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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240733/use-of-tai-fish-to-visualize-neural-ensembles-activated-by-multiple-stimuli
#1
Qi Zhang, Qiye He, Jihua Wang, Chaoying Fu, Hailan Hu
Researchers in behavioral neuroscience have long sought imaging techniques that can identify and distinguish neural ensembles that are activated by sequentially applied stimuli at single-cell resolution across the whole brain. Taking advantage of the different kinetics of immediate-early genes' mRNA and protein expression, we addressed this problem by developing tyramide-amplified immunohistochemistry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TAI-FISH), a dual-epoch neural-activity-dependent labeling protocol. Here we describe the step-by-step procedures for TAI-FISH on brain sections from mice that were sequentially stimulated by morphine (appetitive first stimulus) and foot shock (aversive second stimulus)...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239785/cytokines-dysregulation-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-psychoneuroimmune-relationship
#2
REVIEW
Daniela Rodrigues-Amorim, Tania Rivera-Baltanás, Carlos Spuch, Hector J Caruncho, África González-Fernandez, Jose M Olivares, Roberto C Agís-Balboa
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disease with complex interactions among the brain and the immune system. A psycho-immune relationship underling schizophrenia is supported by several studies and integrates a specific area of knowledge - psychoneuroimmunology. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by 2009 Preferred Reporting Items (PRISMA) recommendations. Based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria, publications with relevant information (evaluated by the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisals tools to quality assessment) were included...
November 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#3
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237550/the-effects-of-dna-methylation-on-human-psychology
#4
REVIEW
Farzeen Kader, Meenu Ghai, Leah Maharaj
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification in the human genome; pivotal in development, genomic imprinting, X inactivation, chromosome stability, gene expression and methylation aberrations are involved in an array of human diseases. Methylation at promoters is associated with transcriptional repression, whereas gene body methylation is generally associated with gene expression. Extrinsic factors such as age, diets and lifestyle affect DNA methylation which consequently alters gene expression...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232014/mutations-of-the-glycine-cleavage-system-genes-possibly-affect-the-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-through-metabolomic-profile-changes
#5
Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Aya Inai, Yosuke Eriguchi, Masaki Nishioka, Atsuhiko Takaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Yoshiya Kawamura, Tadashi Umekage, Kayoko Kato, Tsukasa Sasaki, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Kazuya Iwamoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Chihiro Kakiuchi
AIM: Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, the glycine cleavage system (GCS) was shown to affect NMDAR function in the brain. GCS functional defects cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), the atypical phenotype of which presents psychiatric symptoms similar to SCZ. Here, we examined the involvement of GCS in SCZ. METHODS: First, to identify the rare variants and the exonic deletions, we re-sequenced all the coding exons and the splice sites of four GCS genes (GLDC, AMT, GCSH, DLD) in 474 patients with SCZ and 475 controls and performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in SCZ...
December 12, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230810/trauma-exposure-interacts-with-the-genetic-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-in-alcohol-misuse-of-us-soldiers
#6
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, M B Stein, J Gelernter
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether trauma exposure moderates the genetic correlation between substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders, we tested whether trauma exposure modifies the association of genetic risks for mental disorders with alcohol misuse and nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms. METHODS: High-resolution polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 10 732 US Army soldiers (8346 trauma-exposed and 2386 trauma-unexposed) based on genome-wide association studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia...
December 11, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228394/the-psychiatric-risk-gene-transcription-factor-4-tcf4-regulates-neurodevelopmental-pathways-associated-with-schizophrenia-autism-and-intellectual-disability
#7
Marc P Forrest, Matthew J Hill, David H Kavanagh, Katherine E Tansey, Adrian J Waite, Derek J Blake
Background: Common genetic variants in and around the gene encoding transcription factor 4 (TCF4) are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Conversely, rare damaging TCF4 mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and have also been found in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing were used to identify the genomic targets of TCF4. These data were integrated with expression, epigenetic and disease gene sets using a range of computational tools...
December 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227573/post-gwas-in-psychiatric-genetics-a-developmental-perspective-on-the-other-next-steps
#8
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter B Barr, Seung Bin Cho, Megan E Cooke, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Tenesha J Lewis, Zoe Neale, Jessica E Salvatore, Jeanne Savage, Jinni Su
As psychiatric genetics enters an era where gene identification is finally yielding robust, replicable genetic associations and polygenic risk scores, it is important to consider next steps and delineate how that knowledge will be applied to ultimately ameliorate suffering associated with substance use and psychiatric disorders. Much of the post-GWAS discussion has focused on the potential of genetic information to elucidate the underlying biology and use this information for the development of more effective pharmaceutical treatments...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227296/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-and-its-variants-examining-the-behavioral-and-neurocognitive-phenotype
#9
James C Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) is a metabolic disorder involving mutations in the HGPRT1 gene that result in hyperuricemia, intellectual disability, a dystonic movement disorder, and compulsive self-injury with self-mutilation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research that documents the extended behavioral, neurologic, and neurocognitive phenotype in classic LNS, to describe milder variants of HGprt deficiency that do not self-injure and have less severe neurological and cognitive deficits, and to provide an update on treatment for associated psychiatric and behavioral disorders...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225336/psychiatric-polygenic-risk-associates-with-cortical-morphology-and-functional-organization-in-aging
#11
Annie Lee, Mojun Shen, Anqi Qiu
Common brain abnormalities in cortical morphology and functional organization are observed in psychiatric disorders and aging, reflecting shared genetic influences. This preliminary study aimed to examine the contribution of a polygenetic risk for psychiatric disorders (PRScross) to aging brain and to identify molecular mechanisms through the use of multimodal brain images, genotypes, and transcriptome data. We showed age-related cortical thinning in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and superior temporal gyrus and alterations in the functional connectivity between bilateral IFC and between right IFC and right inferior parietal lobe as a function of PRScross...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222686/eeg-source-imaging-indices-of-cognitive-control-show-associations-with-dopamine-system-genes
#12
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221470/potential-diagnostic-markers-of-olanzapine-efficiency-for-acute-psychosis-a-focus-on-peripheral-biogenic-amines
#13
A E Taraskina, R F Nasyrova, A M Zabotina, D N Sosin, К А Sosina, E E Ershov, M N Grunina, E M Krupitsky
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are now widely used in many fields of medicine, and the identification of biomarkers that predict antipsychotic efficacy and adverse reactions is a growing area of psychiatric research. Monoamine molecules of the peripheral bloodstream are possible prospective biomarkers based on a growing body of evidence indicating that they may reflect specific changes in neurotransmitters in the brain. The aim of this study was to detect peripheral biogenic amine indicators of patients with acute psychosis and to test the correlations between the biological measures studied and the psychopathological status of the patients...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220439/text-mining-and-expert-curation-to-develop-a-database-on-psychiatric-diseases-and-their-genes
#14
Alba Gutiérrez-Sacristán, Àlex Bravo, Marta Portero-Tresserra, Olga Valverde, Antonio Armario, M C Blanco-Gandía, Adriana Farré, Lierni Fernández-Ibarrondo, Francina Fonseca, Jesús Giraldo, Angela Leis, Anna Mané, M A Mayer, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Roser Nadal, Jordi Ortiz, Francisco Javier Pavon, Ezequiel Jesús Perez, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Antonia Serrano, Marta Torrens, Vincent Warnault, Ferran Sanz, Laura I Furlong
Database URL: http://www.psygenet.org. PsyGeNET corpus: http://www.psygenet.org/ds/PsyGeNET/results/psygenetCorpus.tar.
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217682/overexpression-of-the-histone-dimethyltransferase-g9a-in-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-cocaine-self-administration-stress-induced-reinstatement-and-anxiety
#15
Ethan M Anderson, Erin B Larson, Daniel Guzman, Anne Marie Wissman, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, David W Self
Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase, G9a, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward since overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Thus, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215920/effects-of-genetic-variants-of-st8sia2-and-ncam1-genes-on-seasonal-mood-changes-and-circadian-preference-in-the-general-population
#16
So Yung Yang, Ji Hyun Baek, Youngah Cho, Eun-Young Cho, Yujin Choi, Yongkang Kim, Taesung Park, Kyung Sue Hong
ST8SIA2 and NCAM1 are functionally related genes forming polysialic acid (PSA) - neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) complex in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the regulating site of circadian biological rhythm. In this study, the relationship of ST8SIA2 and NCAM1 with circadian and seasonal rhythms of human behavior was explored. Subjects were 261 healthy Korean adults who were free of any history of clinically significant psychiatric symptoms. The phenotypes were circadian preference and seasonal change of mood and behavior (seasonality) measured by the Composite Scale of Morningness and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#17
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208534/loss-of-cdkl5-disrupts-respiratory-function-in-mice
#18
Kun-Ze Lee, Wenlin Liao
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is an X-linked gene encoding a serine-threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in CDKL5 cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including early-onset seizures, motor dysfunction, autistic features and sleep breathing abnormalities in patients. It remains to be addressed whether loss of CDKL5 causes respiratory dysfunction in mice. Here, we examined the respiratory pattern of male Cdkl5-/y mice at 1-3 months of age during resting breathing and respiratory challenge (i...
December 2, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205420/ca2-dependent-hyperpolarization-pathways-in-sleep-homeostasis-and-mental-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Shoi Shi, Hiroki R Ueda
Although we are beginning to understand the neuronal and biochemical nature of sleep regulation, questions remain about how sleep is homeostatically regulated. Beyond its importance in basic physiology, understanding sleep may also shed light on psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent genetic studies in mammals revealed several non-secretory proteins that determine sleep duration. Interestingly, genes identified in these studies are closely related to psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, suggesting that the sleep-wake cycle shares some common mechanisms with these disorders...
December 4, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203717/hsp90-and-fkbp51-complex-regulators-of-psychiatric-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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