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psychiatric biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#1
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324704/bxd-recombinant-inbred-strains-participate-in-social-preference-anxiety-and-depression-behaviors-along-sex-differences-in-cytokines-and-tactile-allodynia
#2
Caridad López-Granero, Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferrer, Megan Culbreth, Sudipta Chakraborty, Angel Barrasa, Maria Gulinello, Aaron B Bowman, Michael Aschner
Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers...
March 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320179/multimodal-and-simultaneous-assessments-of-brain-and-spinal-fluid-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-the-effects-of-psychiatric-comorbidity
#3
Benjamin H Natelson, Xiangling Mao, Aaron J Stegner, Gudrun Lange, Diana Vu, Michelle Blate, Guoxin Kang, Eli Soto, Tolga Kapusuz, Dikoma C Shungu
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CFS patients without comorbid psychiatric diagnoses differ from CFS patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and healthy control subjects in neuropsychological performance, the proportion with elevated spinal fluid protein or white cell counts, cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain ventricular lactate and cortical glutathione (GSH). The results of the study did not show any differences in any of the outcome measures between CFS patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity, thus indicating that psychiatric status may not be an exacerbating factor in CFS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#4
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304335/the-relationship-between-fatty-acids-and-different-depression-related-brain-regions-and-their-potential-role-as-biomarkers-of-response-to-antidepressants
#5
REVIEW
Maria Fernanda Fernandes, David M Mutch, Francesco Leri
Depression is a complex disorder influenced by a variety of biological and environmental factors. Due to significant heterogeneity, there are remarkable differences in how patients respond to treatment. A primary objective of psychiatric research is to identify biological markers that could be used to better predict and enhance responses to antidepressant treatments. Diet impacts various aspects of health, including depression. The fatty acid composition of the Western diet, which has a high ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is associated with increased incidence of depression...
March 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290081/potential-use-of-microrna-for-monitoring-therapeutic-response-to-antidepressants
#6
Raoul Belzeaux, Rixing Lin, Gustavo Turecki
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious and common psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The most common treatment methods for MDD are antidepressant drugs, many of which act by regulating monoamines by inhibiting pre-synaptic reuptake and/or by modulating monoamine receptors. Despite advances in antidepressants and other treatment options, therapy is often based on subjective decisions made by the physician. Moreover, it requires time to determine treatment outcome and to define whether the prescribed treatment is effective...
March 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284170/defining-and-measuring-irritability-construct-clarification-and-differentiation
#7
REVIEW
Michael J Toohey, Raymond DiGiuseppe
Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283959/neuroinflammation-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Martin Schain, William Charles Kreisl
The potential for positron emission tomography (PET) to detect neuroinflammation in vivo has sparked a remarkable interest in various disciplines of neuroscience. Early PET radioligands, such as [(11)C]PK(R)-11195 for the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and [(11)C]L-deprenyl for monoamine oxidase B, have been used in studies designed to clarify the role of neuroinflammation in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Recent years have witnessed the development of several second-generation PET radioligands for TSPO and radioligands to measure endogenous targets that are active in various stages of the inflammatory cascade, such as cyclooxygenase and arachidonic acid...
March 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282077/-endophenotypes-in-psychiatry
#9
Salvador M Guinjoan
We review the concept of endophenotype, and its relationship with related terms in use in the scientific literature, including "biomarker" and "intermediate phenotype". We then explain the importance of the concept in current psychiatry research. Specifically, we focus in the potential importance of endophenotypes in both disentangling the genetic causes, and improving the dimensional and pathophysiologic definition, of psychiatric nosological categories. After delineating which types of variables could constitute valid endophenotypes, we describe efforts in defining neurobiological signatures of social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia as an example with potential heuristic value...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272307/blood-biomarkers-predict-the-cognitive-effects-of-aripiprazole-in-patients-with-acute-schizophrenia
#10
Hikaru Hori, Reiji Yoshimura, Asuka Katsuki, Kiyokazu Atake, Ryohei Igata, Yuki Konishi, Hiroki Beppu, Hirotaka Tominaga
Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites-homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)-, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260159/emerging-biomarkers-and-screening-for-cognitive-frailty
#11
REVIEW
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Madia Lozupone, Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Zhuowei Yu
Physical frailty and cognitive frailty are two important targets of secondary intervention in aging research to narrow the gap between life and health span. The objective of the present narrative review was to examine clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the recently proposed construct of cognitive frailty and its subtypes, with a focus on operational definitions, clinical criteria, and emerging biomarkers potentially useful for the screening of this novel entity. Both physical frailty and frailty indexes with a multidimensional nature were associated with late-life cognitive impairment/decline, incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, non-AD dementias, and AD pathology proposing cognitive frailty as a clinical entity with cognitive impairment related to physical causes with a potential reversibility...
March 4, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259862/-modeling-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-vitro-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-highlighting-findings-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-schizophrenia
#12
Edit Hathy, Sara Kalman, Agota Apati, Zsofia Nemoda, Janos M Rethelyi
Over the past decade we witnessed the birth of a new scientific area that lies at the borders of developmental biology, stem cell biology, basic and clinical neuroscience. In vitro disease modeling refers to the approach that exploits the capacity of stem cells for self-renewal and pluripotency by generating specific cell types that are relevant for a given disorder. Based on this method, neurological and psychiatric disorders can be investigated by differentiating stem cells into neurons in a dish, and studying the relevant neuronal populations affected in the pathophysiology of the disorder in terms of specific cellular phenotypes...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249076/a-consensus-statement-on-the-use-of-ketamine-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#13
Gerard Sanacora, Mark A Frye, William McDonald, Sanjay J Mathew, Mason S Turner, Alan F Schatzberg, Paul Summergrad, Charles B Nemeroff
Importance: Several studies now provide evidence of ketamine hydrochloride's ability to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects in patients with mood and anxiety disorders that were previously resistant to treatment. Despite the relatively small sample sizes, lack of longer-term data on efficacy, and limited data on safety provided by these studies, they have led to increased use of ketamine as an off-label treatment for mood and other psychiatric disorders. Observations: This review and consensus statement provides a general overview of the data on the use of ketamine for the treatment of mood disorders and highlights the limitations of the existing knowledge...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243102/from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-subjective-cognitive-decline-conceptual-and-methodological-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Wen Cheng, Ta-Fu Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Identification of subjects at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is fundamental for drug development and possible intervention or prevention of cognitive decline. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) evolved during the past two decades to define subjects at the transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies has shown that MCI is associated with an increased risk of positive AD biomarkers and an increased annual conversion rate of 5%-17% to AD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237884/effects-of-crack-cocaine-addiction-and-stress-related-genes-on-peripheral-bdnf-levels
#15
Diego L Rovaris, Jaqueline B Schuch, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Bruna S da Silva, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Diana Müller, Anderson R Stolf, Lisia von Diemen, Keila M M Ceresér, Thiago G Pianca, Claudia M Szobot, Felix H P Kessler, Tatiana Roman, Claiton H D Bau
This study examined the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes on susceptibility to crack cocaine addiction and BDNF levels. Crack addicted patients who sought treatment (n = 280) and non-addicted individuals (n = 241) were assessed. Three SNPs in NR3C1 (rs6198, rs41423247, and rs10052957), three in CRHR1 (rs12944712, rs110402, and rs878886), and one in BDNF (rs6265) were genotyped. No significant effect was seen in the case-control analyses...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236993/-what-role-for-paraclinical-investigations-within-clinical-trials-conducted-in-psychiatric-patients
#16
A Kaladjian, M Adida, N Simon, R Belzeaux, O Blin, E Fakra, J-M Azorin
As in the usual care of patients, paraclinical investigations have today only a very modest role in clinical trials in psychiatry, mainly to complete the pre-therapeutical assessments prior to inclusion of subjects or to monitor treatment tolerance. Yet, the accumulation of data in neurosciences suggests the next emergence of biomarkers, whose interest is that they are closely associated to the biological disturbances underlying psychiatric illnesses, and that they are accessible by means of technological tools such as imaging devices...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236988/-what-can-we-expect-from-clinical-trials-in-psychiatry
#17
A Marsot, Q Boucherie, F Kheloufi, C Riff, D Braunstein, J Dupouey, R Guilhaumou, X Zendjidjian, S Bonin-Guillaume, E Fakra, M Guye, V Jirsa, J-M Azorin, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J Micallef, O Blin
Clinical trials in psychiatry allow to build the regulatory dossiers for market authorization but also to document the mechanism of action of new drugs, to build pharmacodynamics models, evaluate the treatment effects, propose prognosis, efficacy or tolerability biomarkers and altogether to assess the impact of drugs for patient, caregiver and society. However, clinical trials have shown some limitations. Number of recent dossiers failed to convince the regulators. The clinical and biological heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the compounds, the lack of translatable biomarkers possibly explain these difficulties...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230254/resistance-to-valproic-acid-as-predictor-of-treatment-resistance-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#18
Joanna Gesche, Marina Khanevski, Carl Solberg, Christoph Patrick Beier
This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217089/differential-modulation-of-rhythmic-brain-activity-in-healthy-adults-by-a-t-type-calcium-channel-blocker-an-meg-study
#19
Kerry D Walton, Emeline L Maillet, John Garcia, Timothy Cardozo, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Rodolfo R Llinás
1-octanol is a therapeutic candidate for disorders involving the abnormal activation of the T-type calcium current since it blocks this current specifically. Such disorders include essential tremor and a group of neurological and psychiatric disorders resulting from thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). For example, clinically, the observable phenotype in essential tremor is the tremor itself. The differential diagnostic of TCD is not based only on clinical signs and symptoms. Rather, TCD incorporates an electromagnetic biomarker, the presence of abnormal thalamocortical low frequency brain oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216256/kleine-levin-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Olufunke Afolabi-Brown, Thornton B A Mason
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder characterized by discrete episodes of hypersomnia associated with cognitive and behavioural abnormalities, as well as normal alertness and function between episodes. The prevalence of KLS may be underestimated as it is often misdiagnosed and managed as another sleep disorder, neurological disorder or psychiatric condition. KLS is more typically seen in adolescence than at other ages, and is more common in males than in females. There are currently neither standard biomarkers nor specific imaging study findings, making the diagnosis of KLS a challenge...
December 23, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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