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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781887/speculations-on-the-future-of-psychiatric-diagnosis
#1
A John Rush, Hisham M Ibrahim
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-V), criterion symptom listings are frequently used in clinical practice as checklists to make diagnoses. However, most DSM-V conditions are, in fact, syndromes, that is, collections of signs and symptoms that commonly occur together in the clinic. This report discusses the value of syndromes in medicine and psychiatry. It is argued that a more precise future enumeration of brain circuits and the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions will help us better understand and treat psychiatric syndromes, but they are unlikely to eliminate the need to categorize psychiatric conditions...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#2
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775916/cortisol-trajectory-melancholia-and-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#3
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#4
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#5
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729620/volumetric-brain-analysis-as-a-predictor-of-a-worse-cognitive-outcome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in significant morbidity and mortality being early diagnosis essential. Identification of patients who are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment based only on clinical data is not sufficient. To this end, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with automatic segmentation, such as FreeSurfer, could be a useful tool with high accuracy because it has histological validation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, neuropsychological and FreeSurfer variables that may be related to worse cognitive outcomes over 18 months in PD patients compared with controls...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727475/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-evokes-resonant-neural-activity
#7
Nicholas C Sinclair, Hugh J McDermott, Kristian J Bulluss, James B Fallon, Thushara Perera, San San Xu, Peter Brown, Wesley Thevathasan
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly expanding treatment for neurological and psychiatric conditions; however, a target-specific biomarker is required to optimize therapy. Here, we show that DBS evokes a large-amplitude resonant neural response focally in the subthalamic nucleus. This response is greatest in the dorsal region (the clinically optimal stimulation target for Parkinson disease), coincides with improved clinical performance, is chronically recordable, and is present under general anesthesia...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723776/association-between-schizophrenia-polygenic-risk-and-neural-correlates-of-emotion-perception
#8
Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianová, Sathish Periyasamy, Bryan Mowry
The neural correlates of emotion perception have been shown to be significantly altered in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients as well as their healthy relatives, possibly reflecting genetic susceptibility to the disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between SCZ polygenic risk and brain activity whilst testing perception of multisensory, dynamic emotional stimuli. We created SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a sample of twenty-eight healthy individuals. The PRS was based on data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and was used as a regressor score in the neuroimaging analysis...
April 25, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709510/subjective-but-not-objective-sleep-is-associated-with-subsyndromal-anxiety-and-depression-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#9
Christine E Gould, Rosy Karna, Josh Jordan, Makoto Kawai, Rayna Hirst, Nathan Hantke, Sophia Pirog, Isabelle Cotto, Sophia Miryam Schussler-Fiorenza Rose, Sherry A Beaudreau, Ruth O'Hara
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between subclinical anxiety and depressive symptoms and objective sleep architecture measures and subjective sleep reports in older adults. METHODS: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 167) self-rated their current severity of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and global sleep quality. Participants received overnight ambulatory polysomnography to assess sleep architecture. Multivariate linear regression models examined associations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and objective and subjective sleep measures...
March 27, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706161/the-epigenetic-clock-at-birth-associations-with-maternal-antenatal-depression-and-child-psychiatric-problems
#10
Anna Suarez, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Anna K Knight, Polina Girchenko, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Jari Lipsanen, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Rebecca M Reynolds, Alicia K Smith, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: Maternal antenatal depression may compromise the fetal developmental milieu and contribute to individual differences in aging and disease trajectories in later life. We evaluated the association between maternal antenatal depression and a novel biomarker of aging at birth, namely epigenetic gestational age (GA) based on fetal cord blood methylation data. We also examined whether this biomarker prospectively predicts and mediates maternal effects on early childhood psychiatric problems...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705843/neuroimmune-imbalances-and-yin-yang-dynamics-in-stress-anxiety-and-depression
#11
Qing Yan
Evidences from psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and systems biology studies support a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics" for understanding the "whole mind-body system." The Yin-Yang dynamical balances in the stress response networks may be critical for health and diseases, especially mental health and psychiatric disorders. Specifically, the neuroimmune imbalances have been found as the important features and potential biomarkers of stress, anxiety, depression, and systemic inflammation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704590/protective-influences-of-n-acetylcysteine-against-alcohol-abstinence-induced-depression-by-regulating-biochemical-and-grin2a-grin2b-gene-expression-of-nmda-receptor-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#12
Rutuja Yawalkar, Harish Changotra, Girdhari Lal Gupta
Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701842/the-emerging-immunogenetic-architecture-of-schizophrenia
#13
Jennie G Pouget
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder of complex etiology. Immune processes have long been proposed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, and accumulating evidence supports immune involvement in at least a subset of cases. In recent years, large-scale genetic studies have provided new insights into the role of the immune system in this disease. Here, we provide an overview of the immunogenetic architecture of schizophrenia based on findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, we review individual immune loci identified in secondary analyses of GWAS, which implicate over 30 genes expressed in both immune and brain cells...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701669/differentiating-medicated-patients-suffering-from-major-depressive-disorder-from-healthy-controls-by-spot-urine-measurement-of-monoamines-and-steroid-hormones
#14
Chandra S Wijaya, Jovia J Z Lee, Syeda F Husain, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger S McIntyre, Wilson W Tam, Roger C M Ho
Introduction : Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. Currently, there is no objective, cost-effective and non-invasive method to measure biological markers related to the pathogenesis of MDD. Previous studies primarily focused on urinary metabolite markers which are not proximal to the pathogenesis of MDD. Herein, we compare urinary monoamines, steroid hormones and the derived ratios amongst MDD when compared to healthy controls. Methods : Morning urine samples of medicated patients suffering from MDD ( n = 47) and healthy controls ( n = 41) were collected...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689053/agent-specific-learning-signals-for-self-other-distinction-during-mentalising
#15
Sam Ereira, Raymond J Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson
Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687938/trait-and-state-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-importance-of-infrastructure-to-bridge-the-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-research-and-industry
#16
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect "trait" and "state" in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674364/health-and-prevention-enhancement-h-peace-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study-conducted-at-the-seoul-national-university-hospital-gangnam-center-korea
#17
Changhyun Lee, Eun Kyung Choe, Ji Min Choi, Yunji Hwang, Young Lee, Boram Park, Su Jin Chung, Min-Sun Kwak, Jong-Eun Lee, Joo Sung Kim, Sue Kyung Park, Sang-Heon Cho
PURPOSE: The Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE) study was designed to investigate the association of diagnostic imaging results, biomarkers and the predisease stage of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as malignancies and metabolic diseases, in an average-risk population in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: This study enrolled a large-scale retrospective cohort at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, from October 2003 to December 2014...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674269/alterations-of-eicosanoids-and-related-mediators-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Dongfang Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Jingjing Yan, Biao Ren, Bing Cao, Qingbin Lu, Yaqiong Liu, Jing Zeng, Ninghua Huang, Qing Xie, Haiwei Gu, Jingyu Wang
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder. Currently, its molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and no reliable test for diagnosis and therapy monitoring is available. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derived eicosanoid signaling abnormalities are relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, comprehensive analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators for schizophrenia is very rare. In this study, we applied a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based method to monitor 158 PUFAs, eicosanoids and related mediators from enzyme-dependent or independent pathways, in the serum samples of 109 healthy controls, and 115 schizophrenia patients at baseline and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic therapy...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665225/objective-and-quantitative-equilibriometric-evaluation-of-individual-locomotor-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-translational-and-clinical-implications
#19
Svetlozar Haralanov, Evelina Haralanova, Emil Milushev, Diana Shkodrova, Claus-Frenz Claussen
Psychiatry is the only medical specialty that lacks clinically applicable biomarkers for objective evaluation of the existing pathology at a single-patient level. On the basis of an original translational equilibriometric method for evaluation of movement patterns, we have introduced in the everyday clinical practice of psychiatry an easy-to-perform computerized objective quantification of the individual locomotor behaviour during execution of the Unterberger stepping test. For the last 20 years, we have gradually collected a large database of more than 1000 schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and matched psychiatric, neurological, and healthy controls via cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665048/a-neural-biomarker-the-error-related-negativity-predicts-the-first-onset-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-a-large-sample-of-adolescent-females
#20
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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