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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543059/natural-pathology-of-the-captive-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-a-35-year-review
#1
REVIEW
Shyamesh Kumar, Hannah Laurence, Michael A Owston, R Mark Sharp, Priscilla Williams, Robert E Lanford, Gene B Hubbard, Edward J Dick
We present the spontaneous pathological lesions identified as a result of necropsy or biopsy for 245 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) over a 35-year period. A review of the pathology database was performed for all diagnoses on chimpanzees from 1980 to 2014. All morphologic diagnoses, associated system, organ, etiology, and demographic information were reviewed and analyzed. Cardiomyopathy was the most frequent lesion observed followed by hemosiderosis, hyperplasia, nematodiasis, edema, and hemorrhage. The most frequently affected systems were the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, and lymphatic/hematopoietic systems...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542561/impaired-functional-capacity-of-fetal-endothelial-cells-in-preeclampsia
#2
Lars Brodowski, Jennifer Burlakov, Sarah Hass, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is one of the main contributers to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. A history of preeclampsia puts mother and offspring at an increased cardiovascular risk in later life. We hypothesized that at the time of birth functional impairments of fetal endothelial cells can be detected in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and that a therapeutic intervention using 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 can reverse the adverse effects of preeclampsia on cell function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542559/fluvastatin-inhibits-age-induced-cell-proliferation-and-migration-via-an-erk5-dependent-nrf2-pathway-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Ae-Rang Hwang, Jung-Hwa Han, Jae Hyang Lim, Young Jin Kang, Chang-Hoon Woo
Advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are emerging as important mechanisms of diabetic vasculopathy, but little is known about the molecular mechanism responsible for the antioxidative effects of statins on AGEs. It has been reported that statins exert pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system due to decreases in AGE-induced cell proliferation, migration, and vascular inflammation. Thus, in the present study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism by which statins decrease AGE-induced cell proliferation and VSMC migration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540979/alcohol-consumption-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-gene-polymorphisms-and-cardiovascular-health-in-korea
#4
REVIEW
Min Jeong Shin, Yoonsu Cho, George Davey Smith
Alcohol consumption is a serious health issue in Korea in terms of the amount consumed and the behavior related to its consumption. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism that degrades acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetic acid. The enzyme is coded by the ALDH2 gene, which is commonly polymorphic in East Asian populations. A point mutation in the ALDH2 gene (the rs671 allele) yields an inactive form of ALDH2 that causes acetaldehyde accumulation in the body after alcohol consumption, thereby inhibiting normal alcohol metabolism...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540676/micrornas-biomarkers-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#5
Weili Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides in length) that regulate gene expression at translational or posttranslational levels. The major regulatory mechanisms include translational repression or mRNA degradation (Filipowicz et al., Curr Opin Struct Biol 15:331-341, 2005).Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to be associated with a variety of human diseases such as cancers/tumors, diabetes, viral infections, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases (Wang et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540644/the-epigenetic-machinery-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Emile Levy, Schohraya Spahis, Jean-Luc Bigras, Edgard Delvin, Jean-Michel Borys
Hypertension (HT) is among the major components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance. It represents a significant health problem with foremost risks for chronic cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is not surprising that this disorder constitutes a serious public health concern. Although multiple studies have stressed the multifactorial nature of HT, the pathogenesis remains largely unknown...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540283/associations-of-mthfr-c677t-polymorphism-with-insulin-resistance-results-of-nurse-study-nursing-unacquainted-related-stress-etiologies
#7
Motahareh Kheradmand, Zhila Maghbooli, Sedigheh Salemi, Mahnaz Sanjari
BACKGROUND: The insulin resistance syndrome is one of the major contributors of metabolic syndrome, diabetes Type 2 and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A common mutation (677C to T; Ala to Val) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with decreased specific MTHFR activity and elevation of the homocysteine. The aim of this study is investigation of association between MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism with insulin resistance by using HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index in nurses who are potentially prone to develop insulin resistance because of unfavorable effects of shift work...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539832/recapitulating-and-correcting-marfan-syndrome-in-a-cellular-model
#8
Jung Woo Park, Li Yan, Chris Stoddard, Xiaofang Wang, Zhichao Yue, Leann Crandall, Tiwanna Robinson, Yuxiao Chang, Kyle Denton, Enqin Li, Bin Jiang, Zhenwu Zhang, Kristen Martins-Taylor, Siu-Pok Yee, Hong Nie, Feng Gu, Wei Si, Ting Xie, Lixia Yue, Ren-He Xu
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in FBN1 gene, which encodes a key extracellular matrix protein FIBRILLIN-1. The haplosufficiency of FBN1 has been implicated in pathogenesis of MFS with manifestations primarily in cardiovascular, muscular, and ocular tissues. Due to limitations in animal models to study the late-onset diseases, human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer a homogeneic tool for dissection of cellular and molecular pathogenic mechanism for MFS in vitro. Here, we first derived induced PSCs (iPSCs) from a MFS patient with a FBN1 mutation and corrected the mutation, thereby generating an isogenic "gain-of-function" control cells for the parental MFS iPSCs...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539232/adipose-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-via-promoting-adipose-tissue-adipogenesis-and-browning
#9
Chengting Luo, Na Lv, Zai Chang, Qiannuo Qu, Jianzhen Huang
Adipose tissue is a complicated organ that not only stores excess energy, but also secrets many adipokines regulating whole-body energy hemostasis. Dysfunction of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we generated a mouse model with overexpression of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue specifically. Under a normal diet, ATRAP transgene (TgATRAP) mice showed similar bodyweight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity with wild-type controls (WT)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539218/switching-subtype-selectivity-fragment-replacement-strategy-affords-novel-class-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-agonists
#10
Ryuta Shioi, Shogo Okazaki, Tomomi Noguchi-Yachide, Minoru Ishikawa, Makoto Makishima, Yuichi Hashimoto, Takao Yamaguchi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important drug targets for treatment of dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and great efforts have been made to develop novel PPAR ligands. However, most existing PPAR ligands contain a carboxylic acid (CA) or thiazolidinedione (TZD) structure (acidic head group) that is essential for activity. We recently discovered non-CA/TZD class PPARα/δ partial agonists, which contain an acetamide moiety and adjacent methyl group, linked to a 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring ("fragment a")...
May 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539044/the-effect-of-resveratrol-on-modulation-of-endothelial-cells-and-macrophages-for-rapid-vascular-regeneration-from-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds
#11
Zhihong Wang, Yifan Wu, Jianing Wang, Chuangnian Zhang, Hongyu Yan, Meifeng Zhu, Kai Wang, Chen Li, Qingbo Xu, Deling Kong
Rapid endothelialization is one key factor that determines the success of small diameter vascular grafts as an artery substitute in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Aimed to facilitate vascular regeneration, we developed a vascular scaffold loaded with resveratrol, which is a natural compound extracted from plants and showed multifaceted effects in cardiovascular protection. The tubular poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold was prepared by electrospinning with resveratrol in the PCL solution. In vitro assay demonstrated that resveratrol could be released from the scaffolds in a sustained and controlled manner...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538136/genetic-and-pharmacologic-inactivation-of-angptl3-and-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Frederick E Dewey, Viktoria Gusarova, Richard L Dunbar, Colm O'Dushlaine, Claudia Schurmann, Omri Gottesman, Shane McCarthy, Cristopher V Van Hout, Shannon Bruse, Hayes M Dansky, Joseph B Leader, Michael F Murray, Marylyn D Ritchie, H Lester Kirchner, Lukas Habegger, Alex Lopez, John Penn, An Zhao, Weiping Shao, Neil Stahl, Andrew J Murphy, Sara Hamon, Aurelie Bouzelmat, Rick Zhang, Brad Shumel, Robert Pordy, Daniel Gipe, Gary A Herman, Wayne H H Sheu, I-Te Lee, Kae-Woei Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der I Chen, William E Kraus, Svati H Shah, Scott Damrauer, Aeron Small, Daniel J Rader, Anders Berg Wulff, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Anita M van den Hoek, Hans M G Princen, David H Ledbetter, David J Carey, John D Overton, Jeffrey G Reid, William J Sasiela, Poulabi Banerjee, Alan R Shuldiner, Ingrid B Borecki, Tanya M Teslovich, George D Yancopoulos, Scott J Mellis, Jesper Gromada, Aris Baras
Background Loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 gene (ANGPTL3) have been associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. It is not known whether such variants or therapeutic antagonism of ANGPTL3 are associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods We sequenced the exons of ANGPTL3 in 58,335 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study. We performed tests of association for loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 with lipid levels and with coronary artery disease in 13,102 case patients and 40,430 controls from the DiscovEHR study, with follow-up studies involving 23,317 case patients and 107,166 controls from four population studies...
May 24, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536780/-genetic-testing-in-polygenic-diseases-atrial-fibrillation-arterial-hypertension-and-coronary-artery-disease
#13
T Trenkwalder, T Kessler, H Schunkert
Genetic testing plays an increasing role in cardiovascular medicine. Advances in technology and the development of novel and more affordable (high throughput) methods have led to the identification of genetic risk factors in research and clinical practice. Also, this progress has simplified the screening of patients and individuals at risk. In case of rare monogenic diseases, diagnostics, risk stratification, and, in some cases, treatment decisions have become easier. For common, polygenic cardiovascular diseases, the situation is more complex due to interaction of modifiable external risk factors and nonmodifiable factors like genetic predisposition...
May 23, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536535/role-of-intestinal-lxr%C3%AE-in-regulating-post-prandial-lipid-excursion-and-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#14
Tibiábin Benítez-Santana, Sarah E Hugo, Amnon Schlegel
Post-prandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor with limited therapeutic options. The Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate cholesterol elimination. Knowledge of their role in regulating the absorption and handling of dietary fats is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal Lxrα in post-prandial intestinal lipid transport. Using Lxrα knockout (nr1h3(-/-)) and intestine-limited Lxrα over-expressing [Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3)] zebrafish strains, we measured post-prandial lipid excursion with live imaging in larvae and physiological methods in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535533/malat1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-downregulation-of-mir-145
#15
Yin Xiang, Yachen Zhang, Yong Tang, Qianhui Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays significant roles under various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. EndMT of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following cell therapy Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes metastasis and cancer. MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that has been reported to inhibit SMAD3-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534160/micrornas-new-therapeutic-targets-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#16
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Evan A Stein, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common inherited form of dyslipidemia and a major cause of premature cardiovascular disease. Management of FH mainly relies on the efficiency of treatments that reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been suggested as emerging regulators of plasma LDL-C concentrations. Notably, there is evidence showing that miRs can regulate the post-transcriptional expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of FH, including LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, and LDLRAP1...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534127/genetics-of-triglycerides-and-the-risk-of-atherosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasma triglycerides are routinely measured with a lipid profile, and elevated plasma triglycerides are commonly encountered in the clinic. The confounded nature of this trait, which is correlated with numerous other metabolic perturbations, including depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has thwarted efforts to directly implicate triglycerides as causal in atherogenesis. Human genetic approaches involving large-scale populations and high-throughput genomic assessment under a Mendelian randomization framework have undertaken to sort out questions of causality...
July 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530744/proteomic-analysis-of-prognostic-plasma-biomarkers-in-peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease
#19
Cheng-San Yang, Yu-Shan Wei, Han-Lin Tsai, Ian-Seng Cheong, Shing-Jyh Chang, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Ying-Ray Lee, Hong-Lin Chan
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), one of the major manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, causes intermittent claudication and rest pain. Patients with PAOD not only have reduced quality of life, but also have a substantial risk of cardiovascular morbidity and death. In this study, we adopted a proteomics-based approach using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to compare the differential plasma proteome between good and poor prognosis of PAOD. We identified 196 plasma proteins, which represent 42 unique gene products...
May 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530468/genetic-susceptibility-contributing-to-periodontal-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
G Aarabi, T Zeller, H Seedorf, D R Reissmann, G Heydecke, A S Schaefer, U Seedorf
Periodontal disease (PD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common diseases characterized by an overaggressive inflammatory response to diverse stimuli. Whereas PD leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures, CAD is a chronic inflammatory condition ultimately causing myocardial infarction via narrowing and occluding of blood vessels. Classical twin studies led to the conclusion that both complex diseases have a similar degree of heritability and that a significant fraction of the genetic factors accounting for this heritability is shared...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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