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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523978/closed-loop-neuromodulation-systems-next-generation-treatments-for-psychiatric-illness
#1
Meng-Chen Lo, Alik S Widge
Despite deep brain stimulation's positive early results in psychiatric disorders, well-designed clinical trials have yielded inconsistent clinical outcomes. One path to more reliable benefit is closed-loop therapy: stimulation that is automatically adjusted by a device or algorithm in response to changes in the patient's electrical brain activity. These interventions may provide more precise and patient-specific treatments. This article first introduces the available closed-loop neuromodulation platforms, which have shown clinical efficacy in epilepsy and strong early results in movement disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#2
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506872/unreliability-of-putative-fmri-biomarkers-during-emotional-face-processing
#3
C L Nord, A Gray, C J Charpentier, O J Robinson, J P Roiser
There is considerable need to develop tailored approaches to psychiatric treatment. Numerous researchers have proposed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biomarkers to predict therapeutic response, in particular by measuring task-evoked subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC) and amygdala activation in mood and anxiety disorders. Translating this to the clinic relies on the assumption that blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses in these regions are stable within individuals. To test this assumption, we scanned a group of 29 volunteers twice (mean test-retest interval=14...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503116/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#4
REVIEW
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
BACKGROUND: Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing based on an internal 24-hour clock...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503110/pediatric-mania-the-controversy-between-euphoria-and-irritability
#5
Giulia Serra, Mai Uchida, Claudia Battaglia, Maria Pia Casini, Lavinia De Chiara, Joseph Biederman, Stefano Vicari, Janet Wozniak
Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501768/association-between-chinese-cooking-oil-fumes-and-sleep-quality-among-a-middle-aged-chinese-population
#6
Fu Wei, Guanghui Nie, Bo Zhou, Liang Wang, Yifei Ma, Suwan Peng, Songfeng Ou, Jian Qin, Li'e Zhang, Shu Li, Ruosi Zou, Xiaoyun Zeng, Zhiyong Zhang, Yunfeng Zou
Poor sleep quality is an important symptom of many medical or psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of cooking oil fumes (COFs) on sleep quality has not been studied. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association between COFs of Chinese household cooking and sleep quality. Individual sleep quality assessment was completed in 2197 participants with an average age of 37.52 years, through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Information about their cooking practice were also collected by self-reported questionnaire...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495634/network-targeted-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-attentional-control
#7
Michael Esterman, Michelle Thai, Hidefusa Okabe, Joseph DeGutis, Elyana Saad, Simon E Laganiere, Mark A Halko
Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN...
May 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495136/heritability-of-plasma-neopterin-levels-in-the-old-order-amish
#8
Uttam K Raheja, Dietmar Fuchs, Christopher A Lowry, Sarah H Stephens, Mary A Pavlovich, Hira Mohyuddin, Hassaan Yousufi, Kathleen A Ryan, Jeff O'Connell, Lisa A Brenner, Cecile Punzalan, Andrew J Hoisington, Gursharon K Nijjar, Maureen Groer, Alan R Shuldiner, Toni I Pollin, John W Stiller, Braxton D Mitchell, Teodor T Postolache
BACKGROUND: We examined the heritability of neopterin, a biomarker for cell-mediated immunity and oxidative stress, and potentially for psychiatric disorders, in the Old Order Amish. METHODS: Plasma neopterin levels were determined in 2015 Old Order Amish adults. Quantitative genetic procedures were used to estimate heritability of neopterin. RESULTS: Heritability of log-neopterin was estimated at 0.07 after adjusting for age, gender, and household (p=0...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482325/exploratory-metabolomics-of-biomarker-identification-for-the-internet-gaming-disorder-in-young-korean-males
#9
Yeo Ul Cho, Deokjong Lee, Jung-Eun Lee, Kyoung Heon Kim, Do Yup Lee, Young-Chul Jung
The main aim of the current research is to characterize the molecular dynamics related to internet gaming disorder (IGD) using non-targeted plasma metabolite profiling based on gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). IGD is a psychiatric disorder instigated by excessive and prolonged internet gaming, which shared many pathological symptoms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The prevalence of the disorder has been rapidly increased particularly in East Asia countries (5...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482249/association-among-serum-cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-levels-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-men-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#10
Rui Peng, Yan Li
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) with psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 162 men with schizophrenia and 138 age-matched healthy controls, for whom data were collected on demographic characteristics, age at disease onset, disease duration, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, and history of atypical antipsychotic treatment...
March 27, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480579/longitudinal-epigenetic-predictors-of-amygdala-hippocampus-volume-ratio
#11
Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil, Matthew Suderman, Jingyu Liu, Jessica A Turner, Vince Calhoun, Stefan Ehrlich, Caroline L Relton, Edward D Barker
BACKGROUND: The ratio between amygdala:hippocampal (AH) volume has been associated with multiple psychiatric problems, including anxiety and aggression. Yet, little is known about its biological underpinnings. Here, we used a methylome-wide approach to test (a) whether DNA methylation in early life (birth, age 7) prospectively associates with total AH volume ratio in early adulthood, and (b) whether significant DNA methylation markers are influenced by prenatal risk factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on a subsample (n = 109 males) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which included measures of prenatal risk, DNA methylation (Infinium Illumina 450k), T1-weighted brain scans and psychopathology in early adulthood (age 18-21)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462742/suicide-and-assisted-dying-in-dementia-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know-a-narrative-literature-review
#12
J Diehl-Schmid, R Jox, S Gauthier, S Belleville, E Racine, C Schüle, G Turecki, S Richard-Devantoy
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based data on prevalence and risk factors of suicidal intentions and behavior in dementia are as scarce as the data on assisted dying. The present literature review aimed on summarizing the current knowledge and provides a critical discussion of the results. METHODS: A systematic narrative literature review was performed using Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX, PSYCINFO, Sowiport, and Social Sciences Citation Index literature. RESULTS: Dementia as a whole does not appear to be a risk factor for suicide completion...
May 2, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456011/neurosteroid-biosynthesis-downregulation-and-changes-in-gabaa-receptor-subunit-composition-a-biomarker-axis-in-stress-induced-cognitive-and-emotional-impairment
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Locci, Graziano Pinna
By rapidly modulating neuronal excitability, neurosteroids regulate physiological processes, such as responses to stress and development. Excessive stress affects their biosynthesis and causes an imbalance in cognition and emotions. The progesterone derivative, allopregnanolone (Allo) enhances extrasynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition by directly binding at GABAA receptors, and thus, positively and allosterically modulates the function of GABA. Allo levels are decreased in stress-induced psychiatric disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and elevating Allo levels may be a valid therapeutic approach to counteract behavioural dysfunction...
April 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435274/hashimoto-encephalopathy-with-high-plasma-monoamine-metabolite-levels-a-case-report
#14
Sho Horikoshi, Itaru Miura, Yasuto Kunii, Satoko Asano, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Hirobumi Mashiko, Hirooki Yabe
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is believed to be an immune-mediated disorder associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms, the presence of antithyroid antibody, and good response to steroids were important for the diagnosis of HE. It has been reported that homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), which are monoamine metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively, are the possible biomarkers of neuropsychiatric diseases. We report a case of Hashimoto encephalopathy, in which we longitudinally measured the plasma levels of monoamine metabolites...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431800/genetic-predictors-of-antipsychotic-response-to-lurasidone-identified-in-a-genome-wide-association-study-and-by-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#15
Jiang Li, Akane Yoshikawa, Mark D Brennan, Timothy L Ramsey, Herbert Y Meltzer
Biomarkers which predict response to atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) increases their benefit/risk ratio. We sought to identify common variants in genes which predict response to lurasidone, an AAPD, by associating genome-wide association study (GWAS) data and changes (Δ) in Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from two 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials of lurasidone in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. We also included SCZ risk SNPs identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium using a polygenic risk analysis...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419777/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-with-a-focus-on-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-progress-in-genetic-association-studies-expression-profiling-and-translational-research
#17
REVIEW
Yubin Hu, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules, 18-25 nucleotides in length, which can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to messenger RNAs. About half of all identified miRNAs in humans are expressed in the brain and display regulatory functions important for many biological processes related to the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Disruptions in miRNA biogenesis and miRNA-target interaction have been related to CNS diseases, including psychiatric disorders...
April 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403846/the-new-field-of-precision-psychiatry
#18
Brisa S Fernandes, Leanne M Williams, Johann Steiner, Marion Leboyer, André F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is a new and important topic in psychiatry. Psychiatry has not yet benefited from the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that form an integral part of other clinical specialties. Thus, the vision of precision medicine as applied to psychiatry - 'precision psychiatry' - promises to be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine, which have already lessened the translational gap. DISCUSSION: Herein, we describe 'precision psychiatry' and how its several implications promise to transform the psychiatric landscape...
April 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#19
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387722/translocator-protein-18-kda-tspo-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-and-its-clinical-impact-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dupont, Bérenger Largeau, Maria Joao Santiago Ribeiro, Denis Guilloteau, Claire Tronel, Nicolas Arlicot
In vivo exploration of activated microglia in neurodegenerative diseases is achievable by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, using dedicated radiopharmaceuticals targeting the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO). In this review, we emphasized the major advances made over the last 20 years, thanks to TSPO PET imaging, to define the pathophysiological implication of microglia activation and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and also in psychiatric disorders...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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