boyd, LaRee Tracy, Takashi E Komatsu, Patrick R Harrington, Prabha Viswanathan, Jeff Murray, Adam Sherwat
Elbasvir/grazoprevir demonstrated high sustained virologic response rates 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) across five clinical trials in subjects infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, including those with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and GT4. Despite favorable results overall, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) encountered challenging regulatory issues due to the limitations of clinical trial data in certain subpopulations. In GT1a-infected subjects, baseline NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms emerged as the strongest baseline characteristic associated with diminished SVR12 rates following 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir treatment...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102329/leads-in-arctic-pack-ice-enable-early-phytoplankton-blooms-below-snow-covered-sea-ice
#2
Philipp Assmy, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Pedro Duarte, Amelie Meyer, Achim Randelhoff, Christopher J Mundy, Lasse M Olsen, Hanna M Kauko, Allison Bailey, Melissa Chierici, Lana Cohen, Anthony P Doulgeris, Jens K Ehn, Agneta Fransson, Sebastian Gerland, Haakon Hop, Stephen R Hudson, Nick Hughes, Polona Itkin, Geir Johnsen, Jennifer A King, Boris P Koch, Zoe Koenig, Slawomir Kwasniewski, Samuel R Laney, Marcel Nicolaus, Alexey K Pavlov, Christopher M Polashenski, Christine Provost, Anja Rösel, Marthe Sandbu, Gunnar Spreen, Lars H Smedsrud, Arild Sundfjord, Torbjørn Taskjelle, Agnieszka Tatarek, Jozef Wiktor, Penelope M Wagner, Anette Wold, Harald Steen, Mats A Granskog
The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102120/intestinal-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#3
Theodore J Sanders, Ulf Yrlid, Kevin J Maloy
The intestine is the tissue of the body with the highest constitutive exposure to foreign antigen and is also a common entry portal for many local and systemic pathogens. Therefore, the local immune system has the unenviable task of balancing efficient responses to dangerous pathogens with tolerance toward beneficial microbiota and food antigens. As in most tissues, the decision between tolerance and immunity is critically governed by the activity of local myeloid cells. However, the unique challenges posed by the intestinal environment have necessitated the development of several specialized mononuclear phagocyte populations with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics that have vital roles in maintaining barrier function and immune homeostasis in the intestine...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101699/humanity-at-the-edge-the-moral-laboratory-of-feeding-precarious-lives
#4
Mette N Svendsen, Iben M Gjødsbøl, Mie S Dam, Laura E Navne
At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care...
January 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100508/challenges-in-accurately-modeling-the-complexity-of-human-ingestive-behavior-the-influence-of-portion-size-and-energy-density-of-food-on-fmri-food-cue-reactivity
#5
Martin Binks, Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100257/food-specific-sublingual-immunotherapy-is-well-tolerated-and-safe-in-healthy-dogs-a-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#6
E Maina, M Pelst, M Hesta, E Cox
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs...
January 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100014/mg-2-improves-the-thermotolerance-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-lactobacillus-casei-zhang-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-p-8
#7
Yi Yang, Song Huang, Juan Wang, Gwénaël Jan, Romain Jeantet, Xiao Dong Chen
Food related carbohydrates and proteins are often used as thermoprotectant for probiotic lactobacilli during industrial production and processing. However, the effect of inorganic salts is rarely reported. Magnesium is the second-most abundant cation in bacteria, and commonly found in various foods. Mg(2+) homeostasis is important in Salmonella and has been reported to play a critical role in their thermotolerance. However, Mg(2+) role in thermotolerance of other bacteria, in particular probiotic bacteria, still remains a hypothesis...
January 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098800/characterization-of-the-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-of-brain-tissue-in-sevenband-grouper-hyporthodus-septemfasciatus-in-response-to-nnv-infection
#8
Jong-Oh Kim, Jae-Ok Kim, Wi-Sik Kim, Myung-Joo Oh
Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system...
January 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#9
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095599/minerals-in-the-foods-and-diet-of-diademed-sifakas-are-they-nutritional-challenges
#10
Mitchell T Irwin, Jean-Luc Raharison, Colin A Chapman, Randall E Junge, Jessica M Rothman
: Minerals, though needed in small quantities, are essential to metabolic processes, and deficiencies can seriously threaten health, reproduction and survival. Despite this, few studies have measured mineral composition of wild primate foods and fewer have quantified mineral intake. Here we measured the concentration of nine minerals in 75 foods of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema; five groups) in habitats with varying levels of disturbance at Tsinjoarivo and estimated daily intakes using focal-animal feeding data and intake rates over one year...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094121/mealtime-behavior-among-parents-and-their-young-children-with-food-allergy
#11
Linda Jones Herbert, Priya Mehta, Hemant Sharma
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. Balancing allergen avoidance with the promotion of healthy eating behaviors can be challenging for families. OBJECTIVE: To characterize mealtime behaviors among parents of young children with food allergy. METHODS: Seventy-four parents of young children with food allergies (≤7 years of age) completed measures of mealtime behavior, perceptions of food allergy risk and severity, pediatric parenting stress, and food allergy-related quality of life...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092510/unobtrusive-and-wearable-systems-for-automatic-dietary-monitoring
#12
Temiloluwa Prioleau, Elliot Moore, Maysam Ghovanloo
The threat of obesity, diabetes, anorexia and bulimia in our society today has motivated extensive research on dietary monitoring. Standard self-report methods such as 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaires are expensive, burdensome and unrealiable to handle the growing health crisis. Long-term activity monitoring in daily living is a promising approach to provide individuals with quantitative feedback that can encourage healthier habits. Although several studies have attempted automating dietary monitoring using wearable, hand-held, smartobject, and environmental systems, it remains an open research problem...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#13
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091970/comparison-of-two-adsorbent-based-de-bittering-procedures-for-neem-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-tea-effect-on-polyphenols-anti-oxidant-capacity-color-and-volatile-profile
#14
Abhinandya Datta, Ingolf U Grün, Misha T Kwasniewski, Lakdas N Fernando
Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable...
January 14, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091741/chemical-physical-and-biological-factors-shape-littoral-invertebrate-community-structure-in-coal-mining-end-pit-lakes
#15
Andreas Luek, Joseph B Rasmussen
Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091362/epicutaneous-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-peanut-allergy-in-children-and-young-adults
#16
Stacie M Jones, Scott H Sicherer, A Wesley Burks, Donald Y M Leung, Robert W Lindblad, Peter Dawson, Alice K Henning, M Cecilia Berin, David Chiang, Brian P Vickery, Robbie D Pesek, Christine B Cho, Wendy F Davidson, Marshall Plaut, Hugh A Sampson, Robert A Wood
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is common, life-threatening, and without therapeutic options. We evaluated peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) by using Viaskin Peanut for peanut allergy treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the clinical, safety, and immunologic effects of EPIT for the treatment of peanut allergy. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 74 participants with peanut allergy (ages 4-25 years) were treated with placebo (n = 25), Viaskin Peanut 100 μg (VP100; n = 24) or Viaskin Peanut 250 μg (VP250; n = 25; DBV Technologies, Montrouge, France)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091346/the-role-of-metabolomics-in-determination-of-new-dietary-biomarkers
#17
A O'Gorman, L Brennan
Traditional methods for the assessment of dietary intake are prone to error; in order to improve and enhance these methods increasing interest in the identification of dietary biomarkers has materialised. Metabolomics has emerged as a key tool in the area of dietary biomarker discovery and to date the use of metabolomics has identified a number of putative biomarkers. Applications to identify novel biomarkers of intake have in general taken three approaches: (1) specific acute intervention studies to identify specific biomarkers of intake; (2) searching for biomarkers in cohort studies by correlating to self-reported intake of a specific food/food group(s); (3) analysing dietary patterns in conjunction with metabolomic profiles to identify biomarkers and nutritypes...
January 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090706/western-blot-analysis-of-sera-from-dogs-with-suspected-food-allergy
#18
Claude Favrot, Monika Linek, Jacques Fontaine, Luc Beco, Ana Rostaher, Nina Fischer, Nicolas Couturier, Sandrine Jacquenet, Bernard E Bihain
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is often suspected in dogs with clinical signs of atopic dermatitis. This diagnosis is confirmed with an elimination diet and a subsequent challenge with regular food. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of food allergy in dogs are unreliable and/or technically difficult. Cyno-DIAL(®) is a Western blot method that might assist with the selection of an appropriate elimination diet. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of Cyno-DIAL(®) for the selection of an elimination diet and diagnosis of food allergy...
January 16, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089709/objective-assessment-of-dietary-patterns-by-use-of-metabolic-phenotyping-a-randomised-controlled-crossover-trial
#19
Isabel Garcia-Perez, Joram M Posma, Rachel Gibson, Edward S Chambers, Tue H Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Manfred Beckmann, Oluf Pedersen, Paul Elliott, Jeremiah Stamler, Jeremy K Nicholson, John Draper, John C Mathers, Elaine Holmes, Gary Frost
BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20-35 kg/m(2)) from a database of a clinical research unit in the UK...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088010/challenges-and-opportunities-for-improving-food-quality-and-nutrition-through-plant-biotechnology
#20
REVIEW
David Francis, John J Finer, Erich Grotewold
Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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