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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140804/exploration-of-predictive-biomarkers-for-sudden-unexplained-cardiac-death-in-nonelderly-people-a-case-control-study-with-biochemical-parameters-related-to-heart-failure
#1
Sakai Kentaro, Iwadate Kimiharu, Matsumoto Sari, Takasu Shojiro, Kanto Yuko
Sudden unexplained cardiac death (SUCD) can occasionally occur in nonelderly patients with epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, or no medical history. This study was conducted to aim to analyze whether values of the biomarkers for heart failure are associated with the SUCD. Serum concentrations of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor α were analyzed in 57 nonelderly patients with SUCD who was diagnosed at medicolegal autopsy. The subjects were divided into 3 subgroups according to the medical history: (1) epilepsy, (2) psychiatric disorders, and (3) no specific medical history...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133955/chemokines-in-depression-in-health-and-in-inflammatory-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
S P Leighton, L Nerurkar, R Krishnadas, C Johnman, G J Graham, J Cavanagh
Inflammatory illness is associated with depression. Preclinical work has shown that chemokines are linked with peripheral-central crosstalk and may be important in mediating depressive behaviours. We sought to establish what evidence exists that differences in blood or cerebrospinal fluid chemokine concentration discriminate between individuals with depression and those without. Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched Embase, PsycINFO and Medline databases. We included participants with physical illness for subgroup analysis, and excluded participants with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132028/dna-methylation-and-genetic-variation-of-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-in-depression
#3
Dilys Lam, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Karen Ritchie, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and in older persons is associated with high levels of comorbidity and under-treatment. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis is consistently observed in the older population as well as depressed patients, with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) a key regulator of the stress response. Epigenetic regulation of ACE may play an important role in HPA axis (dys)regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ACE promoter methylation as a biomarker of late-life depression, and its association with genetic variation and cortisol secretion...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119300/longitudinal-outcomes-of-children-with-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-pandas
#4
Jill Leon, Rebecca Hommer, Paul Grant, Cristan Farmer, Precilla D'Souza, Riley Kessler, Kyle Williams, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo
Little is known about the natural history of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). This study prospectively followed 33 children with PANDAS for up to 4.8 years (mean 3.3 ± 0.7 years) after enrollment in a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N = 35). Fourteen of eighteen children randomized to placebo received open label IVIG 6 weeks after the blinded infusion, so follow-up results reported below largely reflect outcomes in a population of children who received at least one dose of IVIG...
November 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112905/determinants-of-hair-cortisol-concentration-in-children-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
N A Gray, A Dhana, L Van Der Vyver, J Van Wyk, N P Khumalo, D J Stein
BACKGROUND: Several factors are known contribute to hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in adults. However, there is less research on determinants of HCC in children and adolescents. HCC is a valuable tool for medical research pertaining to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This review aims to assess the extent to which established determinants of HCC in adults have been consistently reported in children (birth - 18 years) and to identify determinants of HCC specific to this age group...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108028/decreased-plasma-concentrations-of-bdnf-and-igf-1-in-abstinent-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#6
Nuria García-Marchena, Daniel Silva-Peña, Ana Isabel Martín-Velasco, María Ángeles Villanúa, Pedro Araos, María Pedraz, Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Gabriel Rubio, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón
The identification of growth factors as potential biomarkers in alcohol addiction may help to understand underlying mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Previous studies have linked growth factors to neural plasticity in neurocognitive impairment and mental disorders. In order to further clarify the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on circulating growth factors, a cross-sectional study was performed in abstinent AUD patients (alcohol group, N = 91) and healthy control subjects (control group, N = 55) to examine plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105239/different-shades-of-default-mode-disturbance-in-schizophrenia-subnodal-covariance-estimation-in-structure-and-function
#7
Jérémy Lefort-Besnard, Danielle S Bassett, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel S Margulies, Birgit Derntl, Oliver Gruber, Andre Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Gaël Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with an apparent disruption in the highly associative default mode network (DMN). Interplay between this canonical network and others probably contributes to goal-directed behavior so its disturbance is a candidate neural fingerprint underlying schizophrenia psychopathology. Previous research has reported both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity within the DMN, and both increased and decreased DMN coupling with the multimodal saliency network (SN) and dorsal attention network (DAN)...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100553/translatability-score-revisited-differentiation-for-distinct-disease-areas
#8
REVIEW
Alexandra Wendler, Martin Wehling
BACKGROUND: Translational science supports successful transition of early biomedical research into human applications. In 2009 a translatability score to assess risk and identify strengths and weaknesses of a given project has been designed and successfully tested in case studies. The score elements, in particular the contributing weight factors, are heterogeneous for different disease areas; therefore, the score was individualized for six areas (cardiovascular, oncology, psychiatric, anti-viral, anti-bacterial/fungal and monogenetic diseases)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099546/the-diagnostic-challenge-of-the-late-onset-frontal-lobe-syndrome-clinical-predictors-for-primary-psychiatric-disorders-versus-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#9
Everard G B Vijverberg, Flora Gossink, Welmoed Krudop, Sietske Sikkes, Cora Kerssens, Niels Prins, Max Stek, Philip Scheltens, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemiek Dols
OBJECTIVE: Primary psychiatric disorders (PsD) can present with symptomatology identical to that of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). To date, clinical guidelines do not provide a solution for this diagnostic challenge. The aim of our study was to prospectively determine which demographic, clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are important in distinguishing PsD from bvFTD. METHODS: Patients with late-onset behavioral disturbances (aged 45-75 years, 73% male) were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory and followed for 2 years from April 2011 to June 2015...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094161/inflammatory-biomarkers-and-risk-of-schizophrenia-a-2-sample-mendelian-randomization-study
#10
Fernando Pires Hartwig, Maria Carolina Borges, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Jack Bowden, George Davey Smith
Importance: Positive associations between inflammatory biomarkers and risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, have been reported in observational studies. However, conventional observational studies are prone to bias, such as reverse causation and residual confounding, thus limiting our understanding of the effect (if any) of inflammatory biomarkers on schizophrenia risk. Objective: To evaluate whether inflammatory biomarkers have an effect on the risk of developing schizophrenia...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093763/maternal-eating-disorders-affect-offspring-cord-blood-dna-methylation-a-prospective-study
#11
Nabila Kazmi, Tom R Gaunt, Caroline Relton, Nadia Micali
Background: Eating disorders (ED) are chronic psychiatric disorders, common amongst women of reproductive age. ED in pregnancy are associated with poor nutrition and abnormal intrauterine growth. Increasing evidence also shows offspring of women with ED have adverse developmental and birth outcomes. We sought to carry out the first study investigating DNA methylation in offspring of women with ED. We compared cord blood DNA methylation in offspring of women with active ED (n = 21), past ED (n = 43) and age- and social class-matched controls (n = 126) as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080669/personality-biomarkers-of-pathological-gambling-a-machine-learning-study
#12
Antonio Cerasa, Danilo Lofaro, Paolo Cavedini, Iolanda Martino, Antonella Bruni, Alessia Sarica, Domenico Mauro, Giuseppe Merante, Ilaria Rossomanno, Maria Rizzuto, Antonio Palmacci, Benedetta Aquino, Pasquale De Fazio, Giampaolo R Perna, Elena Vanni, Giuseppe Olivadese, Domenico Conforti, Gennarina Arabia, Aldo Quattrone
BACKGROUND: The application of artificial intelligence to extract predictors of Gambling disorder (GD) is a new field of study. A plethora of studies have suggested that maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for GD. NEW METHOD: Here, we used Classification and Regression Trees algorithm to identify multivariate predictive patterns of personality profiles that could identify GD patients from healthy controls at an individual level. Forty psychiatric patients, recruited from specialized gambling clinics, without any additional comorbidity and 160 matched healthy controls completed the Five-Factor model of personality as measured by the NEO-PI-R, which were used to build the classification model...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077803/cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-features-of-early-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Sarah J Getz, Bonnie Levin
The clinical definition of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cardinal motor features including bradykinesia as well as an additional symptom of tremor, postural instability, or rigidity. Evidence from neuropathological, imaging, and clinical research suggests a premotor, early phase of PD pathology. Further understanding of the earliest biomarkers of PD is crucial for the development of neuroprotective, disease modifying, cognitive, and psychiatric interventions. Recent research has explored early non-motor markers of PD pathology...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076893/major-depression-and-its-treatment-micrornas-as-peripheral-biomarkers-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-response
#14
Juan P Lopez, Aron Kos, Gustavo Turecki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent and disabling medical conditions worldwide. Despite its considerable burden, our understanding of its pathophysiology remains rudimentary, and a validated biomarker has yet to be identified. Antidepressants are the most common treatment for MDD, yet roughly one-third of patients experience an inadequate response. Thus, there is a great need for not only identifying biomarkers of MDD but also those that can predict and monitor or just monitor response to treatment...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066239/neurophysiological-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-young-adults-a-quantitative-eeg-study
#15
Poh Foong Lee, Donica Pei Xin Kan, Paul Croarkin, Cheng Kar Phang, Deniz Doruk
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for practical and reliable biomarkers for mood disorders in young adults. Identifying the brain activity associated with the early signs of depressive disorders could have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In this study we sought to investigate the EEG characteristics in young adults with newly identified depressive symptoms. METHODS: Based on the initial screening, a total of 100 participants (n = 50 euthymic, n = 50 depressive) underwent 32-channel EEG acquisition...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064136/pyridoxamine-a-novel-treatment-for-schizophrenia-with-enhanced-carbonyl-stress
#16
Masanari Itokawa, Mitsuhiro Miyashita, Makoto Arai, Takashi Dan, Katsuyoshi Takahashi, Taro Tokunaga, Kayo Ishimoto, Kazuya Toriumi, Tomoe Ichikawa, Yasue Horiuchi, Akiko Kobori, Satoshi Usami, Takeo Yoshikawa, Naoji Amano, Shinsuke Washizuka, Yuji Okazaki, Toshio Miyata
AIM: The aim of this clinical trial was to obtain proof of concept for high-dose pyridoxamine as a novel treatment for schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress. METHODS: Ten Japanese schizophrenia patients with high plasma pentosidine, which is a representative biomarker of enhanced carbonyl stress, were recruited in a 24 week, open trial in which high-dose pyridoxamine (ranging from 1200 to 2400 mg/day) was administered using a conventional anti-psychotic regimen...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054730/the-translocator-protein-18kda-and-its-role-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Tatiana Barichello, Lutiana R Simões, Allan Collodel, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Danielle Macedo, Joao Quevedo
Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18kDa translocator membrane protein expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. TSPO is involved in cellular functions, including the regulation of cell proliferation, transport of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membranes of glial cells, regulation of mitochondrial quality control, and haem synthesis. In the brain, TSPO has been extensively used as a biomarker of injury and inflammation. Indeed, TSPO was up-regulated in several inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases...
October 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051341/indoor-tanning-dependence-in-young-adult-women
#18
Darren Mays, Michael B Atkins, Jaeil Ahn, Kenneth P Tercyak
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited.Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity...
November 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050493/serum-bdnf-is-positively-associated-with-negative-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-schizophrenia
#19
Sasha S Binford, Erin M Hubbard, Elena Flowers, Bruce L Miller, Heather Leutwyler
OBJECTIVES: Older adults with chronic schizophrenia are at greater risk for functional disability and poorer health outcomes than those without serious mental illness. These individuals comprise 1-2% of the elderly population in the United States and are projected to number approximately 15 million by 2030. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be disabling for individuals, significantly reducing quality of life. Often, the negative symptoms (NS) are the most resistant to treatment and are considered a marker of illness severity, though they are challenging to measure objectively...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049352/exposure-to-intrauterine-inflammation-alters-metabolomic-profiles-in-the-amniotic-fluid-fetal-and-neonatal-brain-in-the-mouse
#20
Amy G Brown, Natalia M Tulina, Guillermo O Barila, Michael S Hester, Michal A Elovitz
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to prenatal inflammation is associated with diverse adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed offspring. The mechanism by which inflammation negatively impacts the developing brain is poorly understood. Metabolomic profiling provides an opportunity to identify specific metabolites, and novel pathways, which may reveal mechanisms by which exposure to intrauterine inflammation promotes fetal and neonatal brain injury. Therefore, we investigated whether exposure to intrauterine inflammation altered the metabolome of the amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal brain...
2017: PloS One
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