keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

psychiatric genes

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457888/potential-therapeutic-applications-for-inhibitors-of-autotaxin-a-bioactive-lipid-producing-lysophospholipase-d-in-disorders-affecting-the-nervous-system
#2
Deron R Herr, Jolin Hwee-Jing Ong, Wei-Yi Ong
Autotaxin is a dual-function ecto-enzyme, encoded by the gene ENPP2, which is the primary source of the bioactive signaling lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Aberrations in autotaxin/lysophosphatidic acid signaling have been associated with a number of neurological, psychiatric, neoplastic, and neurodevelopmental conditions, such as pain, pruritus, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, hydrocephalus, and schizophrenia. This Viewpoint offers a brief overview of the likely indications for therapeutic targeting of autotaxin, in disorders affecting the nervous system...
February 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457676/subthalamic-nucleus-pathology-contributes-to-repetitive-behavior-expression-and-is-reversed-by-environmental-enrichment
#3
Mark H Lewis, Zsuzsa Buchwald, Kathryn Boswell, Gabriella Edington, Michael A King, Amber M Muehlmann
Repetitive motor behaviors are common in neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. Despite their prevalence in certain clinical populations, our understanding of the neurobiological cause of repetitive behavior is lacking. Likewise, not knowing the pathophysiology has precluded efforts to find effective drug treatments. Our comparisons between mouse strains that differ in their expression of repetitive behavior revealed an important role of the subthalamic nucleus. In mice with high rates of repetitive behavior, we found significant differences in dendritic spine density, gene expression, and neuronal activation in the subthalamic nucleus...
February 19, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#4
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451210/intravenous-morphine-self-administration-alters-accumbal-microrna-profiles-in-the-mouse-brain
#6
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441485/clinical-spectrum-of-c9orf72-expansion-in-a-cohort-of-huntington-s-disease-phenocopies
#8
Joana Martins, Joana Damásio, Alexandre Mendes, Nuno Vila-Chã, José E Alves, Cristina Ramos, Sara Cavaco, João Silva, Isabel Alonso, Marina Magalhães
The expansion in the C9orf72 gene has been recently reported as a genetic cause of Huntington's disease (HD) phenocopies. We aim to assess the frequency of the C9orf72 gene expansion in a Portuguese HD phenocopies cohort. Twenty HD phenotype-like patients without diagnosis were identified in our institutional database. C9orf72 gene expansion was detected using repeat-primed PCR. Clinical files were reviewed to characterize the phenotype of expansion-positive cases. One patient (5%) was positive for the C9orf72 expansion...
February 13, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439242/shared-molecular-neuropathology-across-major-psychiatric-disorders-parallels-polygenic-overlap
#9
Michael J Gandal, Jillian R Haney, Neelroop N Parikshak, Virpi Leppa, Gokul Ramaswami, Chris Hartl, Andrew J Schork, Vivek Appadurai, Alfonso Buil, Thomas M Werge, Chunyu Liu, Kevin P White, Steve Horvath, Daniel H Geschwind
The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435814/alterations-in-gene-and-protein-expression-of-cannabinoid-cb-2-and-gpr55-receptors-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-suicide-victims
#10
María S García-Gutiérrez, Francisco Navarrete, Gemma Navarro, Irene Reyes-Resina, Rafael Franco, Jose Luis Lanciego, Salvador Giner, Jorge Manzanares
Recent studies point to the cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 r) and the non-cannabinoid receptor GPR55 as potential key targets involved in the response to stress, anxiety, and depression. Considering the close relationship between neuropsychiatric disorders and suicide, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential alterations of CB 2 r and GPR55 in suicide victims. We analyzed gene and protein expression of both receptors by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 18 suicide victims with no clinical psychiatric history or treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants, and 15 corresponding controls...
February 12, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434535/altered-expression-profile-of-iglon-family-of-neural-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenic-patients
#11
Karina Karis, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Maria Kaare, Karin Täht, Jana Tuusov, Tanel Visnapuu, Jürgen Innos, Mohan Jayaram, Tõnis Timmusk, Cynthia S Weickert, Marika Väli, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433608/brain-stem-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-maternal-uniparental-disomy-and-deletion-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
Rajeev Krishnadas, Sally-Ann Cooper, Alice Nicol, Sally Pimlott, Sarita Soni, Anthony J Holland, Laura McArthur, Jonathan Cavanagh
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare condition because of the deletion of paternal chromosomal material (del PWS), or a maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD PWS), at 15q11-13. Affective psychosis is more prevalent in mUPD PWS. We investigated the relationship between the two PWS genetic variants and brain-stem serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in adult humans. Mean brain-stem 5-HTT availability determined by [123I]-beta-CIT single photon emission tomography was lower in eight adults with mUPD PWS compared with nine adults with del PWS (mean difference -0...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433075/glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-methylation-moderates-the-association-of-childhood-trauma-and-cortisol-stress-reactivity
#13
Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Matthis Wankerl, Benjamin J Stauch, Tobias Stalder, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Markus Muehlhan, Robert Miller
Exposure to childhood trauma (CT) has been linked to sustained dysregulations of major stress response systems, including findings of both exaggerated and attenuated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Likewise, CT constitutes a common risk factor for a broad range of psychiatric conditions that involve distinct neuroendocrine profiles. In this study, we investigated the role of epigenetic variability in a stress-related gene as a potential mediator or moderator of such differential trajectories in CT survivors...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432681/pharming-for-genes-in-neurotransmission-combining-chemical-and-genetic-approaches-in-c-elegans
#14
Stephen M Blazie, Yishi Jin
Synaptic transmission is central to nervous system function. Chemical and genetic screens are valuable approaches to probe synaptic mechanisms in living animals. The nematode C. elegans is a prime system to apply these methods to discover genes and dissect the cellular pathways underlying neurotransmission. Here, we review key approaches to understand neurotransmission and the action of psychiatric drugs in C. elegans, starting with early studies on cholinergic excitatory signaling at the neuromuscular junction and moving into mechanisms mediated by biogenic amine and psychiatric drugs...
February 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431277/mecp2-at-hook1-mutations-in-patients-with-intellectual-disability-and-or-schizophrenia-disrupt-dna-binding-and-chromatin-compaction-in-vitro
#15
Taimoor I Sheikh, Ricardo Harripaul, Muhammad Ayub, John B Vincent
Mutations in the Methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 gene (MECP2) are commonly associated with Rett syndrome. However, it has long been appreciated that there exists a spectrum of neuropsychiatric phenotypes associated with MECP2 variants. The most frequent Rett missense mutations are located in either the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) or transcription repression domain (TRD). Clinical roles for mutations in other domains such as the intervening domain (ID) or AT-Hook domains have yet to be determined. Here, we report functional analysis of MECP2 missense mutations, located in AT-Hook1 within the ID, in a large Pakistani family with childhood onset cognitive decline and schizophrenia, de novo in a girl with atypical Rett syndrome, and de novo in a woman with schizophrenia...
February 12, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427096/clinical-features-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
Rhia Ghosh, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington's disease (HD) is the most common monogenic neurodegenerative disease and the commonest genetic dementia in the developed world. With autosomal dominant inheritance, typically mid-life onset, and unrelenting progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms over 15-20 years, its impact on patients and their families is devastating. The causative genetic mutation is an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the gene encoding the Huntingtin protein, which leads to a prolonged polyglutamine stretch at the N-terminus of the protein...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427067/individual-biological-sensitivity-to-environmental-influences-testing-the-differential-susceptibility-properties-of-the-5httlpr-polymorphism-in-relation-to-depressive-symptoms-and-delinquency-in-two-adolescent-general-samples
#17
Cecilia Åslund, Kent W Nilsson
The gene-environment interaction research field in psychiatry has traditionally been dominated by the diathesis-stress framework, where certain genotypes are assumed to confer increased risk for adverse outcomes in a stressful environment. In later years, theories of differential susceptibility, or biological sensitivity, suggest that candidate genes that interact with environmental events do not exclusively confer a risk for behavioural or psychiatric disorders but rather seem to alter the sensitivity to both positive and negative environmental influences...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417943/inhibition-of-the-g9a-glp-histone-methyltransferase-complex-modulates-anxiety-related-behavior-in-mice
#18
Dong-Yao Wang, Joel Kosowan, James Samsom, Laura Leung, Kai-Lai Zhang, Ying-Xiang Li, Yan Xiong, Jian Jin, Arturas Petronis, Gabriel Oh, Albert H C Wong
Epigenetic gene-regulation abnormalities have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression, as well as in the regulation of mood and anxiety. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the actions of psychiatric drugs. Current anxiolytic drugs have significant shortcomings, and development of new medications is warranted. Two proteins, G9a (also known as EHMT2 or KMT1C) and GLP (G9a-like protein, also known as EHMT1 or KMT1D), which methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9), could be promising anxiolytic targets...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416937/spinocerebellar-ataxia-27-a-review-and-characterization-of-an-evolving-phenotype
#19
REVIEW
Christopher L Groth, Brian D Berman
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is an uncommon form of progressive cerebellar ataxia with multiple genetic causes and marked variability in phenotypic expression even across patients with identical genetic abnormalities. SCA27 is a recently identified SCA caused by mutations in the Fibroblast Growth Factor 14 gene, with a phenotypic expression that is only beginning to be fully appreciated. We report here a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with slowly worsening tremor and gait instability that began in his early adulthood along with additional features of parkinsonism on examination...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416845/ehmt1-mosaicism-in-apparently-unaffected-parents-is-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#20
Anneke de Boer, Karlijn Vermeulen, Jos I M Egger, Joost G E Janzing, Nicole de Leeuw, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Nicolette S den Hollander, Hans van Bokhoven, Wouter Staal, Tjitske Kleefstra
Background: Genetic mosaicism is only detected occasionally when there are no obvious health or developmental issues. Most cases concern healthy parents in whom mosaicism is identified upon targeted testing of a genetic defect that was initially detected in their children. A germline genetic defect affecting the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene causes Kleefstra syndrome, which is associated with the typical triad of distinct facial appearance, (childhood) hypotonia, and intellectual disability...
2018: Molecular Autism
keyword
keyword
76981
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"