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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637196/chronological-change-of-right-ventricle-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-in-mice
#1
Hyung-Ju Cho, Woon Heo, Jung Woo Han, Yong Hyuk Lee, Jin Myung Park, Min Jung Kang, Joo-Heon Yoon, Min Goo Lee, Chang-Hoon Kim, Joo Young Kim
Study Objective: No studies have investigated sequential changes in the heart on MRI, along with observation of functional lung phenotypes and genetics, over the duration of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We investigated chronological changes in heart and lung phenotypes after CIH using a mouse model to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of sleep apnea-induced cardiovascular disease. Methods: C57BL/6J adult male mice were randomized to 4 weeks or 8 weeks of CIH...
June 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636844/clonal-hematopoiesis-and-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Siddhartha Jaiswal, Pradeep Natarajan, Alexander J Silver, Christopher J Gibson, Alexander G Bick, Eugenia Shvartz, Marie McConkey, Namrata Gupta, Stacey Gabriel, Diego Ardissino, Usman Baber, Roxana Mehran, Valentin Fuster, John Danesh, Philippe Frossard, Danish Saleheen, Olle Melander, Galina K Sukhova, Donna Neuberg, Peter Libby, Sekar Kathiresan, Benjamin L Ebert
Background Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is defined as the presence of an expanded somatic blood-cell clone in persons without other hematologic abnormalities, is common among older persons and is associated with an increased risk of hematologic cancer. We previously found preliminary evidence for an association between CHIP and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the nature of this association was unclear. Methods We used whole-exome sequencing to detect the presence of CHIP in peripheral-blood cells and associated such presence with coronary heart disease using samples from four case-control studies that together enrolled 4726 participants with coronary heart disease and 3529 controls...
June 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636007/analysis-of-association-of-gene-variants-with-obesity-traits-in-new-zealand-european-children-at-6-years-of-age
#3
Mohanraj Krishnan, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, Andrew N Shelling, G On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group
Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age...
June 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633641/expression-levels-of-atherosclerosis-associated-mir-143-and-mir-145-in-the-plasma-of-patients-with-hyperhomocysteinaemia
#4
Kejian Liu, Saiyare Xuekelati, Yue Zhang, Yin Yin, Yue Li, Rui Chai, Xinwei Li, Yi Peng, Jiangdong Wu, Xiaomei Guo
BACKGROUND: An elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy) in the blood is designated hyperhomocysteinaemia (Hhcy) and is regarded as a strong risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis (ATH), although the association remains controversial. Considered to be essential gene expression regulators, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) modulate cardiovascular disease development and thus can be regarded as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study is to investigate the expression levels of atherosclerosis-associated miR-143 and miR-145 in Hhcy patients and predict the progress of atherosclerosis in Hhcy patients...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632940/characterization-of-the-i4399m-variant-of-apolipoprotein-a-implications-for-altered-prothrombotic-properties-of-lipoprotein-a
#5
Corey A Scipione, Jackson T McAiney, Daniel J Simard, Zainab A Bazzi, Matthew Gemin, Rocco Romagnuolo, Fraser L Macrae, Robert A Ariëns, Robert A Hegele, Janeen Auld, James W Gauld, Michael B Boffa, Marlys L Koschinsky
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a causal risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), the distinguishing component of Lp(a), is homologous to plasminogen, suggesting that Lp(a) can interfere with the normal fibrinolytic functions of plasminogen. This has implications for the persistence of fibrin clots in the vasculature and hence to atherothrombotic diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3798220) in the gene encoding apo(a) has been reported that results in an Ile to Met substitution in the protease-like domain (I4399M variant)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632415/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-tanshinone-iia-derivatives-as-novel-endothelial-protective-agents
#6
Xiaoling Bi, Kuojun Zhang, Long He, Biao Gao, Qinlan Gu, Xueyan Li, Jun Chen, Jinxin Wang
AIM: Oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury is a main risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) exerts protective functions on endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. To exploit new bioactive compounds from this natural product, 12 derivatives were first synthesized and evaluated for endothelial protective activities. MATERIALS & METHODS: Title compounds were prepared according to high-yielded synthetic routes, and their protective effects on human endothelial EA...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#7
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630896/the-gh-receptor-exon-3-deletion-is-a-marker-of-male-specific-exceptional-longevity-associated-with-increased-gh-sensitivity-and-taller-stature
#8
Danny Ben-Avraham, Diddahally R Govindaraju, Temuri Budagov, Delphine Fradin, Peter Durda, Bing Liu, Sandy Ott, Danielle Gutman, Lital Sharvit, Robert Kaplan, Pierre Bougnères, Alex Reiner, Alan R Shuldiner, Pinchas Cohen, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon
Although both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling were shown to regulate life span in lower organisms, the role of GH signaling in human longevity remains unclear. Because a GH receptor exon 3 deletion (d3-GHR) appears to modulate GH sensitivity in humans, we hypothesized that this polymorphism could play a role in human longevity. We report a linear increased prevalence of d3-GHR homozygosity with age in four independent cohorts of long-lived individuals: 841 participants [567 of the Longevity Genes Project (LGP) (8% increase; P = 0...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#9
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628560/genetic-coding-variants-in-the-niacin-receptor-hydroxyl-carboxylic-acid-receptor-2-and-response-to-niacin-therapy
#10
Sony Tuteja, Lu Wang, Richard L Dunbar, Jinbo Chen, Stephanie DerOhannessian, Santica M Marcovina, Marshall Elam, Ellis Lader, Daniel J Rader
OBJECTIVE: Niacin has been used for seven decades to modulate plasma lipids, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We sought to determine whether variants in the niacin receptor gene, hydroxyl-carboxylic receptor 2 (HCAR2), are associated with lipid response to treatment. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Coding variants, rs7314976 (p.R311C) and rs2454727 (p.M317I), were genotyped in 2067 participants from the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial...
June 16, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626062/insights-into-the-function-of-n-3-pufas-in-fat-1-transgenic-cattle
#11
Xin-Feng Liu, Zhu-Ying Wei, Chun-Ling Bai, Xiang-Bin Ding, Xin Li, Guang-Hua Su, Lei Cheng, Li Zhang, Hong Guo, Guang-Peng Li
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have many beneficial effects on human health, including roles in immunity, neurodevelopment, and preventing cardiovascular disease. In this study, we established reliable model fat-1 transgenic cattle using transgenic technology and performed a systematic investigation to examine the function of n-3 PUFAs. Our results showed that expression of the fat-1 gene improved several biochemical parameters related to liver function and to plasma glucose and plasma lipid metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625324/esr2-genetic-variants-and-combined-oral-contraceptive-use-associated-with-the-risk-of-stroke
#12
Zhenlin Xu, Ying Li, Xiaoping Huang, Wei Shen, Jianling Bai, Chong Shen, Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is accumulating evidence suggesting an important role of estrogen receptor-β in the development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aims to investigate the relationship of estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) polymorphisms with stroke risk in Chinese women, and further evaluate the gene-environment interaction of ESR2 and combined oral contraceptive (COC) use on stroke risk. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 446 first-ever stroke patients and 864 control subjects recruited from our prospective female cohort...
February 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624810/the-p38-pathway-a-major-pleiotropic-cascade-that-transduces-stress-and-metastatic-signals-in-endothelial-cells
#13
REVIEW
Isabelle Corre, François Paris, Jacques Huot
By gating the traffic of molecules and cells across the vessel wall, endothelial cells play a central role in regulating cardiovascular functions and systemic homeostasis and in modulating pathophysiological processes such as inflammation and immunity. Accordingly, the loss of endothelial cell integrity is associated with pathological disorders that include atherosclerosis and cancer. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are major signaling pathways that regulate several functions of endothelial cells in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli including growth factors, stress and cytokines...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624327/many-tocopherols-one-vitamin-e
#14
REVIEW
Angelo Azzi
Four tocopherols are available in nature and are absorbed with the diet, but only one RRR-α-tocopherol satisfies the criteria of being a vitamin. The biological activity of the different tocopherols studied in the rat by the resorption-gestation test has been inconsistently extrapolated to human beings where the tocopherols have no influence on a successful pregnancy. Diminution of RRR-α-tocopherol intake results in diseases characterized by ataxia, whose pathogenetic mechanism, despite vigorous claims, has not been clarified...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623919/effects-of-karela-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-genes-of-lipids-and-carbohydrates-metabolism-in-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-biochemical-molecular-and-histopathological-study
#15
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#16
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623159/epigenetic-biomarkers-and-cardiovascular-disease-circulating-micrornas
#17
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA (20-25 nucleotides) involved in gene regulation. In recent years, miRNAs have emerged as a key epigenetic mechanism in the development and physiology of the cardiovascular system. These molecular species regulate basic functions in virtually all cell types, and are therefore directly associated with the pathophysiology of a large number of cardiovascular diseases. Since their relatively recent discovery in extracellular fluids, miRNAs have been studied as potential biomarkers of disease...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620608/a-path-to-implement-precision-child-health-cardiovascular-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Marlin Touma, Brian Reemtsen, Nancy Halnon, Juan Alejos, J Paul Finn, Stanley F Nelson, Yibin Wang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of live births and are a major source of childhood morbidity and mortality even in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Along with phenotypic heterogeneity, the underlying etiology of CHDs is multifactorial, involving genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental contributors. Clear dissection of the underlying mechanism is a powerful step to establish individualized therapies. However, the majority of CHDs are yet to be clearly diagnosed for the underlying genetic and environmental factors, and even less with effective therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620497/painful-ovulation-in-a-46-xx-sry-ve-adult-male-with-sox9-duplication
#19
Nandini Shankara Narayana, Anne-Maree Kean, Lisa Ewans, Thomas Ohnesorg, Katie L Ayers, Geoff Watson, Arthur Vasilaras, Andrew H Sinclair, Stephen M Twigg, David J Handelsman
46,XX disorders of sexual development (DSDs) occur rarely and result from disruptions of the genetic pathways underlying gonadal development and differentiation. We present a case of a young phenotypic male with 46,XX SRY-negative ovotesticular DSD resulting from a duplication upstream of SOX9 presenting with a painful testicular mass resulting from ovulation into an ovotestis. We present a literature review of ovulation in phenotypic men and discuss the role of SRY and SOX9 in testicular development, including the role of SOX9 upstream enhancer region duplication in female-to-male sex reversal...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620300/novel-anti-fibrotic-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Benita L McVicker, Robert G Bennett
Fibrosis is a major player in cardiovascular disease, both as a contributor to the development of disease, as well as a post-injury response that drives progression. Despite the identification of many mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular fibrosis, to date no treatments have emerged that have effectively reduced the excess deposition of extracellular matrix associated with fibrotic conditions. Novel treatments have recently been identified that hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases associated with fibrosis, as well as other fibrotic conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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