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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465554/case-report-purulent-transformation-of-granulocytic-sarcoma-an-unusual-pattern-of-differentiation-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#1
Elodie Collinge, Isabelle Tigaud, Brigitte Balme, Luc-Marie Gerland, Pierre Sujobert, Violette Carlioz, Gilles Salles, Xavier Thomas, Etienne Paubelle
RATIONALE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. APL is currently treated with combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) resulting in the induction of apoptosis and differentiation of the leukemic cells. Differentiation syndrome (so-called ATRA syndrome) is the main life-threatening complication of induction therapy with these differentiating agents. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with APL with, concomitantly, a bulky cutaneous lesion of 10 cm diameter with a red-to-purple background and a necrotic center, localized on her abdomen...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458023/structural-characterization-of-the-hcov-229e-fusion-core
#2
Wei Zhang, Qianqian Zheng, Mengrong Yan, Xiaobo Chen, Haitao Yang, Weihong Zhou, Zihe Rao
HCoV-229E spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This protein is composed of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal trans-membrane fusion domain (S2). S2 contains a highly conserved heptad repeat 1 and 2 (HR1 and HR2). In this study, the HRs sequences were designed and connected with a flexible linker. The recombinant fusion core protein was crystallized and its structure was solved at a resolution of 2.45 Å. Then we characterized the binding of HR1s and HR2s via both sequence alignment and structural analysis...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444959/the-synaptotagmin-c2b-domain-calcium-binding-loops-modulate-the-rate-of-fusion-pore-expansion
#3
Mounir Bendahmane, Kevin P Bohannon, Mazdak M Bradberry, Tejeshwar C Rao, Michael W Schmidtke, Prabhodh S Abbineni, Nara L Chon, Sherleen Tran, Hai Lin, Edwin R Chapman, Jefferson D Knight, Arun Anantharam
In chromaffin cells, the kinetics of fusion pore expansion vary depending on which synaptotagmin isoform (Syt-1 or Syt-7) drives release. Our recent studies have shown that fusion pores of granules harboring Syt-1 expand more rapidly than those harboring Syt-7. Here, we sought to define the structural specificity of synaptotagmin action at the fusion pore by manipulating the Ca 2+ -binding C2B module. We generated a chimeric Syt-1 in which its C2B Ca 2+ -binding loops had been exchanged for those of Syt-7. Fusion pores of granules harboring a Syt-1 C2B chimera with all three Ca 2+ -binding loops of Syt-7 (Syt-1:7C2B 123 ) exhibited slower rates of fusion pore expansion and neuropeptide cargo release relative to WT Syt-1...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435652/feasibility-and-outcome-of-stand-alone-trans-articular-screw-fixation-in-atlantoaxial-instability-in-children-less-than-8-years-of-age
#4
Shumayou Dutta, Vishal Kundnani, Tarun Dusad, Ankit Patel
PURPOSE: To study the feasibility and outcome of stand-alone trans-articular screw (TAS) fixation for atlantoaxial instability (AAI) in children less than 8 years of age. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between 2009 and 2014. Thirteen children suffering from AAI were operated for a TAS fixation. Feasibility of TAS fixation was assessed on CT scan and a screw diameter was chosen based on C2 isthmus diameter. Demographic data collected included the etiology for AAI, age, and sex...
February 12, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428525/synthesis-and-activity-evaluation-of-a-series-of-cholanamides-as-modulators-of-the-liver-x-receptors
#5
Mario D Martínez, Alberto A Ghini, M Virginia Dansey, Adriana S Veleiro, Adali Pecci, Lautaro D Alvarez, Gerardo Burton
The Liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor family, that play fundamental roles in cholesterol transport, lipid metabolism and modulation of inflammatory responses. In recent years, the synthetic steroid N,N-dimethyl-3β-hydroxycholenamide (DMHCA) arised as a promising LXR ligand. This compound was able to dissociate certain beneficial LXRs effects from those undesirable ones involved in triglyceride metabolism. Here, we synthetized a series of DMHCA analogues with different modifications in the steroidal nucleus involving the A/B ring fusion, that generate changes in the overall conformation of the steroid...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420480/dynamics-and-number-of-trans-snare-complexes-determine-nascent-fusion-pore-properties
#6
Huan Bao, Debasis Das, Nicholas A Courtney, Yihao Jiang, Joseph S Briguglio, Xiaochu Lou, Daniel Roston, Qiang Cui, Baron Chanda, Edwin R Chapman
The fusion pore is the first crucial intermediate formed during exocytosis, yet little is known about the mechanisms that determine the size and kinetic properties of these transient structures. Here, we reduced the number of available SNAREs (proteins that mediate vesicle fusion) in neurons and observed changes in transmitter release that are suggestive of alterations in fusion pores. To investigate these changes, we employed reconstituted fusion assays using nanodiscs to trap pores in their initial open state...
February 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415452/hard-fusion-based-spectrum-sensing-over-mobile-fading-channels-in-cognitive-vehicular-networks
#7
Xiaomin Qian, Li Hao, Dadong Ni, Quang Thanh Tran
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used in vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicle mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398689/a-missense-mutation-in-the-nsf-gene-causes-abnormal-golgi-morphology-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Sayuri Tanabashi, Keiko Shoda, Chieko Saito, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a key station of glycosylation and membrane traffic. It consists of stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms how the Golgi stacks are formed and maintained are still obscure. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provides a nice system to observe Golgi structures by light microscopy, because the Golgi in A. thaliana is in the form of mini-stacks that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. To obtain a clue to understand the molecular basis of Golgi morphology, we took a forward-genetic approach to isolate A...
February 2, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398202/trans-golgi-network-bound-cargo-traffic
#9
REVIEW
Pelin Makaraci, Kyoungtae Kim
Cargo following the retrograde trafficking are sorted at endosomes to be targeted the trans-Golgi network (TGN), a central receiving organelle. Though molecular requirements and their interaction networks have been somewhat established, the complete understanding of the intricate nature of their action mechanisms in every step of the retrograde traffic pathway remains unachieved. This review focuses on elucidating known functions of key regulators, including scission factors at the endosome and tethering/fusion mediators at the receiving dock, TGN, as well as a diverse range of cargo...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387217/effects-of-lapatinib-on-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-nb4-cells
#10
Lu Liu, Liang Zhong, Yi Zhao, Min Chen, Shifei Yao, Lianwen Li, Chunlan Xiao, Zhiling Shan, Liugen Gan, Ting Xu, Beizhong Liu
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), characterized by the presence of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid α receptor (RARα) fusion protein, responds to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). However, drug resistance and side effects restrict the application of these reagents. Hence, the development of novel therapeutic drugs for APL treatment is critical. Lapatinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used in the treatment of different tumors. However, it is unclear whether lapatinib exerts antitumor effects on APL...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370693/biological-roles-of-alternative-autophagy
#11
REVIEW
Shigeomi Shimizu
Atg5 and Atg7 have long been considered as essential molecules for autophagy. However, we found that cells lacking these molecules still form autophagic vacuoles and perform autophagic protein degradation when subjected to certain stressors. During this unconventional autophagy pathway, autophagosomes appeared to be generated in a Rab9-dependent manner by the fusion of vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi and late endosomes. Therefore, mammalian autophagy can occur via at least two different pathways; the Atg5/Atg7-dependent conventional pathway and an Atg5/Atg7-independent alternative pathway...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369320/efficient-construction-of-bioactive-trans-5a5b6c-spirolactones-via-bicyclo-4-3-0-%C3%AE-hydroxy-ketones
#12
Y J Zhu, J Q Huo, Z J Fan, Q F Wu, X Li, S Zhou, L X Xiong, T Kalinina, T Glukhareva
An efficient, convenient short synthetic procedure for the synthesis of the intricate 5A5B6C-ring fusion topologies of tricyclic spiranoid β-hydroxybutyrolactones through lactonization of the key intermediate trans-α-hydroxyindenones with malonates is described. All the compounds synthesized exhibited environmentally benign characteristics, moderate fungicidal, nematocidal, and anti-TMV activities.
January 25, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361052/curve-laterality-for-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion-in-adult-scoliosis-surgery-the-concave-versus-convex-controversy
#13
Adam S Kanter, Zachary J Tempel, Nitin Agarwal, D Kojo Hamilton, Joseph M Zavatsky, Gregory M Mundis, Stacie Tran, Dean Chou, Paul Park, Juan S Uribe, Michael Y Wang, Neel Anand, Robert Eastlack, Praveen V Mummaneni, David O Okonkwo
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is an effective adjunct in adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) surgery. LLIF approaches performed from the concavity or convexity have inherent approach-related risks and benefits. OBJECTIVE: To analyze LLIF approach-related complications and radiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with ADS. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review of a minimally invasive adult spinal deformity database was queried with a minimum of 2-yr follow-up...
January 18, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354747/systematic-review-of-cortical-bone-trajectory-versus-pedicle-screw-techniques-for-lumbosacral-spine-fusion
#14
REVIEW
Kevin Phan, Vignesh Ramachandran, Tommy M Tran, Kevin P Shah, Matthew Fadhil, Alan Lackey, Nicholas Chang, Ai-Min Wu, Ralph J Mobbs
Fusion of the lumbosacral spine is a common surgical procedure to address a range of spinal pathologies. Fixation in lumbar fusion has traditionally been performed using pedicle screw (PS) augmentation. However, an alternative method of screw insertion via cortical bone trajectory (CBT) has been advocated as a less invasive approach which improves initial fixation and reduces neurovascular injury. There is a paucity of robust clinical evidence to support these claims, particularly in comparison to traditional pedicle screws...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346777/prrt2-regulates-synaptic-fusion-by-directly-modulating-snare-complex-assembly
#15
Jeff Coleman, Ouardane Jouannot, Sathish K Ramakrishnan, Maria N Zanetti, Jing Wang, Vincenzo Salpietro, Henry Houlden, James E Rothman, Shyam S Krishnakumar
Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) are associated with a range of paroxysmal neurological disorders. PRRT2 predominantly localizes to the pre-synaptic terminals and is believed to regulate neurotransmitter release. However, the mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we use reconstituted single vesicle and bulk fusion assays, combined with live cell imaging of single exocytotic events in PC12 cells and biophysical analysis, to delineate the physiological role of PRRT2. We report that PRRT2 selectively blocks the trans SNARE complex assembly and thus negatively regulates synaptic vesicle priming...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344139/nls-rar%C3%AE-is-a-novel-transcriptional-factor
#16
Kai-Ling Jiang, Liang Zhong, Xiao-Qun Yang, Peng-Peng Ma, Hui Wang, Xin-Yu Zhu, Bei-Zhong Liu
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the presence of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) fusion protein. PML-RARα can be cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) in several positions in cells in the promyelocytic stage, nuclear location signal (NLS)-negative PML and NLS-RARα may be the products of PML-RARα by NE. The function of NLS-RARα may be affected by the addition of NLS, which would alter its localization in cells, as the role of NLS is to identify proteins for transport to the nucleus...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337901/transcriptional-readthrough-rnas-reflect-the-phenomenon-of-a-gene-contains-gene-s-or-gene-s-within-a-gene-in-the-human-genome-and-thus-are-not-chimeric-rnas
#17
REVIEW
Yan He, Chengfu Yuan, Lichan Chen, Mingjuan Lei, Lucas Zellmer, Hai Huang, Dezhong Joshua Liao
Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs, i.e., RNAs with sequences of two genes, have been identified in human cells. Most of them are formed by two neighboring genes on the same chromosome and are considered to be derived via transcriptional readthrough, but a true readthrough event still awaits more evidence and trans-splicing that joins two transcripts together remains as a possible mechanism. We regard those genomic loci that are transcriptionally read through as unannotated genes, because their transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations are the same as those of already-annotated genes, including fusion genes formed due to genetic alterations...
January 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337690/molecular-determinants-of-drosophila-immunophilin-fkbp39-nuclear-localization
#18
Marek Orłowski, Katarzyna Popławska, Joanna Pieprzyk, Aleksandra Szczygieł-Sommer, Anna Więch, Mirosław Zarębski, Aneta Tarczewska, Jurek Dobrucki, Andrzej Ożyhar
FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) belong to a distinct class of immunophilins that interact with immunosuppressants. They use their peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity to catalyse the cis-trans conversion of prolyl bonds in proteins during protein-folding events. FKBPs also act as a unique group of chaperones. The Drosophila melanogaster peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase FK506-binding protein of 39 kDa (FKBP39) is thought to act as a transcriptional modulator of gene expression in 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone signal transduction...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330284/novel-intergenically-spliced-chimera-nfatc3-pla2g15-is-associated-with-aggressive-t-all-biology-and-outcome
#19
Jonathan Bond, Christine Tran Quang, Guillaume Hypolite, Mohamed Belhocine, Aurélie Bergon, Gaëlle Cordonnier, Jacques Ghysdael, Elizabeth Macintyre, Nicolas Boissel, Salvatore Spicuglia, Vahid Asnafi
Leukemias are frequently characterized by the expression of oncogenic fusion chimeras that normally arise due to chromosomal rearrangements. Intergenically-spliced chimeric RNAs (ISCs) are transcribed in the absence of structural genomic changes, and aberrant ISC expression is now recognized as a potential driver of cancer. To better understand these potential oncogenic drivers, high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patient specimens (n=24) and candidate T-ALL-related ISCs were identified (n=55; a median of 4 per patient)...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324704/dissection-of-myogenic-differentiation-signatures-in-chickens-by-rna-seq-analysis
#20
Tingting Li, Genxi Zhang, Pengfei Wu, Lian Duan, Guohui Li, Qiuhong Liu, Jinyu Wang
A series of elaborately regulated and orchestrated changes in gene expression profiles leads to muscle growth and development. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to profile embryonic chicken myoblasts and fused myotube transcriptomes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at four stages of myoblast differentiation. Of a total of 2484 lncRNA transcripts, 2288 were long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 198 were antisense lncRNAs. Additionally, 1530 lncRNAs were neighboring 2041 protein-coding genes (<10 kb upstream and downstream) and functionally enriched in several pathways related to skeletal muscle development that have been extensively studied, indicating that these genes may be in cis-regulatory relationships...
January 11, 2018: Genes
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