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Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Melanie Li, Swetlana Sirko
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Eri Matsubara, Shuichi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Wood is a valuable material for interiors, and the psychophysiological relaxation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood chips and essential oils have been reported. However, few studies have identified the odors in full-scale wooden environment, and also, differences in gender have not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effects of VOCs emitted from interior wood walls in both human male and female participants. METHODS: We used Japanese cedar timber and analyzed VOCs in the experimental rooms with and without Japanese cedar timber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Matthias K Auer, Mareike R Stieg, Alexander Crispin, Caroline Sievers, Günter K Stalla, Anna Kopczak
BACKGROUND: Empty sella is the neuroradiological or pathological finding of an apparently empty sella turcica containing no pituitary tissue. The prevalence of primary empty sella, i.e., empty sella without any discernible cause, is not precisely known; estimates range from 2% to 20%. Technical advances in neuroradiology have made empty sella an increasingly common incidental finding. It remains unclear whether, and to what extent, asymptomatic adult patients with an incidentally discovered empty sella should undergo diagnostic testing for hormonal disturbances...
February 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
L J Zallar, B J Tunstall, C T Richie, Y J Zhang, Z B You, E L Gardner, M Heilig, J Pickel, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, B K Harvey, L Leggio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone implicated in numerous behaviors including feeding, reward, stress, and addictive behaviors, acts by binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Here, we present the development, verification, and initial characterization of a novel GHSR knockout (KO) Wistar rat model created with CRISPR genome editing. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed a GHSR KO in a Wistar background. Loss of GHSR mRNA expression was histologically verified using RNAscope in wild-type (WT; n = 2) and KO (n = 2) rats...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
E R de Kloet, O C Meijer, A F de Nicola, R H de Rijk, M Joëls
Bruce McEwen's discovery of receptors for corticosterone in the rat hippocampus introduced higher brain circuits in the neuroendocrinology of stress. Subsequently, these receptors were identified as mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) that are involved in appraisal processes, choice of coping style, encoding and retrieval. The MR-mediated actions on cognition are complemented by slower actions via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on contextualization, rationalization and memory storage of the experience. These sequential phases in cognitive performance depend on synaptic metaplasticity that is regulated by coordinate MR- and GR activation...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Francis J P Ebling, Jo E Lewis
Studies from a number of areas of neuroendocrinology indicate that hypothalamic tanycytes play a key role in control of energy metabolism. First, profound annual changes in gene expression have been identified in these unusual glial cells in seasonal mammals, for example in genes relating to the transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus. The consequent changes in local thyroid hormone availability in the hypothalamus have been shown experimentally to regulate annual cycles in energy intake, storage and expenditure in seasonal species...
February 7, 2018: Glia
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Hsin-Wei Kuo, Chin-Chuan Chang, Kuan-Fu Liu, Winton Cheng
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is a precursor for dopamine (DA) synthesis. Assessments were conducted to analyze the effects of l-DOPA on mediating regulation of neuroendocrinological, immunological, and physiological parameters in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when they were individually injected with 0.01 N HCl or l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp-1 for 60, 120, and 240 min. For catecholamine synthesis evaluation, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA beta hydroxylase (DBH) activities, l-DOPA, DA, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in hemolymph were determined...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Olivia Le Moëne, Anders Ågmo
Sexual attraction has two components: Emission of sexually attractive stimuli and responsiveness to these stimuli. In rodents, olfactory stimuli are necessary but not sufficient for attraction. We argue that body odors are far superior to odors from excreta (urine, feces) as sexual attractants. Body odors are produced by sebaceous glands all over the body surface and in specialized glands. In primates, visual stimuli, for example the sexual skin, are more important than olfactory. The role of gonadal hormones for the production of and responsiveness to odorants is well established...
December 26, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Lavinia Maria Hogea, Laura Alexandra Nussbaum, Daniela Veronica Chiriac, LuminiŢa Ştefania Ageu, Nicoleta Ioana Andreescu, Mirela Loredana Grigoraş, Roxana Folescu, Ana Cristina Bredicean, Maria Puiu, Elena Cecilia Ildikó Roşca, Mihaela Adriana Simu, Codrina Mihaela Levai
We approach the theme of modern treatment strategies, based on clinico-biological, pharmacogenetic, neuroimagistic, neuroendocrinological and psychological integrative correlations in the management of depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders. We target to evaluate the efficacy of the pharmacogenetic testing and the evolution, functioning of patients in correlation with specific neurobiological, neuroimagistic and neuroendocrinological markers. Our research was conducted between 2010-2016 on 80 children and adolescents with depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders - 40 children (G1 group), who benefited in choosing the pharmacotherapy from pharmacogenetic testing and 40 children without testing (G2 group)...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Xuetao Yang, Jianxin Jiang
During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Roger Guillemin
The new Pan-American Neuroendocrine Society already has an official journal, which of course is the Journal of Neuroendocrinology (JNE). This journal has been the primary presenter of the remarkable expansion of this field since 1989 - documenting its long history and ongoing development. The word Neuro-Endocrinologie, with the hyphen, first appeared in French in 1946 as the title of the enormous (1086 pages) book by Roussy and Mosinger (1). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Anika Hoffmann, Sarah Adelmann, Kristin Lohle, Alexander Claviez, Hermann L Müller
Prolactinoma is a rare pituitary adenoma secreting prolactin. Studies on diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis in pediatric prolactinoma patients are rare. We analyzed clinical presentation, response to treatment, and prognosis of 27 pediatric prolactinoma patients (10 m/17 f. based on patients' records. Tumors included 6 microadenomas (tumor volume: median 0.2 cm3 , range 0.01-0.4 cm3 ; serum prolactin at diagnosis: median 101 ng/ml, range 33-177 ng/ml), 15 macroadenomas (volume: median 3.3 cm3 , range 0...
January 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Iro Fragkaki, Maaike Cima, Isabela Granic
Although numerous studies have examined the neuroendocrinology of aggression, the findings are mixed and focused on cortisol and testosterone. We argue that past findings remain inconclusive partly because the key roles of oxytocin and trauma have not been systematically integrated yet. Oxytocin is associated with social behavior and interacts with cortisol and testosterone, whereas trauma is a crucial risk factor of aggression that strongly affects hormonal activity. In this review, we investigate the role of trauma in the hormonal interplay of cortisol, testosterone, and oxytocin in aggression during adolescence...
November 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Víctor D Ramirez
It seems appropriate in this Special Issue of Journal of Neuroendocrinology, which marks the new Pan American Neuroendocrine Society (PANS), to recognize the first group of international scientists who were linked by their common purpose to promote neuroendocrinology throughout the world. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Yuanyuan He, Wen Sun, Jian Yu
The up-regulation and down-regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in central precocious puberty is not yet known. However, recent advances in neuroendocrinology have shown the controlling role of arginine-phenylalanine RF-amide-related peptides (RFRPs) on GnRH secretion in different phenomenon of reproduction such as estrus cycle and pregnancy, but the exact role of RFRPs in puberty and its related pathologic condition, precocious puberty, is not clear yet. This paper hypothesizes that RFRP is a regulatory peptide of puberty and might prevent the precocious puberty...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress that perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, and it does so somewhat differently in males and females. The expression of steroid hormone receptors throughout the brain has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the entire brain and body via hormonal and neural pathways. Mediated in part via systemic hormonal influences, the adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover...
November 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Susumu Yokoya, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Keiichi Ozono, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Susumu Kanzaki, Toshiaki Tanaka, Kazuo Chihara, Nan Jia, Christopher J Child, Katsuichiro Ihara, Jumpei Funai, Noriyuki Iwamoto, Yoshiki Seino
The primary goal of the Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study (GeNeSIS) was to assess the safety and effectiveness of Humatrope(®), a GH preparation, in the treatment of pediatric patients with short stature. We report our findings in the GH-treated Japanese pediatric population focusing on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and occurrence of neoplasms. A total of 2,345 Japanese patients were assessed for safety. During a mean observation period of 3.2 yr, T2D occurred in 3 patients (0...
2017: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
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