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psychiatric biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929992/mood-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#1
J Glaus, R von Känel, A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, M Gholam-Rezaee, C Marangoni, E-Y N Wagner, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig, K R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920579/point-of-care-companion-diagnostic-tests-for-personalizing-psychiatric-medications-fulfilling-an-unmet-clinical-need
#2
Anil S Modak
Over the last decade stable isotope labeled substrates have been used as probes for rapid, point of care, non invasive and user friendly phenotype breath tests to evaluate activity of drug metabolizing enzymes. These diagnostic breath tests can be potentially used as Companion diagnostics (CDx) by physicians to personalize medications especially psychiatric drugs with narrow therapeutic windows, to monitor the progress of disease severity, medication efficacy and to study in vivo the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics, Several genotype tests have been approved by the FDA over the last 15 years, however, they have not been cleared for use in personalizing medications since they fall woefully short in identifying all non responders to drugs especially for the CYP450 enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919236/biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-pans-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cunningham-panel
#3
Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912679/proteomic-differences-in-blood-plasma-associated-with-antidepressant-treatment-response
#4
Christoph W Turck, Paul C Guest, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Marcus Ising, Stefan Kloiber, Susanne Lucae, Florian Holsboer, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
The current inability of clinical psychiatry to objectively select the most appropriate treatment is a major factor contributing to the severity and clinical burden of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have attempted to identify plasma protein signatures in 39 MDD patients to predict response over a 6-week treatment period with antidepressants. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that differences in the levels of 29 proteins at baseline were found in the group with a favorable treatment outcome. Most of these proteins were components of metabolism or immune response pathways as well as multiple components of the coagulation cascade...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892761/ethyl-glucuronide-in-keratinous-matrices-as-biomarker-of-alcohol-use-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#5
Delphine Cappelle, Hugo Neels, Steven De Keukeleire, Erik Fransen, Geert Dom, Annemie Vermassen, Adrian Covaci, Cleo L Crunelle, Alexander L N van Nuijs
To quantify alcohol use, objective, specific and sensitive long-term alcohol markers are necessary. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a direct metabolite of alcohol, accumulates in keratinous matrices such as hair and nails, and is a specific and sensitive long-term biomarker for the detection of chronic alcohol consumption. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of EtG in hair, and studies on its measurement in nails are scarce. In this article, we assessed EtG concentrations in hair, finger- and toenails from the same individuals in order to evaluate the direct correlation between the matrices...
August 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891303/redefining-the-endophenotype-concept-to-accommodate-transdiagnostic-vulnerabilities-and-etiological-complexity
#6
Theodore P Beauchaine, John N Constantino
In psychopathology research, endophenotypes are a subset of biomarkers that indicate genetic vulnerability independent of clinical state. To date, an explicit expectation is that endophenotypes be specific to single disorders. We evaluate this expectation considering recent advances in psychiatric genetics, recognition that transdiagnostic vulnerability traits are often more useful than clinical diagnoses in psychiatric genetics, and appreciation for etiological complexity across genetic, neural, hormonal and environmental levels of analysis...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889808/maternal-immune-and-affiliative-biomarkers-and-sensitive-parenting-mediate-the-effects-of-chronic-early-trauma-on-child-anxiety
#7
A Ulmer-Yaniv, A Djalovski, K Yirmiya, G Halevi, O Zagoory-Sharon, R Feldman
BACKGROUND: Chronic early trauma alters children's stress reactivity and increases the prevalence of anxiety disorders; yet the neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms underpinning this effect are not fully clear. Animal studies indicate that the mother's physiology and behavior mediate offspring stress in a system-specific manner, but few studies tested this external-regulatory maternal role in human children exposed to chronic stress. METHODS: We followed a unique cohort of children exposed to continuous wartime trauma (N = 177; exposed; N = 101, controls; N = 76)...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870126/innovative-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-major-clinical-challenge-in-psychiatry
#8
Madia Lozupone, Davide Seripa, Eleonora Stella, Maddalena La Montagna, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Nicola Quaranta, Federica Veneziani, Alberto Cester, Rodolfo Sardone, Caterina Bonfiglio, Gianluigi Giannelli, Paola Bisceglia, Roberto Bringiotti, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
Currently, the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses is based upon DSM-5 criteria. Although endophenotype-specificity for a particular disorder is discussed, the identification of objective biomarkers is ongoing for aiding diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. We need to improve the understanding of the biological abnormalities in psychiatric illnesses across conventional diagnostic boundaries. The present review investigates the innovative post-genomic knowledge used for psychiatric illness diagnostics and treatment response, with a particular focus on proteomics...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869463/risk-factors-neuroanatomical-correlates-and-outcome-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Stéphane P Poulin, David Bergeron, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: An integrative model of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors, anatomy, biology, and outcomes of NPS in AD. METHODS: 181 subjects were included from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Study (ADNI). NPS were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. NPI >3 was used as a threshold for NPS positivity...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864916/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-the-auditory-mismatch-negativity-response-and-working-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#10
Danielle Impey, Ashley Baddeley, Renee Nelson, Alain Labelle, Verner Knott
Cognitive impairment has been proposed to be the core feature of schizophrenia (Sz). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which can improve cognitive function in healthy participants and in psychiatric patients with cognitive deficits. tDCS has been shown to improve cognition and hallucination symptoms in Sz, a disorder also associated with marked sensory processing deficits. Recent findings in healthy controls demonstrate that anodal tDCS increases auditory deviance detection, as measured by the brain-based event-related potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), which is a putative biomarker of Sz that has been proposed as a target for treatment of Sz cognition...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#11
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843401/dystonia-then-and-now
#12
Cynthia L Comella
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is a rare disorder that has undergone extensive scientific investigation leading to a transformation of understanding over the past century. METHODS: This manuscript was prepared through a review of relevant literature for each topic. RESULTS: Historically dystonia was considered the manifestation of psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, investigations have firmly established this as a neurological disorder. Though electrophysiological and imaging, dystonia is thought to arise from a loss inhibition of motor programs, defective sensorimotor integration and abnormal plasticity...
June 30, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842833/ceramide-and-its-related-neurochemical-networks-as-targets-for-some-brain-disorder-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Justyna Brodowicz, Edmund Przegaliński, Christian P Müller, Malgorzata Filip
Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841483/major-depressive-disorder-discrimination-using-vocal-acoustic-features
#14
Takaya Taguchi, Hirokazu Tachikawa, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Masayuki Suzuki, Toru Nagano, Ryuki Tachibana, Masafumi Nishimura, Tetsuaki Arai
BACKGROUND: The voice carries various information produced by vibrations of the vocal cords and the vocal tract. Though many studies have reported a relationship between vocal acoustic features and depression, including mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) which applied to speech recognition, there have been few studies in which acoustic features allowed discrimination of patients with depressive disorder. Vocal acoustic features as biomarker of depression could make differential diagnosis of patients with depressive state...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#15
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804633/fractalkine-c-x3-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-1-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#16
Diego Oliveira Miranda, Elen Anatriello, Lucas Ribeiro Azevedo, Jessica Cristina Santos, Jessica Fernanda Correa Cordeiro, Fernanda Maris Peria, Milena Flória-Santos, Gabriela Pereira-Da-Silva
Fractalkine, a unique chemokine of the CX3C subfamily, is involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancer and also in non-immune mechanisms associated with psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between anxiety, depression and fractalkine serum levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in different stages of antitumor therapy. Four groups of patients undergoing treatment (n=20 per group) were evaluated: Patients with CRC who did not undergo surgical resection of the tumor; patients who underwent resection and who did not start adjuvant therapy; patients undergoing chemotherapy for ~3 months; and patients who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for ~6 months...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803847/psychotic-symptoms-influence-the-development-of-anterior-cingulate-bold-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
Daniela Zöller, Maria Carmela Padula, Corrado Sandini, Maude Schneider, Elisa Scariati, Dimitri Van De Ville, Marie Schaer, Stephan Eliez
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad phenotype of clinical, cognitive and psychiatric features. Due to the very high prevalence of schizophrenia (30-40%), the investigation of psychotic symptoms in the syndrome is promising to reveal biomarkers for the development of psychosis, also in the general population. Since schizophrenia is seen as a disorder of the dynamic interactions between brain networks, we here investigated brain dynamics, assessed by the variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, in patients with psychotic symptoms...
August 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803577/auditory-brainstem-response-abr-profiling-tests-as-diagnostic-support-for-schizophrenia-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#18
Eva Juselius Baghdassarian, Maria Nilsson Markhed, Eva Lindström, Björn M Nilsson, Tommy Lewander
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. METHOD: Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119)...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801195/avoidance-of-accelerated-aging-in-schizophrenia-clinical-and-biological-characterization-of-an-exceptionally-high-functioning-individual
#19
Barton W Palmer, Raeanne C Moore, Lisa T Eyler, Luz L Pinto, Elyn R Saks, Dilip V Jeste
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of an exceptionally high functioning index person (IP) with schizophrenia in her mid-50s, which may represent compensatory mechanisms, and potentially, avoidance of the accelerated aging typically associated with schizophrenia. METHOD: IP, 11 other women with schizophrenia, and 11 non-psychiatric comparison (NC) women were assessed with standard ratings of psychopathology, neurocognitive function, decisional capacity, and functional brain imaging...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800738/advances-in-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-devices
#20
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Parastarfeizabadi, Abbas Z Kouzani
BACKGROUND: Millions of patients around the world are affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a device-based therapy that could have fewer side-effects and higher efficiencies in drug-resistant patients compared to other therapeutic options such as pharmacological approaches. Thus far, several efforts have been made to incorporate a feedback loop into DBS devices to make them operate in a closed-loop manner. METHODS: This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the existing research-based and commercial closed-loop DBS devices...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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