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pneumonia randomized controlled trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432193/randomised-positive-control-trial-of-nsaid-and-antimicrobial-treatment-for-calf-fever-caused-by-pneumonia
#1
S A Mahendran, R Booth, M Burge, N J Bell
One hundred and fifty-four preweaning calves were followed between May and October 2015. Calves were fitted with continuous monitoring temperature probes (TempVerified FeverTag), programmed so a flashing light emitting diode (LED) light was triggered following six hours of a sustained ear canal temperature of ≥39.7°C. A total of 83 calves (61.9 per cent) developed undifferentiated fever, with a presumptive diagnosis of pneumonia through exclusion of other calf diseases. Once fever was detected, calves were randomly allocated to treatment groups...
April 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425145/prevalence-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-in-cats-during-anesthesia-and-effect-of-omeprazole-on-gastric-ph
#2
R S Garcia, P C Belafsky, A Della Maggiore, J M Osborn, B H Pypendop, T Pierce, V J Walker, A Fulton, S L Marks
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is poorly characterized in anesthetized cats, but can cause aspiration pneumonia, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture formation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-anesthetic orally administered omeprazole increases gastric and esophageal pH and increases serum gastrin concentrations in anesthetized cats, and to determine the prevalence of GER using combined multichannel impedance and pH monitoring. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy cats undergoing elective dental procedures...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410813/post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-diabetes-mellitus-modifies-the-efficacy-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-elderly
#3
Susanne M Huijts, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Marieke Bolkenbaas, Diederick E Grobbee, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccine (PCV13) was effective in preventing vaccine-type Community-Acquired Pneumonia (VT-CAP) and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (VT-IPD) in elderly subjects, but vaccine efficacy (VE) in patients with comorbidities at time of vaccination is unknown. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the CAPiTA study, a double blind, randomized controlled trial with 84,496 immunocompetent participants aged ⩾65years, receiving PCV13 or placebo vaccination...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404155/survival-outcomes-following-laparoscopic-versus-open-d3-dissection-for-stage-ii-or-iii-colon-cancer-jcog0404-a-phase-3-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Seigo Kitano, Masafumi Inomata, Junki Mizusawa, Hiroshi Katayama, Masahiko Watanabe, Seiichiro Yamamoto, Masaaki Ito, Shuji Saito, Shoichi Fujii, Fumio Konishi, Yoshihisa Saida, Hirotoshi Hasegawa, Tomonori Akagi, Kenichi Sugihara, Takashi Yamaguchi, Tadahiko Masaki, Yosuke Fukunaga, Kohei Murata, Masazumi Okajima, Yoshihiro Moriya, Yasuhiro Shimada
BACKGROUND: Although benefits of laparoscopic surgery compared with open surgery have been suggested, the long-term survival of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer requiring Japanese D3 dissection remains unclear. We did a randomised controlled trial to establish non-inferiority of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery. METHODS: We did an open-label, multi-institutional, randomised, two-arm phase 3 trial in 30 hospitals in Japan. Patients aged 20-75 years who had histologically proven colon cancer; tumours located in the caecum or ascending, sigmoid, or rectosigmoid colon; T3 or deeper lesions without involvement of other organs, node stages N0-2, and metastasis stage M0; and tumour size of 8 cm or smaller were included...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389316/maintenance-therapy-with-vinflunine-plus-best-supportive-care-versus-best-supportive-care-alone-in-patients-with-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma-with-a-response-after-first-line-chemotherapy-maja-sogug-2011-02-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-open-label-phase
#5
Jesus García-Donas, Albert Font, Begoña Pérez-Valderrama, José Antonio Virizuela, Miquel Ángel Climent, Susana Hernando-Polo, José Ángel Arranz, Maria Del Mar Llorente, Nuria Lainez, José Carlos Villa-Guzmán, Begoña Mellado, Aránzazu González Del Alba, Daniel Castellano, Enrique Gallardo, Urbano Anido, Xavier García Del Muro, Montserrat Domènech, Javier Puente, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Jose Luis Pérez-Gracia, Joaquim Bellmunt
BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy improves outcomes in various tumour types, but cumulative toxic effects limit the choice of drugs. We investigated whether maintenance therapy with vinflunine would delay disease progression in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who had achieved disease control with first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2 trial in 21 Spanish hospitals. Eligible patients had locally advanced, surgically unresectable, or metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract, adequate organ function, and disease control after four to six cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine (carboplatin allowed after cycle four)...
April 4, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389097/efficacy-of-a-novel-protein-based-pneumococcal-vaccine-against-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-infants-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-observer-blind-study
#6
Aderonke Odutola, Martin O C Ota, Martin Antonio, Ezra O Ogundare, Yauba Saidu, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Patrick K Owiafe, Fatima Ceesay, Archibald Worwui, Olubukola T Idoko, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Abdoulie Bojang, Sheikh Jarju, Isatou Drammeh, Beate Kampmann, Brian M Greenwood, Mark Alderson, Magali Traskine, Nathalie Devos, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Kristien Swinnen, Vincent Verlant, Kurt Dobbelaere, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: Conserved pneumococcal proteins are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines against pneumococcal diseases. In the first part of a two-part study, an investigational vaccine (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) containing 10 pneumococcal serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates (10VT) combined with pneumolysin toxoid and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (30μg each) was well tolerated by Gambian children. Part two, presented here, assessed the efficacy of two PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD formulations against pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC) prevalence in infants...
April 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369247/the-implications-of-antibiotic-resistance-for-patients-recovery-from-common-infections-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Oliver Van Hecke, Kay Wang, Joseph J Lee, Nia W Roberts, Chris C Butler
Background: Antibiotic use is the main driver for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The perception exists that failure of antibiotic treatment due to antibiotic resistance has little clinical impact in the community. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to 15 April 2016 without language restriction. We included studies conducted in community settings which reported patient-level data on laboratory-confirmed infections (respiratory, urinary tract, skin or soft tissue), antibiotic resistance, and clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363880/effectiveness-of-a-web-based-health-education-program-to-promote-oral-hygiene-care-among-stroke-survivors-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Normaliza Ab Malik, Sa'ari Mohamad Yatim, Otto Lok Tao Lam, Lijian Jin, Colman Patrick Joseph McGrath
BACKGROUND: Oral hygiene care is of key importance among stroke patients to prevent complications that may compromise rehabilitation or potentially give rise to life-threatening infections such as aspiration pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based continuing professional development (CPD) program on "general intention" of the health carers to perform daily mouth cleaning for stroke patients using the theory of planned behavior (TPB)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363363/dexamethasone-for-parapneumonic-pleural-effusion-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#9
Alfredo Tagarro, Enrique Otheo, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, María-Luisa Navarro, Rosa Velasco, Marta Ruiz, María Penín, David Moreno, Pablo Rojo, Rosario Madero
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25 mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360514/laba-lama-combinations-versus-lama-monotherapy-or-laba-ics-in-copd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Gustavo J Rodrigo, David Price, Antonio Anzueto, Dave Singh, Pablo Altman, Giovanni Bader, Francesco Patalano, Robert Fogel, Konstantinos Kostikas
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that long-acting bronchodilator combinations, such as β2-agonist (LABA)/muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), have favorable efficacy compared with commonly used COPD treatments. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA with LAMA or LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in adults with stable moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trial/manufacturer databases) included RCTs comparing ≥12 weeks' LABA/LAMA treatment with LAMA and/or LABA/ICS (approved doses only)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350238/safety-and-effectiveness-of-robot-assisted-versus-open-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Soo Kyung Son, Na Rae Lee, Seok Ho Kang, Seon Heui Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) compared with open radical cystectomy (ORC) in bladder cancer. METHODS: A literature search for the systematic review was conducted using international databases as well as domestic databases up to April 2015. Outcomes of interest included baseline characteristics, complication rates, perioperative, and oncologic outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four articles were finally selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315586/sucralfate-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-adult-critically-ill-patients-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#12
Mustafa Alquraini, Fayez Alshamsi, Morten Hylander Møller, Emilie Belley-Cote, Saleh Almenawer, Roman Jaeschke, Robert MacLaren, Waleed Alhazzani
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of using sucralfate versus H2RAs for SUP on patient important outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACPJC, clinical trials registries, and conference proceedings through June 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sucralfate to H2RAs for SUP in adult critically ill patients. RESULTS: 21 RCTs enrolling 3121 patients met inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference between sucralfate compared to H2RAs in the risk of clinically important GI bleeding (risk ratio [RR] 1...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303301/impact-of-tapered-cuff-tracheal-tube-on-microaspiration-of-gastric-contents-in-intubated-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-cluster-randomized-cross-over-controlled-trial
#13
Emmanuelle Jaillette, Christophe Girault, Guillaume Brunin, Farid Zerimech, Hélène Behal, Arnaud Chiche, Céline Broucqsault-Dedrie, Cyril Fayolle, Franck Minacori, Isabelle Alves, Stéphanie Barrailler, Julien Labreuche, Laurent Robriquet, Fabienne Tamion, Emmanuel Delaporte, Damien Thellier, Claire Delcourte, Alain Duhamel, Saad Nseir
PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of tapered-cuff tracheal tubes on rates of microaspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intubated patients have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of this shape of tracheal cuff on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents in critically ill patients. METHODS: All patients intubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h were eligible for this multicenter cluster-randomized controlled cross-over open-label study...
March 16, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292304/design-and-implementation-of-electronic-health-record-integrated-clinical-prediction-rules-icpr-a-randomized-trial-in-diverse-primary-care-settings
#15
David A Feldstein, Rachel Hess, Thomas McGinn, Rebecca G Mishuris, Lauren McCullagh, Paul D Smith, Michael Flynn, Joseph Palmisano, Gheorghe Doros, Devin Mann
BACKGROUND: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) represent a method of determining individual patient risk to help providers make more accurate decisions at the point of care. Well-validated CPRs are underutilized but may decrease antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory infections. The integrated clinical prediction rules (iCPR) study builds on a previous single clinic study to integrate two CPRs into the electronic health record and assess their impact on practice. This article discusses study design and implementation of a multicenter cluster randomized control trial of the iCPR clinical decision support system, including the tool adaptation, usability testing, staff training, and implementation study to disseminate iCPR at multiple clinical sites across two health care systems...
March 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292280/the-impact-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-on-the-health-related-quality-of-life-in-elderly
#16
Marie-Josée J Mangen, Susanne M Huijts, Marc J M Bonten, G Ardine de Wit
BACKGROUND: The sustained health-related quality-of-life of patients surviving community-acquired pneumonia has not been accurately quantified. The aim of the current study was to quantify differences in health-related quality-of-life of community-dwelling elderly with and without community-acquired pneumonia during a 12-month follow-up period. METHODS: In a matched cohort study design, nested in a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in community-dwelling persons of ≥65 years, health-related quality-of-life was assessed in 562 subjects hospitalized with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (i...
March 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284468/the-influence-of-tracheostomy-timing-on-outcomes-in-trauma-patients-a-meta-analysis
#17
Shi-Qi Cai, Jun-Wu Hu, Dong Liu, Xiang-Jun Bai, Jie Xie, Jia-Jun Chen, Fan Yang, Tao Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the influence of tracheostomy timing on outcomes among trauma patients, including mortality, medical resource utility and incidence of pneumonia. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by internet search. Data were extracted from selected studies and analyzed using Stata to compare outcomes in trauma patients with early tracheostomy (ET) or late tracheostomy (LT)/prolonged intubation (PI). RESULT: 20 studies met our inclusion criteria with 3305 patients in ET group and 4446 patients in LT/PI group...
February 24, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282701/vitamin-a-supplementation-for-preventing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-from-six-months-to-five-years-of-age
#18
REVIEW
Aamer Imdad, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Kurt Herzer, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, affecting 190 million children under five years of age and leading to many adverse health consequences, including death. Based on prior evidence and a previous version of this review, the World Health Organization has continued to recommend vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months. There are new data available from recently published randomised trials since the previous publication of this review in 2010, and this update incorporates this information and reviews the evidence...
March 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273084/vitamin-d-deficiency-predicts-infections-in-young-north-indian-children-a-secondary-data-analysis
#19
Ranadip Chowdhury, Sunita Taneja, Nita Bhandari, Bireshwar Sinha, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Maharaj Kishan Bhan, Tor A Strand
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between poor vitamin D status and respiratory infections and diarrhea among young children. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and diarrhea are among the two most important causes of death in under-5 children. In this paper, we examined the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) predicts ALRI, clinical pneumonia and diarrhea among 6 to 30 months old children. METHODS: We used data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in 6 to 30 months old children conducted in Delhi, India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267808/gastric-tube-versus-whole-stomach-esophagectomy-for-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Wenxiong Zhang, Dongliang Yu, Jinhua Peng, Jianjun Xu, Yiping Wei
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the gastric-tube vs. whole-stomach for esophageal cancer in order to determine the optimal surgical technique of esophagectomy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Clinical trials that compared the gastric-tube versus whole-stomach for esophageal cancer were selected...
2017: PloS One
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