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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419777/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-with-a-focus-on-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-progress-in-genetic-association-studies-expression-profiling-and-translational-research
#2
REVIEW
Yubin Hu, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules, 18-25 nucleotides in length, which can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to messenger RNAs. About half of all identified miRNAs in humans are expressed in the brain and display regulatory functions important for many biological processes related to the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Disruptions in miRNA biogenesis and miRNA-target interaction have been related to CNS diseases, including psychiatric disorders...
April 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403846/the-new-field-of-precision-psychiatry
#3
Brisa S Fernandes, Leanne M Williams, Johann Steiner, Marion Leboyer, André F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is a new and important topic in psychiatry. Psychiatry has not yet benefited from the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that form an integral part of other clinical specialties. Thus, the vision of precision medicine as applied to psychiatry - 'precision psychiatry' - promises to be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine, which have already lessened the translational gap. DISCUSSION: Herein, we describe 'precision psychiatry' and how its several implications promise to transform the psychiatric landscape...
April 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#4
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387722/translocator-protein-18-kda-tspo-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-and-its-clinical-impact-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dupont, Bérenger Largeau, Maria Joao Santiago Ribeiro, Denis Guilloteau, Claire Tronel, Nicolas Arlicot
In vivo exploration of activated microglia in neurodegenerative diseases is achievable by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, using dedicated radiopharmaceuticals targeting the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO). In this review, we emphasized the major advances made over the last 20 years, thanks to TSPO PET imaging, to define the pathophysiological implication of microglia activation and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and also in psychiatric disorders...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386521/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-conditions-a-review-of-current-research
#6
REVIEW
Anoop Narahari, Mariyah Hussain, Venkatesh Sreeram
Neural-derived exosomes can be used as diagnostic markers to screen for various psychiatric conditions. These intravenously injected exosomes carry the potential to cross the blood brain barrier and deliver miRNA molecules specifically to neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in specific gene knockdown. Here the authors review and discuss the current research on microRNA molecules and the therapeutic roles they may potentially play in treating depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia...
January 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385493/inflammation-and-internalizing-disorders-in-adolescents
#7
Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da Silva, Marianna de Abreu Costa, Flávio Kapczinski, Bianca Wollenhaupt de Aguiar, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Gisele Gus Manfro
Serum inflammatory markers have been studied in adults with anxiety and depression, but little is known about cytokine levels in young adolescents with emotional disorders. The objective of this study is to compare serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) between adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents from the same community without internalizing disorders. A total of 134 non-medicated subjects (n=76 with internalizing disorders) were recruited from a larger sample of 2457 individuals...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374419/the-acute-phase-mediator-serum-amyloid-a-is-associated-with-symptoms-of-depression-and-fatigue
#8
E Y Bryleva, S A Keaton, J Grit, Z Madaj, A Sauro-Nagendra, L Smart, S Halstead, E Achtyes, L Brundin
OBJECTIVE: Establish whether inflammatory biomarkers-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-are related to key symptoms of depression, including anxiety and fatigue, in a cross-sectional, out-patient setting to identify biomarkers that reflect psychiatric symptomatology in a naturalistic, real-life population. METHODS: We measured SAA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in plasma samples from 89 adult psychiatric out-patients by multiplex, high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent assays...
May 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371745/homocysteine-as-a-peripheral-biomarker-in-bipolar-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#9
E Salagre, A F Vizuete, M Leite, D J Brownstein, A McGuinness, F Jacka, S Dodd, B Stubbs, C A Köhler, E Vieta, A F Carvalho, M Berk, B S Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder with an uncertain aetiology. Recently, special attention has been given to homocysteine (Hcy), as it has been suggested that alterations in 1-carbon metabolism might be implicated in diverse psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty regarding possible alterations in peripheral Hcy levels in BD. METHODS: This study comprises a meta-analysis comparing serum and plasma Hcy levels in persons with BD and healthy controls...
March 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365419/mindcontrol-a-web-application-for-brain-segmentation-quality-control
#10
REVIEW
Anisha Keshavan, Esha Datta, Ian McDonough, Christopher R Madan, Kesshi Jordan, Roland G Henry
Tissue classification plays a crucial role in the investigation of normal neural development, brain-behavior relationships, and the disease mechanisms of many psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Ensuring the accuracy of tissue classification is important for quality research and, in particular, the translation of imaging biomarkers to clinical practice. Assessment with the human eye is vital to correct various errors inherent to all currently available segmentation algorithms. Manual quality assurance becomes methodologically difficult at a large scale - a problem of increasing importance as the number of data sets is on the rise...
March 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353256/proteomic-approaches-to-enable-point-of-care-testing-and-personalized-medicine-for-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Francesca L Guest, Paul C Guest
This chapter describes how innovations that are driven by proteomic biomarker techniques can facilitate earlier and better treatment of patients who suffer from psychiatric disorders. The application of new micro-fluidic devices along with miniaturized biosensors and transducers will enable the development of handheld point-of-care testing instruments which can analyse a drop of a blood within the time span of a single visit to the doctor's office. It is anticipated that these approaches will incorporate both biochemical and clinical information, resulting in unique profiles for each test subject...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353253/phenotyping-multiple-subsets-of-immune-cells-in-situ-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-sections
#12
James R Mansfield, Paul C Guest, Jared Burks
Some somatic illnesses such as peripheral tumours can present with psychiatric symptoms. Many of these are characterized by changes in biomarkers related to the inflammation or immune response. Here, we describe a multispectral imaging protocol that can be used to phenotype immune and other cell types through simultaneous imaging of multiple proteins in sections of peripheral solid tumours and other tissues. This approach can also be used to assess the spatial organization of these cells within the tissue.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353251/proteomic-profiling-of-the-pituitary-gland-in-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Divya Krishnamurthy, Hassan Rahmoune, Paul C Guest
Psychiatric disorders have been associated with perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Therefore, proteomic studies of the pituitary gland have the potential to provide new insights into the underlying pathways affected in these conditions as well as identify new biomarkers or targets for use in developing improved medications. This chapter describes a protocol for preparation of pituitary protein extracts followed by characterization of the pituitary proteome by label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in expression mode (LC-MS(E))...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353239/application-of-itraq-shotgun-proteomics-for-measurement-of-brain-proteins-in-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Erika Velásquez Núñez, Paul C Guest, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Gilberto Barbosa Domont, Fábio César Sousa Nogueira
Shotgun proteomics has been used successfully for more than two decades for measurement of proteins from diverse biological systems. This has led to new insights and identification of potential biomarkers and drug targets for numerous medical conditions. The advent of mass-labeling approaches such as isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) has allowed multiplexing of samples to improve the accuracy and throughput of experiments and the reduction of costs. Here, we describe a detailed iTRAQ mass spectrometry protocol for simultaneous analysis of four proteomes from postmortem brain tissue extracts...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353238/a-selected-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-protocol-for-validation-of-proteomic-biomarker-candidates-in-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Guilherme Reis-de-Oliveira, Sheila Garcia, Paul C Guest, Juliana S Cassoli, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Most biomarker candidates arising from proteomic studies of psychiatric disorders have not progressed for use in clinical studies due to insufficient validation steps. Here we describe a selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) approach that could be used as a follow-up validation tool of proteins identified in blood serum or plasma. This protocol specifically covers the stages of peptide selection and optimization. The increasing application of SRM-MS should enable fast, sensitive, and robust methods with the potential for use in clinical studies involving sampling of serum or plasma...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353236/identifying-biomarker-candidates-in-the-blood-plasma-or-serum-proteome
#16
Sheila Garcia, Licia C Silva-Costa, Guilherme Reis-de-Oliveira, Paul C Guest, Paulo A Baldasso, Juliana S Cassoli, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Brain disorders are among the most complex and difficult to understand of human disorders in terms of pathophysiology and etiology. Differently from other human diseases such as cancer, which uses biomarkers in clinical practice, there are no prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers available for psychiatric disorders. Those associated with the likelihood of a successful medication are also not existent, impairing treatment strategies. Proteomics is a suitable tool for identifying such biomarkers to be validated and further implemented in the clinic...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353231/multiplex-immunoassay-profiling-of-serum-in-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Laurie Stephen, Emanuel Schwarz, Paul C Guest
Multiplex immunoassays allow for the rapid profiling of biomarker proteins in biological fluids, using less sample and labour than in single immunoassays. This chapter details the methods to develop and manufacture a 5-plex immunoassay for the Luminex® platform. Although assay development is not included here, the same methods can be used to covalently couple antibodies to the Luminex beads and to label antibodies for the screening of sandwich pairs, if needed. An example will be given for the analysis of five hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in serum samples from schizophrenia patients and controls...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353230/blood-sampling-and-preparation-procedures-for-proteomic-biomarker-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#18
Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune
A major challenge in proteomic biomarker discovery and validation for psychiatric diseases is the inherent biological complexity underlying these conditions. There are also many technical issues which hinder this process such as the lack of standardization in sampling, processing and storage of bio-samples in preclinical and clinical settings. This chapter describes a reproducible procedure for sampling blood serum and plasma that is specifically designed for maximizing data quality output in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, multiplex immunoassay and mass spectrometry profiling studies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353229/the-utility-of-multiplex-assays-for-identification-of-proteomic-signatures-in-psychiatry
#19
Junfang Chen, Paul C Guest, Emanuel Schwarz
As substantial efforts are being made to identify biological markers of psychiatric illnesses, it is becoming clear that clinically useful accuracy will require larger sets of readouts that potentially span different technological platforms. For discovery of proteomic biomarkers, simultaneous measurement of analytes in small sample quantities has developed into a widely used technology of similar quality as the respective single-plex assays. Multiplex assay systems therefore hold promise for biomarker discovery and development in many complex disease areas including psychiatry...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353228/lc-ms-e-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-proteomic-studies-of-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Mariana Fioramonte, Paul C Guest, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
This chapter describes the advantages and disadvantages of label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in data-independent analysis mode (LC-MS(E)) in the identification of disease biomarkers in studies of psychiatric disorders. Along with the description of the technology, we discuss some of the most significant findings from various studies of post-mortem brain and neuroendocrine tissues from psychiatric disorder patients compared with controls. In addition, we describe some of the needs and challenges of performing these analyses in body fluids and peripheral tissues from living patients in order to increase translation of the findings into the clinical environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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