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Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933061/neuroendocrinology-of-adipose-tissue-and-gut-brain-axis
#1
Paulo Matafome, Hans Eickhoff, Liliana Letra, Raquel Seiça
Food intake and energy expenditure are closely regulated by several mechanisms which involve peripheral organs and nervous system, in order to maintain energy homeostasis.Short-term and long-term signals express the size and composition of ingested nutrients and the amount of body fat, respectively. Ingested nutrients trigger mechanical forces and gastrointestinal peptide secretion which provide signals to the brain through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Pancreatic hormones also play a role in energy balance exerting a short-acting control regulating the start, end, and composition of a meal...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837830/between-litter-variation-in-developmental-studies-of-hormones-and-behavior-inflated-false-positives-and-diminished-power
#2
REVIEW
Donald R Williams, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Rickard Carlsson
Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates-rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures-natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress-entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
August 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#3
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776585/neuroendocrinology-central-insulin-regulates-eating-behaviour
#4
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759937/prevalence-clinical-features-and-natural-history-of-incidental-clinically-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas
#5
Pedro Iglesias, Karina Arcano, Vanessa Triviño, Paula García-Sancho, Juan José Díez, Carles Villabona, Fernando Cordido
The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of incidentally discovered clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (CNFPA) and to analyze its natural history. A multicenter retrospective study in patients diagnosed with incidental CNFPA periodically followed-up in 3 specialized neuroendocrinology units from 1992 to 2015 was performed. Out of a total of 189 CNFPA patients, 57 cases (30.1%; 29 women; age at diagnosis 55.8±16.7 years) were incidental. Most patients (n=55, 96...
July 31, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752847/neuroendocrinology-integrated-stress-response-linked-to-tbi
#6
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734903/the-olfactory-bulbectomized-rat-model-is-not-an-appropriate-model-for-studying-depression-based-on-morphological-stereological-studies-of-the-hippocampus
#7
Canan Yurttas, Christoph Schmitz, Mehmet Turgut, Tatyana Strekalova, Harry W M Steinbusch
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as an animal model for major depression that results in behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological changes were reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants, including fluoxetine. However, both etiological and construct validities are lacking in OBX for rats. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes in the hippocampi of rats undergoing OBX that were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 4 and 12 weeks) using stereological techniques...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575299/mortality-in-children-receiving-growth-hormone-treatment-of-growth-disorders-data-from-the-genetics-and-neuroendocrinology-of-short-stature-international-study
#8
Charmian A Quigley, Christopher J Child, Alan G Zimmermann, Ron G Rosenfeld, Leslie L Robison, Werner F Blum
Context: Although pediatric growth hormone (GH) treatment is generally considered safe for approved indications, concerns have been raised regarding potential for increased risk of mortality in adults treated with GH during childhood. Objective: To assess mortality in children receiving GH. Design: Prospective, multinational, observational study. Setting: Eight hundred twenty-seven study sites in 30 countries. Patients: Children with growth disorders...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#9
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
June 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#10
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
July 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445617/a-new-society-for-the-new-world
#11
EDITORIAL
Mike Lehman
While national and regional neuroendocrine societies have existed for some time in Europe and Asia, the Americas have not had a regional society devoted to neuroendocrinology since the "American Neuroendocrine Society" which was active in the 1990s and 2000s. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#12
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389053/non-functioning-pituitary-adenoma-underwent-surgery-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-over-the-last-four-decades-1977-2015
#13
Pedro Iglesias, Karina Arcano, Vanessa Triviño, Paula García-Sancho, Juan José Díez, Fernando Cordido, Carles Villabona
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical features, diagnostic procedures, therapies and outcomes in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) surgically treated over the last four decades. DESIGN AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study in NFPA patients periodically followed up in specialized neuroendocrinology units who underwent surgery in the period 1977-2015 was performed. RESULTS: A total of 131 patients were studied [66 women (50...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377689/editorial-chemicals-in-the-environment-and-brain-development-importance-of-neuroendocrinological-approaches
#14
EDITORIAL
Fumihiko Maekawa, Kazuaki Nakamura, Shoji F Nakayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274736/zebrafish-an-emerging-model-system-to-explore-thyroid-hormone-transporters
#15
David Zada, Einat Blitz, Lior Appelbaum
Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate a variety of fundamental physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of the brain. For decades, it was thought that THs enter the cells by passive diffusion. However, it is now clear that TH transport across the cell membrane requires specific transporter proteins that facilitate the uptake and efflux of THs. Several thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTTs) have been identified, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), MCT10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1)...
March 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265842/jean-camus-and-gustave-roussy-pioneering-french-researchers-on-the-endocrine-functions-of-the-hypothalamus
#16
Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Ruth Prieto, José M Pascual
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the hypothalamus was known merely as an anatomical region of the brain lying beneath the thalamus. An increasing number of clinicopathological reports had shown the association of diabetes insipidus and adiposogenital dystrophy (Babinski-Fröhlich's syndrome), with pituitary tumors involving the infundibulum and tuber cinereum, two structures of the basal hypothalamus. The French physicians Jean Camus (1872-1924) and Gustave Roussy (1874-1948) were the first authors to undertake systematic, controlled observations of the effects of localized injuries to the basal hypothalamus in dogs and cats by pricking the infundibulo-tuberal region (ITR) with a heated needle...
August 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259721/neuroendocrinology-and-brain-imaging-of-reward-in-eating-disorders-a-possible-key-to-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa
#17
REVIEW
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Giovanni Castellini, Umberto Volpe, Valdo Ricca, Lorenzo Lelli, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders whose etiopathogenesis is still unknown. Clinical features suggest that eating disorders may develop as reward-dependent syndromes, since eating less food is perceived as rewarding in anorexia nervosa while consumption of large amounts of food during binge episodes in bulimia nervosa aims at reducing the patient's negative emotional states. Therefore, brain reward mechanisms have been a major focus of research in the attempt to contribute to the comprehension of the pathophysiology of these disorders...
March 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257837/identification-and-distribution-of-products-from-novel-tryptopyrokinin-genes-in-the-locust-locusta-migratoria
#18
Jana Redeker, Marcel Bläser, Susanne Neupert, Reinhard Predel
A recent analysis of the genome of Locusta migratoria indicated the presence of four novel insect neuropeptide genes encoding for multiple tryptopyrokinin peptides (tryptoPKs); hitherto only known from pyrokinin or capa genes. In our study, mature products of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 were identified by mass spectrometry; precursor sequences assigned to the tryptoPK genes 3 and 4 are likely partial sequences of a single precursor. The expression of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 is restricted to two cells in the subesophageal ganglion, exhibiting not only a unique neuropeptidome but also a very distinctive axonal projection...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252507/neurobiology-of-comorbid-substance-use-disorders-and-psychiatric-disorders-current-state-of-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Rishab Gupta
BACKGROUND: "Dual disorder" or "dual diagnosis" refers to the co-occurrence of substance use disorder and psychiatric disorders. Prospective studies have shown that treatment outcomes, such as symptom levels, hospitalization rates, housing stability, and functional status, are worse among the patients with dual disorders as compared with those who have either of these disorders. OBJECTIVES: The current article is aimed at reviewing the current state of evidence on neurobiology of dual disorders...
January 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237271/evidence-based-treatments-for-low-sexual-desire-in-women
#20
REVIEW
Lori A Brotto
Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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