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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820748/disclosure-of-diagnosis-in-early-recognition-of-psychosis
#1
Andreas Blessing, Anna Studer, Amelie Gross, L Forest Gruss, Roland Schneider, Gerhard Dammann
There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#2
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817766/characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-negative-academic-events-a-27-year-serial-prevalence-study-of-9-7-million-japanese-college-students
#3
Chiyoko Uchida, Mai Uchida
Objective: To examine the prevalence of and the factors contributing to leaves of absence and school discontinuation in Japanese college students over a 27-year period. Trends in these academic events over time were assessed, and students at elevated risk and psychosocial difficulties in need of supportive intervention were identified. Methods: Surveys were collected from the majority of Japanese national universities between 1985 and 2012, yielding data on a total of 9...
August 10, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816158/a-multi-institutional-prospective-observational-study-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-patients-with-multiple-brain-metastases-jlgk0901-study-update-irradiation-related-complications-and-long-term-maintenance-of-mini-mental-state-examination-scores
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano, Hidefumi Aoyama
PURPOSE: The JLGK0901 study showed the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as initial treatment of 5 to 10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with 2 to 4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints (Lancet Oncol 2014;15:387-95). However, observation periods were not long enough to allow confirmation of the long-term safety of SRS alone in patients with 5 to 10 BMs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a prospective observational study of Gamma Knife SRS-treated patients with 1 to 10 newly diagnosed BMs enrolled at 23 facilities between March 1, 2009, and February 15, 2012...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815415/type-2-diabetes-with-comorbid-depression-in-relation-to-cognitive-impairment-an-opportunity-for-prevention
#5
David A Zhang, Vicky Lam, Vanessa Chu, Ming Li
Studies show poor glycemic control is associated with increased risk of dementia among patients with Type 2 diabetes, indicating potential for prevention of dementia with improved glycemia. Emerging evidence suggests that a relationship between short-term glycemic control and cognitive function exists in Type 2 diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms relating diabetic dementia are lacking, as other concurrent conditions, such as depression, may also increase the risk of dementia in Type 2 diabetes. We examined the effects of glycemic control and depression on cognitive function in 88 patients (mean age, 67 ± 4 years) whose A1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) levels, comorbid depression, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were recorded at baseline...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#6
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807434/nutritional-strategies-in-the-management-of-alzheimer-disease-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis
#7
Shirley Steffany Muñoz Fernández, Terry Ivanauskas, Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major cause of dependency and disability in the elderly. Numerous studies have sought to achieve its prevention and/or management examining a role for modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition. This work aims to investigate the effects of food and/or nutrients in the management of AD at different stages. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for clinical trials examining the effect of nutrient intervention in individuals with AD, compared with placebo, published up to 2014...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806101/homeless-women-s-service-use-barriers-and-motivation-for-participating-in-substance-use-treatment
#8
Carole C Upshur, Darlene Jenkins, Linda Weinreb, Lillian Gelberg, Elizabeth Aaker Orvek
BACKGROUND: Homeless women are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD), and are a growing proportion of the homeless population. However, homeless women experience barriers to engaging in substance use services. OBJECTIVES: Among homeless women with SUD, to explore service use, motivation to change, service barriers, and willingness to have substance use and mental health problems addressed in primary health care. METHODS: Women with SUD were sampled from 11 Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) primary care clinics in 9 states, yielding 241 with either an alcohol or drug use disorder who then completed questions about SUD services...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805765/-systemic-inflammatory-markers-in-age-associated-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
T P Kliushnik, L V Androsova, N M Mikhaylova, I V Kolykhalov, S A Zozulya, A M Dupin
AIM: To determine a complex of immune markers reflecting various links of multicomponent inflammatory reactions in amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in comparison with Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with aMCI, aged 72 [63; 77] years, and 91 patients with Alzheimer's disease at the age of 74 [68; 79] years were examined. The aMCI was diagnosed according to the criteria of R.S. Petersen et al. (1999) and B. Dubois et al...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804482/risk-factors-for-intensive-care-unit-admission-in-patients-with-autoimmune-encephalitis
#10
Gayane Harutyunyan, Larissa Hauer, Martin W Dünser, Tobias Moser, Slaven Pikija, Markus Leitinger, Helmut F Novak, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Eugen Trinka, Johann Sellner
BACKGROUND: Prevention and early recognition of critical illness in patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is essential to achieve better outcome. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and its prognostic impact in patients with AE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A reclassification of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016 revealed 17 "definite" and 15 "probable" AE cases. Thirteen patients (41%) developed critical illness and required ICU admission...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803357/determinants-of-functional-outcome-in-hip-fracture-the-role-of-comorbidity
#11
Bernardo Gialanella, Paola Prometti, Vittoria Monguzzi, Cristina Ferlucci, Paola Baiardi, Laura Comini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Executed studies did not clearly identify which index of comorbidity was an independent outcome determinant. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to address this issue. METHODS: We analyzed 200 consecutive patients with hip fracture. All patients underwent rehabilitation. At admission comorbidity was assessed through the cumulative severity, severity index, and comorbidity index of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Discharge scores and effectiveness in the Functional Independence Measure motor subscale, and discharge destination were the outcome measures...
August 12, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795914/domestic-violence-and-mental-health-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-women-seeking-help-from-domestic-violence-support-services
#12
Giulia Ferrari, Roxane Agnew-Davies, Jayne Bailey, Louise Howard, Emma Howarth, Tim J Peters, Lynnmarie Sardinha, Gene Solomon Feder
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators...
December 2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792566/-psychological-benefits-of-physical-activity-for-optimal-mental-health
#13
Emmanuel Poirel
Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792562/-a-typology-of-mental-health-comorbidity-in-workplaces-results-from-the-salveo-study
#14
Véronique Dansereau, Nancy Beauregard, Alain Marchand, Pierre Durand
Objectives The aim of this study consists in describing the nature of mental health comorbidity among workers. Precisely, we seek to examine the presence of concomitant associations between burnout (cynicism, emotional exhaustion, professionnal inefficacy) and psychoactive substance use (heavy episodic drinking, above low-risk drinking guidelines, and psychotropic drug use).Methods The SALVEO study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 1966 workers from the province of Québec, Canada. Latent class analyses were performed in order to identify typical patterns corresponding to distinct forms of mental health comorbidity in the data...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779867/neurological-complications-of-childhood-cancer
#15
Lauren Weaver, Ayman Samkari
Though the treatment of pediatric cancers has come a long way, acute and chronic effects of cancer are still affecting the life of many children. These effects may be caused not only by the malignancy itself but also by the interventions used for the purpose of treatment. This article focuses primarily on the indirect effects of pediatric cancers and their treatment on the central and peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplantation cause an immune-compromised state and place the patient at risk of infection, the leading cause of mortality in pediatric cancer...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776906/association-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-with-immediate-memory-and-other-cognitive-functions
#16
Lumine Matsumoto, Kazushi Suzuki, Yoshiko Mizuno, Yumiko Ohike, Atsuko Ozeki, Satoshi Ono, Mikio Takanashi, Daigo Sawaki, Toru Suzuki, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
AIM: To clarify whether carotid atherosclerosis and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline. METHODS: We evaluated 206 individuals who visited our center for health screening. We carried out physical examinations, blood tests, intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement by carotid ultrasonography, brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive function assessments. A total of 30 individuals, who had significant cerebrovascular lesions detected in magnetic resonance imaging scans, were excluded...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775055/in-vivo-imaging-of-venous-side-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-older-adults-an-mri-method-at-7t
#17
C E Shaaban, H J Aizenstein, D R Jorgensen, R L MacCloud, N A Meckes, K I Erickson, N W Glynn, J Mettenburg, J Guralnik, A B Newman, T S Ibrahim, P J Laurienti, A N Vallejo, C Rosano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traditional neuroimaging markers of small-vessel disease focus on late-stage changes. We aimed to adapt a method of venular assessment at 7T for use in older adults. We hypothesized that poorer venular morphologic characteristics would be related to other small-vessel disease neuroimaging markers and a higher prevalence of small-vessel disease-Alzheimer disease risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Venules were identified in periventricular ROIs on SWI and defined as tortuous or straight...
August 3, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768599/pre-onset-risk-characteristics-for-mania-among-young-people-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#18
Aswin Ratheesh, Susan M Cotton, Christopher G Davey, Ashleigh Lin, Stephen Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Andreas Bechdolf, Patrick D McGorry, Alison Yung, Michael Berk, Barnaby Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Psychosis and mania share conceptual, genetic and clinical features, which suggest the possibility that they have common antecedents. Participants identified to be at-risk for psychosis might also be at-risk for mania. We aimed to identify the rate and predictors of transition to mania in a cohort of youth with clinical or familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: Among a cohort of 416 young people with an at-risk mental state for psychosis defined using the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) criteria, 74...
May 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766317/chronic-childhood-trauma-mental-health-academic-achievement-and-school-based-health-center-mental-health-services
#19
Satu Larson, Susan Chapman, Joanne Spetz, Claire D Brindis
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. METHODS: Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764796/anticholinergic-drugs-and-functional-cognitive-impairment-and-behavioral-disturbances-in-patients-from-a-memory-clinic-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-or-neurocognitive-disorders
#20
Virginie Dauphinot, Christelle Mouchoux, Sébastien Veillard, Floriane Delphin-Combe, Pierre Krolak-Salmon
BACKGROUND: Drugs with anticholinergic properties may be associated with various adverse clinical effects. The relationship between the anticholinergic (AC) burden and functional, global cognitive performance and behavior disturbances was assessed among elderly patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2012 and June 2014 in a memory clinic among outpatients living at home and with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or neurocognitive disorders (NCD)...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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