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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917343/a-new-bioinformatic-insight-into-the-associated-proteins-in-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Wenlong Zhao, Wenjing Yang, Shuanglin Zheng, Qiong Hu, Ping Qiu, Xinghua Huang, Xiaoqian Hong, Fenghua Lan
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric diseases severely affect the quality of patients' lives and bring huge economic pressure to their families. Also, the great phenotypic variability among these patients makes it difficult to investigate the pathogenesis. Nowadays, bioinformatics is hopeful to be used as an effective tool for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, which can identify sensitive biomarkers and explore associated signaling pathways. METHODS: In this study, we performed an integrated bioinformatic analysis on 1945 mental-associated proteins including 91 secreted proteins and 593 membrane proteins, which were screened from the Universal Protein Resource (Uniport) database...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914864/serum-dhea-s-concentration-correlates-with-clinical-symptoms-and-neurocognitive-function-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-disorder-a-case-controlled-study
#3
Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang, Cheng-Ho Chang, Chih-Ching Wu, Hsing-Ling Chen, Shih-Hsien Lin, Chin-Liang Chu, Ti Lu, Ru-Band Lu
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar II disorder (BP-II). The aims of the current study are to determine (a) the differences in DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in patients with BP-II and controls; and (b) the correlation of levels of the above hormones, cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BP-II and healthy controls were recruited from psychiatric department...
November 30, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903845/protein-biomarkers-of-mood-disorders
#4
EDITORIAL
Carmen Rodríguez Cerdeira, Elena Sánchez-Blanco, Beatriz Sánchez-Blanco, Jose Luis González-Cespón
Psychiatric evaluation presents a significant challenge because it conceptually integrates the input from multiple psychopathological approaches. Recent technological advances in the study of protein structure, function, and interactions have provided a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders (MD), and have identified novel biomarkers to be used as indicators of normal and disease states or response to drug treatment. The investigation of biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, such as enzymes (catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidases) or neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their receptors, particularly their involvement in neuroendocrine activity, brain structure, and function, and response to psychotropic drugs, should facilitate the diagnosis of MD...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896769/depletion-of-highly-abundant-proteins-of-the-human-blood-plasma-applications-in-proteomics-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#5
Sheila Garcia, Paulo A Baldasso, Paul C Guest, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Psychiatric disorders are complex diseases involving exogenous and endogenous factors. Biomarkers for diagnosis or prediction of successful treatment are not existent. In addition, the molecular basis of these diseases is still poorly understood. Blood plasma represents the most complex proteome as it contains subproteomes from several body tissues. However, the high abundance of some little proteins can obscure the analysis of hundreds of low abundance proteins, which are potential biomarkers. Therefore, removal of these high abundance proteins is pivotal in any proteomic study of plasma...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896755/the-application-of-multiplex-biomarker-techniques-for-improved-stratification-and-treatment-of-schizophrenia-patients
#6
Johann Steiner, Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
In the case of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, shortcomings in the conversion of scientific discoveries into newer and safer treatment options has led to a loss of confidence and precipitated a crisis for large pharmaceutical companies. This chapter describes how incorporation of multiplex biomarker approaches into the clinical pipeline can lead to better patient characterization, delivery of novel treatment approaches and help to renew efforts in this important area. The development of specific biomarker test panels for disease prediction should facilitate early intervention strategies, which may help to slow disease development or progression...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#7
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881965/fundamental-role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-677-c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-genotype-and-flavin-compounds-in-biochemical-phenotypes-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-psychosis
#8
Stephanie Fryar-Williams
The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010-2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876311/circulating-biomarkers-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-patients
#9
Francesca Pescini, Ida Donnini, Francesca Cesari, Serena Nannucci, Raffaella Valenti, Valentina Rinnoci, Anna Poggesi, Anna Maria Gori, Betti Giusti, Angela Rogolino, Alessandra Carluccio, Silvia Bianchi, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Adriano, Rosanna Abbate, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral microangiopathy presenting with variable features, including migraine, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and cognitive decline and variable disability. On neuroimaging, CADASIL is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, multiple lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds. Previous studies suggest a possible role of endothelial impairment in the pathogenesis of the disease...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874848/the-human-bdnf-gene-peripheral-gene-expression-and-protein-levels-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
A Cattaneo, N Cattane, V Begni, C M Pariante, M A Riva
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. The human BDNF gene consists of 11 exons, and distinct BDNF transcripts are produced through the use of alternative promoters and splicing events. The majority of the BDNF transcripts can be detected not only in the brain but also in the blood cells, although no study has yet investigated the differential expression of BDNF transcripts at the peripheral level. This review provides a description of the human BDNF gene structure as well as a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders...
November 22, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872269/behavioral-biomarkers-of-schizophrenia-in-high-drinker-rats-a-potential-endophenotype-of-compulsive-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
Silvia V Navarro, Roberto Alvarez, M Teresa Colomina, Fernando Sanchez-Santed, Pilar Flores, Margarita Moreno
Psychogenic polydipsia, which is compulsive, non-regulatory fluid consumption, is present in 6%-20% of chronic psychiatric patients and frequently associated with the schizophrenia diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated the relation between schizophrenia-like symptoms and biomarkers with a compulsive drinking behavior phenotype in rats. Rats that were selected for low drinking vs high drinking behavior following schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) were assessed in a latent inhibition (LI) paradigm using tone and electrical foot shock and in a spatial reversal learning task to evaluate behavioral inflexibility...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870866/investigating-the-predictive-value-of-functional-mri-to-appetitive-and-aversive-stimuli-a-pattern-classification-approach
#12
Ciara McCabe, Vanessa Rocha-Rego
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. METHOD: 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866044/alternative-splicing-of-smpd1-coding-for-acid-sphingomyelinase-in-major-depression
#13
Cosima Rhein, Martin Reichel, Marcel Kramer, Andrea Rotter, Bernd Lenz, Christiane Mühle, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by key symptoms that include depressed mood and a loss of interest and pleasure. A recently developed pathogenic model of MDD involves disturbed neurogenesis in the hippocampus, where the acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)/ceramide system plays an important role and is proposed as a molecular target for antidepressant action. Because alternative splicing of SMPD1 mRNA, coding for ASM, is relevant for the regulation of ASM enzymatic activity, we investigated the frequency of alternatively spliced ASM isoforms in peripheral blood cells of MDD patients versus healthy controls...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829394/the-scottish-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-sera-study-an-inception-cohort-and-biobank
#14
James Dale, Caron Paterson, Ann Tierney, Stuart H Ralston, David M Reid, Neil Basu, John Harvie, Neil D McKay, Sarah Saunders, Hilary Wilson, Robin Munro, Ruth Richmond, Derek Baxter, Michael McMahon, John McLaren, Vinod Kumar, Stefan Siebert, Iain McInnes, Duncan Porter
The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) study is an inception cohort of rheumatoid (RA) and undifferentiated arthritis (UA) patients that aims to provide a contemporary description of phenotype and outcome and facilitate discovery of phenotypic and prognostic biomarkers METHODS: Demographic and clinical outcome data are collected from newly diagnosed RA/UA patients every 6 months from around Scotland. Health service utilization data is acquired from Information Services Division, NHS National Services Scotland...
November 9, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824858/prefrontal-markers-and-cognitive-performance-are-dissociated-during-progressive-dopamine-lesion
#15
Charles R E Wilson, Julien Vezoli, Frederic M Stoll, Maïlys C M Faraut, Vincent Leviel, Kenneth Knoblauch, Emmanuel Procyk
Dopamine is thought to directly influence the neurophysiological mechanisms of both performance monitoring and cognitive control-two processes that are critically linked in the production of adapted behaviour. Changing dopamine levels are also thought to induce cognitive changes in several neurological and psychiatric conditions. But the working model of this system as a whole remains untested. Specifically, although many researchers assume that changing dopamine levels modify neurophysiological mechanisms and their markers in frontal cortex, and that this in turn leads to cognitive changes, this causal chain needs to be verified...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816667/correlation-between-brain-damage-associated-biomarkers-and-medication-in-psychiatric-inpatients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Madoka Yoshida, Tetsuto Kanzaki, Mutsumi Mizoi, Mizuho Nakamura, Takeshi Uemura, Seisuke Mimori, Yoriyasu Uju, Keisuke Sekine, Yukihiro Ishii, Taro Yoshimi, Reiko Yasui, Asuka Yasukawa, Mamoru Sato, Seiko Okamoto, Tetsuya Hisaoka, Masafumi Miura, Shun Kusanishi, Kanako Murakami, Chieko Nakano, Yasuhiko Mizuta, Shunichi Mishima, Tatsuro Hayakawa, Kazumi Tsukada, Keiko Kashiwagi, Kazuei Igarashi
BACKGROUND: We clarified the correlation between brain damage, associated biomarkers and medication in psychiatric patients, because patients with schizophrenia have an increased risk of stroke. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed from January 2013 to December 2015. Study participants were 96 hospitalized patients (41 men and 55 women) in the Department of Psychiatry at Kohnodai Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan...
November 3, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814455/mobile-devices-for-the-remote-acquisition-of-physiological-and-behavioral-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-clinical-research
#17
Zachary W Adams, Erin A McClure, Kevin M Gray, Carla Kmett Danielson, Frank A Treiber, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813125/phosphatidylethanol-in-postmortem-brain-and-serum-ethanol-at-time-of-death
#18
Peter M Thompson, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Marisa Lopez-Cruzan, Luis A Alvarado, Alok K Dwivedi, Martin A Javors
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), and its concentration in whole blood samples is a direct biomarker of alcohol consumption. Because PEth is also present in the brain and incorporated in lipid membranes, it can be used to classify deceased individuals on alcohol consumption status at the time of death. The purpose of this study was to detect PEth homologs in postmortem brains of individuals known to have had alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to determine the relationship between serum alcohol at the time of death and PEth in the cerebellum (CE) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC)...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810706/how-to-measuring-blood-cytokines-in-biological-psychiatry-using-commercially-available-multiplex-immunoassays
#19
Raoul Belzeaux, Marie-Noëlle Lefebvre, Anne Lazzari, Tifenn Le Carpentier, Julia-Lou Consoloni, Xavier Zendjidjian, Mocrane Abbar, Philippe Courtet, Jean Naudin, José Boucraut, Pierre Gressens, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, El Chérif Ibrahim
Cytokines produced by both immune and non-immune cells are likely to play roles in the development and/or progression of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, many investigators have compared the blood cytokine levels in psychiatric patients with those of healthy controls or monitored their levels in patients during disease progression to identify biomarkers. Nevertheless, very few studies have confirmed that such cytokines remain stable in healthy individuals through periods of weeks and months. This is an important issue to consider before using blood cytokine levels as biomarkers of disease traits, disease state, or treatment response...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806866/neurofunctional-differences-among-youth-with-and-at-varying-risk-for-developing-mania
#20
Jeffrey A Welge, Lawrence J Saliba, Jeffrey R Strawn, James C Eliassen, L Rodrigo Patino, Caleb M Adler, Wade Weber, Marguerite Reid Schneider, Drew H Barzman, Stephen M Strakowski, Melissa P DelBello, Robert K McNamara
OBJECTIVE: To examine prefrontal and amygdala activation during emotional processing in youth with or at varying risk for developing mania to identify candidate central prodromal risk biomarkers. METHOD: Four groups of medication-free adolescents (10-20 years old) participated: adolescents with first-episode bipolar I disorder (BP-I; n = 32), adolescents with a parent with bipolar disorder and a depressive disorder (at-risk depressed [ARD]; n = 32), healthy adolescents with a parent with bipolar disorder (at-risk healthy [ARH]; n = 32), and healthy adolescents with no personal or family history of psychiatric illness (healthy comparison [HC]; n = 32)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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