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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922230/consensus-statement-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-among-infants-and-children-in-turkey
#1
Aydan Kansu, Aysel Yüce, Buket Dalgıç, Bülent Enis Şekerel, Fügen Çullu-Çokuğraş, Haluk Çokuğraş
The present paper aims to provide experts' consensus on diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) among infants and children in Turkey, based on review of available evidence-based guidelines, publications and experts' clinical experience. The experts agreed that CMPA diagnosis should be based on symptomatic evaluation and diagnostic elimination diet as followed by implementation of an open challenge test after disappearance of symptoms and confirmation of CMPA diagnosis in re-appearance of symptoms...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920757/advances-and-challenges-in-viability-detection-of-foodborne-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Dexin Zeng, Zi Chen, Yuan Jiang, Feng Xue, Baoguang Li
Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918604/real-time-naked-eye-multiplex-detection-of-toxins-and-bacteria-using-aiegens-with-the-assistance-of-graphene-oxide
#4
Ruoyu Zhang, Xiaolei Cai, Guangxue Feng, Bin Liu
Toxins and bacteria in water or food pose a threat to human life and could potentially be exploited for bioterrorism. Real-time naked-eye detection of these contaminants is highly desirable to provide a direct and simple analytical method and address the challenges of the existing strategies. Using the detection of ricin and B. subtilis as an example, a naked-eye multiplex detection model is established. In this work, a green fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics was encapsulated in silica nanoshells...
December 5, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918432/recent-advances-and-future-challenges-in-modified-mycotoxin-analysis-why-hrms-has-become-a-key-instrument-in-food-contaminant-research
#5
REVIEW
Laura Righetti, Giuseppe Paglia, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917971/pastoralism-in-europe-characteristics-and-challenges-of-highland-lowland-transhumance
#6
K Liechti, J-P Biber
Transhumant pastoralism remains a prevalent form of land use across Europe, especially in mountain areas. Besides generating food and other products, it provides a range of public goods and services that are often highly valued by broader society. But transhumance faces structural challenges associated with life in remote mountain areas, including economic pressures, lack of services, low prestige, and ageing populations. These threaten its future. The decline of transhumant systems leads to ecological, economic, and socio-cultural losses, e...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#7
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917941/comparative-phylogenomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-tcp-gene-functions-in-sorghum
#8
Aleena Francis, Namrata Dhaka, Mohit Bakshi, Ki-Hong Jung, Manoj K Sharma, Rita Sharma
Sorghum is a highly efficient C4 crop with potential to mitigate challenges associated with food, feed and fuel. TCP proteins are of particular interest for crop improvement programs due to their well-demonstrated roles in crop domestication and shaping plant architecture thereby, affecting agronomic traits. We identified 20 TCP genes from Sorghum. Except SbTCP8, all are either intronless or contain introns in the untranslated regions. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of Arabidopsis, rice, Brachypodium and Sorghum TCP proteins revealed two distinct classes categorized into ten sub-clades...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916643/homeostatic-effects-of-exercise-and-sleep-on-metabolic-processes-in-mice-with-an-overexpressed-skeletal-muscle-clock
#9
Allison J Brager, Lydia Heemstra, Raman Bhambra, J Christopher Ehlen, Karyn A Esser, Ketema N Paul, Colleen M Novak
Brain and muscle-ARNT-like factor (Bmal1/BMAL1) is an essential transcriptional/translational factor of circadian clocks. Loss of function of Bmal1/BMAL1 is highly disruptive to physiological and behavioral processes. In light of these previous findings, we examined if transgenic overexpression of Bmal1/BMAL1 in skeletal muscle could alter metabolic processes. First, we characterized in vivo and ex vivo metabolic phenotypes of muscle overexpressed mice (male and female) compared to wild-type littermates (WT)...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#10
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915260/could-the-transition-movement-help-solve-the-nhs-s-problems
#11
James N Smith, Rob Hopkins, David Pencheon
BACKGROUND: The NHS Five Year Forward View identifies a range of approaches for addressing the NHS's challenges. The Transition movement helps communities to reframe and rebuild their world by working on issues such as climate change, food, community relationships and localizing the economy. METHODS: This paper describes Transition using five short example projects and, informed by these, identifies mechanisms by which Transition could potentially help reduce pressure on the NHS...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914317/the-disgust-related-images-dirti-database-validation-of-a-novel-standardized-set-of-disgust-pictures
#12
Anke Haberkamp, Julia Anna Glombiewski, Filipp Schmidt, Antonia Barke
Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene)...
November 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914210/randomized-controlled-trial-of-oral-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy-in-japanese-patients
#13
Masayuki Akashi, Hiroki Yasudo, Masami Narita, Ichiro Nomura, Akira Akasawa, Motohiro Ebisawa, Takao Takahashi, Yukihiro Ohya
BACKGROUND: Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in young child. While oral immunotherapy (OIT) is not routinely recommended in current guidelines, it has been considered as a potential alternative treatment strategy. Studies on OIT for food allergies have been explored; however, no studies with control group have been reported in Japan. METHODS: The first oral food challenge test (OFC) was performed on participants before treatment to ensure the diagnosis and evaluate the threshold dose for egg by the way of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC)...
December 3, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#14
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913518/treatment-options-for-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes-after-hypomethylating-agent-failure
#15
Hetty E Carraway
The treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) has hinged primarily on supportive care (ie, blood transfusions, colony stimulating agents, iron chelation, etc.) and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved agents, including 5-azacytidine, deoxyazacytidine, and lenalidomide. For patients no longer benefitting from these agents, there is a paucity of effective therapies. The challenges at this time include our limited understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to these therapies and the variables employed to select next best therapies for patients based on: (1) their performance status and medical comorbidities; (2) the molecular feature(s) of their MDS; (3) the prior treatments they have received; and (4) the long-term goal(s)/possibilities for their future treatment (ie, transplant vs no transplant)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909544/reducing-the-risk-of-stroke-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants-is-one-of-these-not-like-the-others
#16
REVIEW
Paul P Dobesh Pharm D, John Fanikos Mba R Ph
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and increases risk of stroke by nearly 5-fold. While warfarin has been employed successfully to reduce the risk of stroke in these patients, there are a number of challenges with therapy. These include the need for therapeutic monitoring due to variability in patient response, frequent dose adjustments, numerous drug-drug, drug-food, and drug-disease interactions, and a heightened risk of thrombosis and bleeding due to these issues. Current guidelines recommend that the vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) should be used for thromboprophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular AF at risk for stroke or systemic embolic events...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909257/implementing-multisector-nutrition-programs-in-ethiopia-and-nepal-challenges-and-opportunities-from-a-stakeholder-perspective
#17
Eileen Kennedy, Habtamu Fekadu, Shibani Ghosh, Kedar Baral, Dale Davis, Diplav Sapkota, Patrick Webb
Effective governance is essential for effective nutrition program implementation. There are additional challenges in launching multisector plans to enhance nutritional status. The present study compares the challenges and opportunities in Ethiopia and Nepal in designing and implementing a multisector plan for nutrition. A semi-quantitative questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to solicit information from senior national-level policy officials and other key stakeholders. The nature of the major nutrition problems in each country was similar; these include malnutrition (particularly stunting), food insecurity, and micronutrient malnutrition...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#19
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905874/are-sexually-selected-traits-affected-by-a-poor-environment-early-in-life
#20
Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
BACKGROUND: Challenging conditions experienced early in life, such as a restricted diet, can detrimentally affect key life-history traits. Individuals can reduce these costs by delaying their sexual maturation, albeit at the price of the later onset of breeding, to eventually reach the same adult size as individuals that grow up in a benevolent environment. Delayed maturation can, however, still lead to other detrimental morphological and physiological changes that become apparent later in adulthood (e...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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