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Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074555/pediatric-stress-from-neuroendocrinology-to-contemporary-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Stavroula Stavrou, Nicolas C Nicolaides, Elena Critselis, Christina Darviri, Evangelia Charmandari, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called "stressors", activates a highly conserved system, the "stress system", which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059155/neuroendocrinology-in-2016-neuroendocrine-control-of-metabolism-and-reproduction
#3
Manuel Tena-Sempere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#4
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002818/safety-outcomes-and-near-adult-height-gain-of-growth-hormone-treated-children-with-shox-deficiency-data-from-an-observational-study-and-a-clinical-trial
#5
Imane Benabbad, Myriam Rosilio, Christopher J Child, Jean-Claude Carel, Judith L Ross, Cheri L Deal, Stenvert L S Drop, Alan G Zimmermann, Nan Jia, Charmian A Quigley, Werner F Blum
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess auxological and safety data for growth hormone (GH)-treated children with SHOX deficiency. METHODS: Data were examined for GH-treated SHOX-deficient children (n = 521) from the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study (GeNeSIS). For patients with near-adult height information, GeNeSIS results (n = 90) were compared with a clinical trial (n = 28) of SHOX-deficient patients. Near-adult height was expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for chronological age, potentially increasing the observed effect of treatment...
December 22, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924858/transcriptomic-characterization-and-curation-of-candidate-neuropeptides-regulating-reproduction-in-the-eyestalk-ganglia-of-the-australian-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#6
Tuan Viet Nguyen, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur, Tomer Ventura
The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) has recently received attention as an emerging candidate for sustainable aquaculture production in Australia and worldwide. More importantly, C. quadricarinatus serves as a good model organism for the commercially important group of decapod crustaceans as it is distributed worldwide, easy to maintain in the laboratory and its reproductive cycle has been well documented. In order to better understand the key reproduction and development regulating mechanisms in decapod crustaceans, the molecular toolkit available for model organisms such as C...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900416/-intensive-care-treatment-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
U Jaschinski
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease and nearly one third of patients die in the acute phase. Due to the bleeding event, a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and an uncontrolled inflammatory response have a profound local and systemic impact on other organ functions. Neuroendocrinological disorders and cardiopulmonary morbidity are dominant. Despite a decrease in hospital mortality for high volume centers, a high proportion of survivors suffer from neurological deficits. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of vasospasms in the later stages of the disease has increased...
December 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873108/flushing-in-neuro-endocrinology
#8
REVIEW
Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis, Christian A Koch
Cutaneous flushing is a common presenting complaint in endocrine disorders. The pathophysiology of flushing involves changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple intrinsic factors that are either related to physiology or disease. Flushing can be divided into episodic or persistent causes. Episodic flushing is mediated by the release of endogenous vasoactive mediators or medications, while persistent flushing results in a fixed facial erythema with telangiectasia and cyanosis due to slow-flowing deoxygenated blood in large cutaneous blood vessels...
September 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#10
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677967/neuroendocrinology-oestrogen-therapy-affects-brain-structure-but-not-function
#11
Roberta Diaz Brinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658726/neuroendocrinology-new-hormone-treatment-for-obesity-caused-by-pomc-deficiency
#12
Malcolm J Low
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651520/characterization-and-transcriptional-profiles-of-engraulis-encrasicolus-gnrh-forms
#13
Andrea Miccoli, Ike Olivotto, Andrea De Felice, Iole Leonori, Oliana Carnevali
The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the Clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. In the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. At present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis at its highest levels was herein investigated...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623124/-olfaction-in-depressive-disorders-issues-and-perspectives
#14
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603741/a-neurobiological-model-of-borderline-personality-disorder-systematic-and-integrative-review
#15
Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging...
September 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544408/the-neurobiology-of-self-generated-thought-from-cells-to-systems-integrating-evidence-from-lesion-studies-human-intracranial-electrophysiology-neurochemistry-and-neuroendocrinology
#16
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Kalina Christoff
Investigation of the neural basis of self-generated thought is moving beyond a simple identification with default network activation toward a more comprehensive view recognizing the role of the frontoparietal control network and other areas. A major task ahead is to unravel the functional roles and temporal dynamics of the widely distributed brain regions recruited during self-generated thought. We argue that various other neuroscientific methods - including lesion studies, human intracranial electrophysiology, and manipulation of neurochemistry - have much to contribute to this project...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533614/a-review-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-clinically-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenoma-by-the-neuroendocrinology-department-of-the-brazilian-society-of-endocrinology-and-metabolism
#17
Leonardo Vieira, Cesar L Boguszewski, Luiz Antônio de Araújo, Marcello D Bronstein, Paulo Augusto C Miranda, Nina R de C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Lucio Vilar, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira, Mônica R Gadelha
Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary tumors after prolactinomas. The absence of clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion can contribute to the late diagnosis of the disease. Thus, the majority of patients seek medical attention for signs and symptoms resulting from mass effect, such as neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and hypopituitarism. Other presentations include pituitary apoplexy or an incidental finding on imaging studies. Mass effect and hypopituitarism impose high morbidity and mortality...
August 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511448/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-under-ongoing-threat-a-review-of-neurobiological-and-neuroendocrine-findings
#18
REVIEW
Iro Fragkaki, Kathleen Thomaes, Marit Sijbrandij
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454021/ispne-special-issue-editorial-2016-stress-and-the-brain-from-fertility-to-senility
#19
EDITORIAL
Rebecca M Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437149/the-effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-on-memory-peripheral-bdnf-and-cortisol-in-young-adults
#20
Kirsten Hötting, Nadine Schickert, Jochen Kaiser, Brigitte Röder, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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