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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#1
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076803/drunken-membranes-short-chain-alcohols-alter-fusion-of-liposomes-to-planar-lipid-bilayers
#2
Jason Paxman, Brady Hunt, David Hallan, Samuel R Zarbock, Dixon J Woodbury
Although the effects of ethanol on protein receptors and lipid membranes have been studied extensively, ethanol's effect on vesicles fusing to lipid bilayers is not known. To determine the effect of alcohols on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay to measure fusion of liposomes to a planar lipid bilayer (BLM). The addition of ethanol excited fusion when applied on the cis (vesicle) side, and inhibited fusion on the trans side. Other short-chain alcohols followed a similar pattern. In general, the inhibitory effect of alcohols (trans) occurs at lower doses than the excitatory (cis) effect, with a decrease of 29% in fusion rates at the legal driving limit of 0...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069948/genomic-targeting-of-epigenetic-probes-using-a-chemically-tailored-cas9-system
#3
Glen P Liszczak, Zachary Z Brown, Samuel H Kim, Rob C Oslund, Yael David, Tom W Muir
Recent advances in the field of programmable DNA-binding proteins have led to the development of facile methods for genomic localization of genetically encodable entities. Despite the extensive utility of these tools, locus-specific delivery of synthetic molecules remains limited by a lack of adequate technologies. Here we combine the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the specificity of a programmable DNA-binding protein by using protein trans-splicing to ligate synthetic elements to a nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) in vitro and subsequently deliver the dCas9 cargo to live cells...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049418/chimpipe-accurate-detection-of-fusion-genes-and-transcription-induced-chimeras-from-rna-seq-data
#4
Bernardo Rodríguez-Martín, Emilio Palumbo, Santiago Marco-Sola, Thasso Griebel, Paolo Ribeca, Graciela Alonso, Alberto Rastrojo, Begoña Aguado, Roderic Guigó, Sarah Djebali
BACKGROUND: Chimeric transcripts are commonly defined as transcripts linking two or more different genes in the genome, and can be explained by various biological mechanisms such as genomic rearrangement, read-through or trans-splicing, but also by technical or biological artefacts. Several studies have shown their importance in cancer, cell pluripotency and motility. Many programs have recently been developed to identify chimeras from Illumina RNA-seq data (mostly fusion genes in cancer)...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043904/liver-cancer-cell-of-origin-molecular-class-and-effects-on-patient-prognosis
#5
REVIEW
Daniela Sia, Augusto Villanueva, Scott L Friedman, Josep M Llovet
Primary liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and therefore a major public health challenge. We review hypotheses of the cell of origin of liver tumorigenesis, and clarify the classes of liver cancer, based on molecular features and how these affect patient prognosis. Primary liver cancer comprises hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), and other rare tumors, notably fibrolamellar carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. The molecular and clinical features of HCC vs iCCA are distinct, although they have overlapping risk factors and pathways of oncogenesis...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035466/a-rare-postoperative-complication-of-anterior-lower-thoracic-instrumentation-diaphragmatic-laceration-with-hemothorax
#6
Yat Wa Wong, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Keith Dip Kei Luk, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung
PURPOSE: To highlight the importance of preventing visceral injury due to prominent anterior implants at the spinal column. METHODS: A 52-year-old man with cord compression was treated with a T9/10 discectomy and instrumented fusion via a right thoracotomy and trans-pleural approach. Postoperatively, he had improved lower limb numbness. However, after a bout of coughing, there was sudden increase in chest drain output, hemodynamic instability and massive fluid collection in the right chest cavity...
December 29, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032710/anterior-and-posterior-instrumentation-with-different-debridement-and-grafting-procedures-for-multi-level-contiguous-thoracic-spinal-tuberculosis
#7
Xu Cui, Li-Tao Li, Yuan-Zheng Ma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of anterior and posterior instrumentation with different debridement and graft fusion methods for multi-level contiguous thoracic spinal tuberculosis. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 81 patients with multi-level contiguous thoracic spinal tuberculosis who underwent anterior or posterior instrumentation combined with different methods of debridement, decompression, and graft fusion from January 2002 to December 2012...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024805/review-placental-mitochondrial-function-and-structure-in-gestational-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Olivia Holland, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Linda A Gallo, Meliha Vejzovic, Joshua J Fisher, Anthony V Perkins
The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999304/identification-of-heat-shock-transcription-factor-genes-involved-in-thermotolerance-of-octoploid-cultivated-strawberry
#9
Wan-Yu Liao, Lee-Fong Lin, Jing-Lian Jheng, Chun-Chung Wang, Jui-Hung Yang, Ming-Lun Chou
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are mainly involved in the activation of genes in response to heat stress as well as other abiotic and biotic stresses. The growth, development, reproduction, and yield of strawberry are strongly limited by extreme temperatures and droughts. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing and obtained transcriptome data set from Fragaria × ananassa Duchessne cv. Toyonoka. Six contigs and three unigenes were confirmed to encode HSF proteins (FaTHSFs). Subsequently, we characterized the biological functions of two particularly selected unigenes, FaTHSFA2a and FaTHSFB1a, which were classified into class A2 and B HSFs, respectively...
December 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982626/experimental-investigation-of-the-collective-raman-scattering-of-multiple-laser-beams-in-inhomogeneous-plasmas
#10
S Depierreux, C Neuville, C Baccou, V Tassin, M Casanova, P-E Masson-Laborde, N Borisenko, A Orekhov, A Colaitis, A Debayle, G Duchateau, A Heron, S Huller, P Loiseau, P Nicolaï, D Pesme, C Riconda, G Tran, R Bahr, J Katz, C Stoeckl, W Seka, V Tikhonchuk, C Labaune
Experiments have been performed evidencing significant stimulated Raman sidescattering (SRS) at large angles from the density gradient. This was achieved in long scale-length high-temperature plasmas in which two beams couple to the same scattered electromagnetic wave further demonstrating for the first time this multiple-beam collective SRS interaction. The collective nature of the coupling and the amplification at large angles from the density gradient increase the global SRS losses and produce light scattered in novel directions out of the planes of incidence of the beams...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977075/a-re-interpretation-of-cell-transplantation-gfp-transfer-from-donor-to-host-photoreceptors
#11
Arturo Ortin-Martinez, En Leh Samuel Tsai, Philip E Nickerson, Miriam Bergeret, Yao Lu, Sheila Smiley, Lacrimioara Comanita, Valerie A Wallace
The utilization of fluorescent reporter transgenes to discriminate donor versus host cells has been a mainstay of photoreceptor transplantation research, the assumption being that the presence of reporter+ cells in outer nuclear layer (ONL) of transplant recipients represents the integration of donor photoreceptors. We previously reported that GFP(+) cells in the ONL of cone-GFP transplanted retinas exhibited rod-like characteristics, raising the possibility that GFP signal in recipient tissue may not be a consequence of cell integration...
December 14, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943185/in-situ-protein-binding-assay-using-fc-fusion-proteins
#12
Nirmala Padmanabhan, Tabrez J Siddiqui
This protocol describes an in situ protein-protein interaction assay between tagged recombinant proteins and cell-surface expressed synaptic proteins. The assay is arguably more sensitive than other traditional protein binding assays such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull-downs and provides a visual readout for binding. This assay has been widely used to determine the dissociation constant of binding of trans-synaptic adhesion proteins. The step-wise description in the protocol should facilitate the adoption of this method in other laboratories...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942972/the-influenza-a-virus-matrix-protein-2-undergoes-retrograde-transport-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-into-the-cytoplasm-and-bypasses-cytoplasmic-proteasomal-degradation
#13
Sanchari Bhowmick, Chandrani Chakravarty, Shanmugaapriya Sellathamby, Sunil K Lal
The matrix protein 2 (M2) is a spliced product of segment 7 genome of influenza A virus. Previous studies indicate its role in uncoating of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex during viral entry and in membrane scission while budding. Despite its crucial role in the viral life cycle, little is known about its subcellular distribution and dynamics. In this study, we have shown that the M2 protein is translocated from the membrane to the cytoplasm by a retrograde route via endosomes and the Golgi network. It utilizes retromer cargo while moving from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network and prevents endosome fusion with the lysosome...
December 9, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927751/rab2a-and-rab27a-cooperatively-regulate-transition-from-granule-maturation-to-exocytosis-through-the-dual-effector-noc2
#14
Kohichi Matsunaga, Masato Taoka, Toshiaki Isobe, Tetsuro Izumi
Exocytosis of secretory granules entails budding from the trans-Golgi network, sorting and maturation of cargo proteins, and trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. Rab27a regulates the late steps in this process, such as granule recruitment to the fusion site, whereas Rab2a functions in the early steps, such as granule biogenesis and maturation. Here, we demonstrate that these two small GTPases simultaneously bind to Noc2 in GTP-dependent manners, although Rab2a binds only after Rab27a has bound. In pancreatic beta cells, the ternary Rab2a-Noc2-Rab27a complex specifically localizes on perinuclear immature granules, whereas the binary Noc2-Rab27a complex localizes on peripheral mature granules...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927570/exercise-tolerance-in-children-with-early-onset-scoliosis-growing-rod-treatment-graduates
#15
Kelly A Jeans, Charles E Johnston, Wilshaw R Stevens, Dong-Phuong Tran
STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients undergoing growing rod treatment, who have had no surgery for >1 year and/or have received definitive fusion (growing rod "graduates"). OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen consumption during exercise and determine if a diminished conventional pulmonary function test (PFT) correlates with metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular measures during exercise. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Based on clinical impression and sequential PFT values, EOS patients who have undergone extensive treatment are thought to have limited capacity during exercise...
November 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926866/inflammation-induced-oxidative-stress-mediates-gene-fusion-formation-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Ram S Mani, Mohammad A Amin, Xiangyi Li, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Brendan A Veeneman, Lei Wang, Aparna Ghosh, Adam Aslam, Susmita G Ramanand, Bradley J Rabquer, Wataru Kimura, Maxwell Tran, Xuhong Cao, Sameek Roychowdhury, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Hesham A Sadek, Payal Kapur, Alisa E Koch, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Approximately 50% of prostate cancers are associated with gene fusions of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 to the oncogenic erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG. The three-dimensional proximity of TMPRSS2 and ERG genes, in combination with DNA breaks, facilitates the formation of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions. However, the origins of DNA breaks that underlie gene fusion formation in prostate cancers are far from clear. We demonstrate a role for inflammation-induced oxidative stress in the formation of DNA breaks leading to recurrent TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907167/infusion-advancing-discovery-of-fusion-genes-and-chimeric-transcripts-from-deep-rna-sequencing-data
#17
Konstantin Okonechnikov, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Lukas Paul, Alexander Seitz, Thomas F Meyer, Fernando Garcia-Alcalde
Analysis of fusion transcripts has become increasingly important due to their link with cancer development. Since high-throughput sequencing approaches survey fusion events exhaustively, several computational methods for the detection of gene fusions from RNA-seq data have been developed. This kind of analysis, however, is complicated by native trans-splicing events, the splicing-induced complexity of the transcriptome and biases and artefacts introduced in experiments and data analysis. There are a number of tools available for the detection of fusions from RNA-seq data; however, certain differences in specificity and sensitivity between commonly used approaches have been found...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899596/chitars-3-1-the-enhanced-chimeric-transcripts-and-rna-seq-database-matched-with-protein-protein-interactions
#18
Alessandro Gorohovski, Somnath Tagore, Vikrant Palande, Assaf Malka, Dorith Raviv-Shay, Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern
Discovery of chimeric RNAs, which are produced by chromosomal translocations as well as the joining of exons from different genes by trans-splicing, has added a new level of complexity to our study and understanding of the transcriptome. The enhanced ChiTaRS-3.1 database (http://chitars.md.biu.ac.il) is designed to make widely accessible a wealth of mined data on chimeric RNAs, with easy-to-use analytical tools built-in. The database comprises 34 922: chimeric transcripts along with 11 714: cancer breakpoints...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881666/how-and-why-intralumenal-membrane-fragments-form-during-vacuolar-lysosome-fusion
#19
Sevan Mattie McNally, Erin K Karim, Mahmoud A Vali, Hojatollah Brett, Christopher L Brett
Lysosomal membrane fusion mediates the last step of the autophagy and endocytosis pathways, and supports organelle remodeling and biogenesis. Because fusogenic proteins and lipids concentrate in a ring at the vertex between apposing organelle membranes, the encircled area of membrane can be severed and internalized within the lumen as a fragment upon lipid bilayer fusion. How or why this intralumenal fragment forms during fusion, however, is not entirely clear. To better understand this process, we studied fragment formation during homotypic vacuolar lysosome membrane fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using cell-free fusion assays and light microscopy, we find that GTPase activation and trans-SNARE complex zippering have opposing effects on fragment formation, and verify that this impacts the morphology of the fusion product and regulates transporter protein degradation...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871970/surgical-management-of-post-traumatic-atlantoaxial-rotatory-fixation-due-to-c2-facet-fracture-5-clinical-cases
#20
H Peyriere, T Graillon, S Pesenti, P Tropiano, B Blondel, S Fuentes
PURPOSE: Report the results of surgical treatment of post-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) due to C2 articular facet fracture in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The records of five patients treated since 2009 for AARF due to a C2 articular facet fracture were analyzed retrospectively. Three women and two men with an average age of 60 years (27-82) were included, one of whom initially had neurological deficits. In all cases, the surgical strategy consisted of posterior fixation: Harms-type in four cases and trans-articular with hooks in one case...
November 18, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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