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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331973/family-focused-practices-in-addictions-a-scoping-review-protocol
#1
Toula Kourgiantakis, Rachelle Ashcroft
INTRODUCTION: Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331943/modern-management-of-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Bo Shen, Amy Lightner, Takayuki Yamamoto, Antonino Spinelli, Subrata Ghosh, Remo Panaccione
Perianal fistulae in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can be associated with significant morbidity resulting in negative impact on quality of life. The last two decades have seen significant advancements in the management of perianal fistulas in CD, which has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach that includes gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, endoscopists and radiologists. Despite the introduction of new medical therapies such as antitumour necrosis factor and novel models of care delivery, the best fistula healing rates reported with combined medical and surgical approaches are approximately 50%...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331909/linking-composition-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-eps-to-the-physical-structure-and-hydraulic-resistance-of-membrane-biofilms
#3
Peter Desmond, James P Best, Eberhard Morgenroth, Nicolas Derlon
The effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the meso-scale physical structure and hydraulic resistance of membrane biofilms during gravity driven membrane (GDM) filtration was investigated. Biofilms were developed on the surface of ultrafiltration membranes during dead-end filtration at ultra-low pressure (70 mbar). Biofilm EPS composition (total protein, polysaccharide and eDNA) was manipulated by growing biofilms under contrasting nutrient conditions. Nutrient conditions consisted of (i) a nutrient enriched condition with a nutrient ratio of 100:30:10 (C: N: P), (ii) a phosphorus limitation (C: N: P ratio: 100:30:0), and (iii) a nitrogen limitation (C: N: P ratio: 100:0:10)...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331533/a-woman-s-hand-and-a-lion-s-heart-skills-and-attributes-for-rural-midwifery-practice-in-new-zealand-and-scotland
#4
Andrea Gilkison, Jean Rankin, Mary Kensington, Rea Daellenbach, Lorna Davies, Ruth Deery, Susan Crowther
OBJECTIVE: the complex and challenging nature of rural midwifery is a global issue. New Zealand and Scotland both face similar ongoing challenges in sustaining a rural midwifery workforce, and understanding the best preparation for rural midwifery practice. This study aimed to explore the range of skills, qualities and professional expertise needed for remote and rural midwifery practice. DESIGN: online mixed methods: An initial questionnaire via a confidential SurveyMonkey® was circulated to all midwives working with rural women and families in New Zealand and Scotland...
December 19, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331519/understanding-and-misunderstanding-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Angus Deaton, Nancy Cartwright
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are increasingly popular in the social sciences, not only in medicine. We argue that the lay public, and sometimes researchers, put too much trust in RCTs over other methods of investigation. Contrary to frequent claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything other than the treatment in the treatment and control groups, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) covariates...
December 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331437/influence-of-operator-experience-and-pci-volume-on-transfemoral-access-techniques-a-collaboration-of-international-cardiovascular-societies
#6
Daniel W Nelson, Abdulla A Damluji, Nish Patel, Marco Valgimigli, Stephan Windecker, Robert Byrne, James Nolan, Tejas Patel, Emmanouil Brilakis, Subhash Banerjee, Jorge Mayol, Warren J Cantor, Carlos E Alfonso, Sunil V Rao, Mauro Moscucci, Mauricio G Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Transfemoral access (TFA) is widely used for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The influence of operator age, gender, experience, and procedural volume on performance of femoral arterial access has not been studied. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed and distributed via e-mail from professional societies to interventional cardiologists worldwide from March to December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 988 physicians from 88 countries responded to the survey...
December 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331253/evaluation-of-three-machine-learning-models-for-self-referral-decision-support-on-low-back-pain-in-primary-care
#7
Wendy Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Mannes Poel, Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Remko Soer, Hermie Hermens
BACKGROUND: Most people experience low back pain (LBP) at least once in their life and for some patients this evolves into a chronic condition. One way to prevent acute LBP from transiting into chronic LBP, is to ensure that patients receive the right interventions at the right moment. We started research in the design of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support patients with LBP in their self-referral to primary care. For this, we explored the possibilities of using supervised machine learning...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330842/self-perceived-long-term-transfer-of-learning-after-postpartum-hemorrhage-simulation-training
#8
Brena C P Melo, Ana R Falbo, Jette Led Sorensen, Jeroen J G van Merriënboer, Cees van der Vleuten
OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews with obstetrics and gynecology healthcare practitioners were conducted between August 7 and September 26, 2015, in Recife, Brazil. The participants were randomly selected from each of two postpartum hemorrhage simulations attended 2 years earlier (one ID and one conventional best practice)...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330240/structured-management-of-chronic-nonmalignant-pain-with-opioids-in-a-rural-primary-care-office
#9
Kevin S McCann, Shawndra Barker, Raymond Cousins, Adam Franks, Clinton McDaniel, Stephen Petrany, Eric Riley
INTRODUCTION: The use of opioid medication for nonmalignant chronic pain (NMCP) increased dramatically during the last 20 years. There have been regulatory changes implemented to reduce the risk of harm to both patients and society. Much of the burden of monitoring these patients is falling on primary care physicians (PCPs), who do not have the time or resources to handle what is entailed in a best-practice approach to NMCP. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with all patients on opioid medication for NMCP who were enrolled onto an individual PCP's practice...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329998/common-error-pathways-seen-in-the-ro-ils-data-that-demonstrate-opportunities-for-improving-treatment-safety
#10
Gary Ezzell, Bhisham Chera, Adam Dicker, Eric Ford, Louis Potters, Lakshmi Santanam, Sheri Weintraub
PURPOSE: The Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS) receives event reports from facilities across the country. This effort extracted common error pathways seen in the data. These pathways, expressed as fault trees, demonstrate the need for, and opportunities for, preventing these errors and/or limiting their propagation to treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: As of the third quarter of 2016, 2344 event reports had been submitted to RO-ILS and reviewed...
January 9, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329921/assessment-of-test-methods-for-evaluating-effectiveness-of-cleaning-flexible-endoscopes
#11
Rebecca E Washburn, Jennifer J Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Strict adherence to each step of reprocessing is imperative to removing potentially infectious agents. Multiple methods for verifying proper reprocessing exist; however, each presents challenges and limitations, and best practice within the industry has not been established. Our goal was to evaluate endoscope cleaning verification tests with particular interest in the evaluation of the manual cleaning step. The results of the cleaning verification tests were compared with microbial culturing to see if a positive cleaning verification test would be predictive of microbial growth...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329576/spontaneous-prematurity-in-fetuses-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-retrospective-cohort-study-about-prenatal-predictive-factors
#12
Bruna Maria Lopes Barbosa, Agatha S Rodrigues, Mario Henrique Burlacchini Carvalho, Roberto Eduardo Bittar, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Lisandra Stein Bernardes
BACKGROUND: To evaluate possible predictive factors of spontaneous prematurity in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of CDH; absence of fetoscopy; absence of karyotype abnormality; maximum of one major malformation associated with diaphragmatic hernia; ultrasound monitoring at the Obstetrics Clinic of Clinicas Hospital at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, from January 2001 to October 2014...
January 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329135/clinician-perceptions-of-the-importance-of-the-components-of-hospital-discharge-care-for-children
#13
Kevin Blaine, Jayne Rogers, Margaret R OʼNeill, Sarah McBride, Jennifer Faerber, Chris Feudtner, Jay G Berry
BACKGROUND: Discharging hospitalized children involves several different components, but their relative value is unknown. We assessed which discharge components are perceived as most and least important by clinicians. METHODS: March and June of 2014, we conducted an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) among national societies representing 704 nursing, physician, case management, and social work professionals from 46 states. The DCE consisted of 14 discharge care components randomly presented two at a time for a total of 28 choice tasks...
April 11, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329118/ce-managing-sepsis-and-septic-shock-current-guidelines-and-definitions
#14
Mary Beth Flynn Makic, Elizabeth Bridges
Recent updates emphasize early recognition and prompt intervention. ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a leading cause of critical illness and hospital mortality. Early recognition and intervention are essential for the survival of patients with this syndrome. In 2002, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) launched the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) to reduce overall patient morbidity and mortality from sepsis and septic shock by driving practice initiatives based on current best evidence...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328877/designing-difference-in-difference-studies-best-practices-for-public-health-policy-research
#15
Coady Wing, Kosali Simon, Ricardo A Bello-Gomez
The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Contemporary researchers should take an active approach to the design of DID studies, seeking to construct comparison groups, sensitivity analyses, and robustness checks that help validate the method's assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328239/te-polarized-design-for-metallic-slit-lenses-a-way-to-deep-subwavelength-focusing-over-a-broad-wavelength-range
#16
Yechuan Zhu, Weizheng Yuan, Wenli Li, Hao Sun, Kunlun Qi, Yiting Yu
Slit arrays based on noble metals have been widely proposed as planar transverse-magnetic (TM)-lenses, illuminated by a linearly polarized light with the polarization perpendicular to slits and implementing the focusing capability beyond the diffraction limit. However, due to intrinsic plasmonic losses, these TM-lenses cannot work efficiently in the ultraviolet wavelengths. In this Letter, taking advantage of the unique transmission through metallic slits not involving plasmonic losses, a metallic slit array with transverse-electric (TE)-polarized design is proposed, showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the realization of sub-diffraction-limit focusing for ultraviolet light...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328043/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-and-medical-education-in-georgia-state-of-the-art-and-further-perspectives
#17
I Nadareishvili, K Lunze, G Pkhakadze, N Japiashvili, N Tabagari
Aim - complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular in Georgia, but providers' training not well understood or regulated. The aim of this mixed-methods study was to inform the process of implementing quality CAM curricula in Georgia and strategies for the inclusion of effective CAM curricula into medical education in Georgia. We analyzed existing medical curricula. We conducted a contextual analysis based of qualitative data collected from relevant medical education experts, qualified physicians, CAM practitioners and other stakeholders; and administered a quantitative MD students' survey to MD students...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327799/what-is-needed-to-prepare-speech-pathologists-to-work-in-adult-palliative-care
#18
Ashleigh Pascoe, Lauren J Breen, Naomi Cocks
BACKGROUND: Speech pathologists have a pivotal role in palliative care, assisting patients with swallowing and communication disorders, yet very little is known about the preparedness of speech pathologists to work in this field. AIMS: To investigate the preparedness of speech pathologists for working in palliative care. The term 'palliative care' was viewed as an encompassing umbrella term incorporating the management/reduction of symptoms and improvement in a person's quality of life at any point of the disease progression...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327737/uphill-downhill-nystagmus
#19
M Gufoni
Differential diagnosis between peripheral and central spontaneous nystagmus can be difficult to classify (as peripheral or central) even on the basis of criteria recommended in the recent literature. The aim of this paper is to use the combination of spontaneous nystagmus and ocular tilt reaction to determine the site of origin of the disease that causes nystagmus. We propose to classify the nystagmus in: 1) "Uphill" nystagmus in which the nystagmus takes on an inclined plane and the direction of the fast phase is towards the hypertropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely peripheral); 2) "Downhill" nystagmus when the nystagmus beats toward the hypotropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely central); 3) "Flat" nystagmus when the plane on which nystagmus beats is perfectly horizontal: in this case, we cannot say anything about the site of lesion (it was only detected in 15% of cases)...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327507/rapid-characterization-of-chlorogenic-acids-in-duhaldea-nervosa-based-on-uhplc-ltq-orbitrap-ms-and-mass-spectral-trees-similarity-filter-technique
#20
Lianghong Liu, Jiayu Zhang, Binjie Zheng, Ying Guan, Liting Wang, Lei Chen, Wei Cai
Duhaldea nervosa (Wallich ex Candolle) A. Anderberg (D. nervosa) has been traditionally used as a food spice and also in folk medicine for treating traumatic injury and relieving rheumatism, especially, accelerating the healing of a fracture. However, so far as we are aware, the chemical constituents have not been fully investigated. In this study, a practical method of mass spectral trees similarity filter, a data-mining technique, was developed and evaluated for the rapid detection and identification complicated constituents based on UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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