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Roberta Diaz Brinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Malcolm J Low
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Andrea Miccoli, Ike Olivotto, Andrea De Felice, Iole Leonori, Oliana Carnevali
The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the Clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. In the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. At present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis at its highest levels was herein investigated...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging...
September 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Kalina Christoff
Investigation of the neural basis of self-generated thought is moving beyond a simple identification with default network activation toward a more comprehensive view recognizing the role of the frontoparietal control network and other areas. A major task ahead is to unravel the functional roles and temporal dynamics of the widely distributed brain regions recruited during self-generated thought. We argue that various other neuroscientific methods - including lesion studies, human intracranial electrophysiology, and manipulation of neurochemistry - have much to contribute to this project...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Leonardo Vieira, Cesar L Boguszewski, Luiz Antônio de Araújo, Marcello D Bronstein, Paulo Augusto C Miranda, Nina R de C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Lucio Vilar, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira, Mônica R Gadelha
Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary tumors after prolactinomas. The absence of clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion can contribute to the late diagnosis of the disease. Thus, the majority of patients seek medical attention for signs and symptoms resulting from mass effect, such as neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and hypopituitarism. Other presentations include pituitary apoplexy or an incidental finding on imaging studies. Mass effect and hypopituitarism impose high morbidity and mortality...
August 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Iro Fragkaki, Kathleen Thomaes, Marit Sijbrandij
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Rebecca M Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Kirsten Hötting, Nadine Schickert, Jochen Kaiser, Brigitte Röder, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Vimal Selvaraj, Lan N Tu
The mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), has received significant attention both as a diagnostic biomarker and as a therapeutic target for different neuronal disease pathologies. Recently, its functional basis believed to be mediating mitochondrial cholesterol import for steroid hormone production has been refuted by studies examining both in vivo and in vitro genetic Tspo-deficient models. As a result, there now exists a fundamental gap in the understanding of TSPO function in the nervous system, and its putative pharmacology in neurosteroid production...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Krishna G Seshadri
Romantic love could be considered as a collection of activities associated with the acquisition and retention of emotions needed to survive and reproduce. These emotions change the individual's behavioural strategies in a way that will increase the likelihood of achieving these goals. Love may be defined as an emergent property of an ancient cocktail of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. It appears that lust, attachment and attraction appear to be distinct but intertwined processes in the brain each mediated by its own neurotransmitters and circuits...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Márcio Carlos Machado, Maria Candida Barisson Vilares Fragoso, Ayrton Custódio Moreira, César Luiz Boguszewski, Leonardo Vieira, Luciana A Naves, Lucio Vilar, Luiz Antônio de Araújo, Mauro A Czepielewski, Monica R Gadelha, Nina Rosa Castro Musolino, Paulo Augusto C Miranda, Marcello Delano Bronstein, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira
Although it is a rare condition, the accurate diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's disease is important due to its higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population, which is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and infections. Screening for hypercortisolism is recommended for patients who present multiple and progressive clinical signs and symptoms, especially those who are considered to be more specific to Cushing's syndrome, abnormal findings relative to age (e.g., spinal osteoporosis and high blood pressure in young patients), weight gain associated with reduced growth rate in the pediatric population and for those with adrenal incidentalomas...
June 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Theoharis C Theoharides, Julia M Stewart, Alexandra Taracanova, Pio Conti, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is considered the mirror of the soul and is affected by neurohormonal triggers, especially stress. Hair follicles, keratinocytes, mast cells, melanocytes, and sebocytes all express sex and stress hormones implicating them in a local "hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis." In particular, the peptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurotensin (NT) have synergistic action stimulating mast cells and are uniquely elevated in the serum of patients with skin diseases exacerbated by stress. Addressing the neurohormonal regulation of skin function could lead to new targets for effective treatment of inflammatory skin diseases...
June 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Vu Van In, Nikoleta Ntalamagka, Wayne O'Connor, Tianfang Wang, Daniel Powell, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur
The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction...
August 2016: Peptides
Diana Moura, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga
Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common postnatal psychiatric disorder, and it represents a considerable problem to the health and well-being of women and their families. Several pathogenic mechanisms have been identified in PPD, and recently, oxytocin (OT), known to be involved in childbirth and lactation, has drawn attention as a possible diagnostic and therapeutic tool in this disorder. The aim of this review was to assess and summarize the current literature on the relationship between OT as a potential depressive biomarker and depression in the perinatal period...
August 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
J M Koolhaas, C G Van Reenen
This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Johan Ruud, Jens C Brüning
Cutting-edge experiments show a new means to control the activity of specifically genetically targeted neurons in the hypothalamus using electromagnetic force. At the flip of a switch, the system bidirectionally regulates feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis, demonstrating wireless control over deep brain regions and their strong influence over energy balance.
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Xin-Jiang Lu, Hao Zhang, Guan-Jun Yang, Ming-Yun Li, Jiong Chen
Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) fish, which are an amphidromous species distributed in East Asia, live in brackish water (BW) during their larval stage and in fresh water (FW) during their adult stage. In this study, we found that FW-acclimated ayu larvae exhibited a slower growth ratio compared with that of BW-acclimated larvae. However, the mechanism underlying FW acclimation on growth suppression is poorly known. We employed transcriptome analysis to investigate the differential gene expression of FW acclimation by RNA sequencing...
May 18, 2016: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
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