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fMRI, brainstem

William J Cottam, Laura Condon, Hamza Alshuft, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katharina Feldker, Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Paula Neumeister, Maximilian Bruchmann, Laura Vibrans, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
Panic disorder (PD) patients show aberrant neural responses to threatening stimuli in an extended fear network, but results are only partially comparable, and studies implementing disorder-related visual scenes are lacking as stimuli. The neural responses and functional connectivity to a newly developed set of disorder-related, ecologically valid scenes as compared with matched neutral visual scenes, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 26 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) were investigated...
July 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Nathalie Erpelding, Kasey S Hemington, Adrian P Crawley, Karen D Davis
Variability in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflects the moment-by-moment fluctuations in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) activity within specific areas of the brain. Regional BOLD signal variability was recently proposed to serve an important functional role in the efficacy of neural systems because of its relationship to behavioural performance in aging and cognition studies. We previously showed that individuals who better cope with pain have greater fluctuations in interregional functional connectivity, but it is not known whether regional brain signal variability is a mechanism underlying pain coping...
July 15, 2016: Pain
Lili He, Nehal A Parikh
Nearly 10% of premature infants are born very preterm at 32weeks gestational age or less in the United States. Up to 35% of these very preterm survivors are at risk for cognitive and behavioral deficits. Yet accurate diagnosis of such deficits cannot be made until early childhood. Resting-state fMRI provides noninvasive assessment of the brain's functional networks and is a promising tool for early prognostication. In our present study, we enrolled a cohort of very preterm infants soon after birth and performed resting state fMRI at 32, 39 and additionally at 52weeks postmenstrual age...
July 2016: Early Human Development
Sneha Chenji, Shankar Jha, Dawon Lee, Matthew Brown, Peter Seres, Dennell Mah, Sanjay Kalra
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) arising from the motor cortex in the brain and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral changes create differences in brain activity captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including the spontaneous and simultaneous activity occurring between regions known as the resting state networks (RSNs). Progressive neurodegeneration as observed in ALS may lead to a disruption of RSNs which could provide insights into the disease process...
2016: PloS One
Kiyohide Usami, Riki Matsumoto, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Hiroatsu Murakami, Morito Inouchi, Tomoyuki Fumuro, Akihiro Shimotake, Takeo Kato, Tatsuya Mima, Hiroshi Shirozu, Hiroshi Masuda, Hidenao Fukuyama, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shigeki Kameyama, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the brain networks involved in epileptogenesis/encephalopathy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) by EEG with functional MRI (EEG-fMRI), and evaluate its efficacy in locating the HH interface in comparison with subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM). METHODS: Eight HH patients underwent EEG-fMRI. All had gelastic seizures (GS) and 7 developed other seizure types. Using a general linear model, spike-related activation/deactivation was analyzed individually by applying a hemodynamic response function before, at, and after spike onset (time-shift model=-8-+4s)...
September 2016: Epilepsy Research
Max Schneider, Pamela Hathway, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Chama Belkhiria, Tarak Driss, Christophe Habas, Hamdi Jaafar, Remy Guillevin, Giovanni de Marco
The cerebellum is involved not only in motor coordination, training, and memory, but also in cognition and emotion. Lobule VI in particular belongs to sensorimotor, salience, and executive cerebellar networks. This study aims to determine whether lobule VI would constitute an integrative interface between motor and cognitive/emotional circuits during a motor task with verbal encouragement, likely in conjunction with the basal ganglia (reward and motivational system). We used fMRI to identify specific recruitment of cerebellar and striatal systems during physical performance using two motor tasks with and without encouragement...
June 7, 2016: Cerebellum
David E J Linden, Duncan L Turner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have catalyzed a new field of translational neuroscience. Using fMRI to monitor the aspects of task-related changes in neural activation or brain connectivity, investigators can offer feedback of simple or complex neural signals/patterns back to the participant on a quasireal-time basis [real-time-fMRI-based neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NF)]. Here, we introduce some background methodology of the new developments in this field and give a perspective on how they may be used in neurorehabilitation in the future...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Andrew R Dykstra, Daniel Burchard, Christian Starzynski, Helmut Riedel, Andre Rupp, Alexander Gutschalk
We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally...
August 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Tawfik Moher Alsady, Esther M Blessing, Florian Beissner
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely used technique for investigating functional connectivity (fc) in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Masked independent component analysis (mICA), that is, ICA restricted to a defined region of interest, has been shown to detect local fc networks in particular brain regions, including the cerebellum, brainstem, posterior cingulate cortex, operculo-insular cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord. Here, we present the mICA toolbox, an open-source GUI toolbox based on FSL command line tools that performs mICA and related analyses in an integrated way...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Tomoko Matsui, Tagiru Nakamura, Akira Utsumi, Akihiro T Sasaki, Takahiko Koike, Yumiko Yoshida, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato
A hearer's perception of an utterance as sarcastic depends on integration of the heard statement, the discourse context, and the prosody of the utterance, as well as evaluation of the incongruity among these aspects. The effect of prosody in sarcasm comprehension is evident in everyday conversation, but little is known about its underlying mechanism or neural substrates. To elucidate the neural underpinnings of sarcasm comprehension in the auditory modality, we conducted a functional MRI experiment with 21 adult participants...
July 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Andrea Truini, Emanuele Tinelli, Maria Chiara Gerardi, Valentina Calistri, Cristina Iannuccelli, Silvia La Cesa, Lorenzo Tarsitani, Caterina Mainero, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Giorgio Cruccu, Francesca Caramia, Manuela Di Franco
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence associates chronic pain syndrome, such as fibromyalgia, with endogenous pain modulatory system dysfunction, leading to an impaired descending pain inhibition. In this study, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed at seeking possible functional connectivity changes of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a brainstem area that belongs to the endogenous pain modulatory system, in patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: In 20 patients with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy subjects, we investigated PAG functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI...
March 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Marta Bianciardi, Nicola Toschi, Cornelius Eichner, Jonathan R Polimeni, Kawin Setsompop, Emery N Brown, Matti S Hämäläinen, Bruce R Rosen, Lawrence L Wald
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we used the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7-Tesla fMRI compared with 3 Tesla and time-efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1...
June 2016: Magma
Karl-Jürgen Bär, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Stefanie Koehler, Heinrich Sauer, Hugo Critchley, Gerd Wagner
There is limited understanding of how monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain and brainstem contribute to the formation and functional dynamics of brain networks across the human neocortex. We used resting state fMRI in 154 healthy participants to elucidate patterns of functional connectivity and network organization between cortical/subcortical regions and midbrain/brainstem nuclei. By means of univariate functional connectivity and graph-based analysis, we show that dopaminergic midbrain centers and the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are functionally integrated with the default mode network (DMN), whereas the remaining serotonergic raphe nuclei and the noradrenergic locus coeruleus are functionally integrated with the executive-control network (ECN)...
July 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Ting Chen, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Yuting Liu, Chuanchuan Liu, Huixin Zhang, Zhichun Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of regional homogeneity (ReHo) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI). METHODS: Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 15 patients with OSAHS and 15 normal controls. Patients were enrolled from the Sleep Laboratory of the Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department of Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing from November 2014 to June 2015...
March 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Guo-Rong Wu, Daniele Marinazzo
The haemodynamic response function (HRF) is a key component of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, providing the mapping between neural activity and the signal measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Most of the time the HRF is associated with task-based fMRI protocols, in which its onset is explicitly included in the design matrix. On the other hand, the HRF also mediates the relationship between spontaneous neural activity and the BOLD signal in resting-state protocols, in which no explicit stimulus is taken into account...
May 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Roberta Sclocco, Florian Beissner, Gaelle Desbordes, Jonathan R Polimeni, Lawrence L Wald, Norman W Kettner, Jieun Kim, Ronald G Garcia, Ville Renvall, Anna M Bianchi, Sergio Cerutti, Vitaly Napadow, Riccardo Barbieri
Central autonomic control nuclei in the brainstem have been difficult to evaluate non-invasively in humans. We applied ultrahigh-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the improved spatial resolution it affords (1.2 mm isotropic), to evaluate putative brainstem nuclei that control and/or sense pain-evoked cardiovagal modulation (high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) instantaneously estimated through a point-process approach). The time-variant HF-HRV signal was used to guide the general linear model analysis of neuroimaging data...
May 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Andrea Duggento, Marta Bianciardi, Luca Passamonti, Lawrence L Wald, Maria Guerrisi, Riccardo Barbieri, Nicola Toschi
The causal, directed interactions between brain regions at rest (brain-brain networks) and between resting-state brain activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) outflow (brain-heart links) have not been completely elucidated. We collected 7 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with simultaneous respiration and heartbeat recordings in nine healthy volunteers to investigate (i) the causal interactions between cortical and subcortical brain regions at rest and (ii) the causal interactions between resting-state brain activity and the ANS as quantified through a probabilistic, point-process-based heartbeat model which generates dynamical estimates for sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as sympathovagal balance...
May 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Michael J Tobia, Qing X Yang, Prasanna Karunanayaka
The human brain is organized into functional networks for sensory-motor and cognitive processing. Intrinsic networks are detectable in the absence of stimulation or task demands, whereas extrinsic networks are detectable when stimulated by sensory or cognitive demands. Intranasal chemosensory processing relies on two dissociable networks for processing incoming trigeminal and olfactory stimulation, but it is not known whether these networks are intrinsically organized. The aim of this study was to identify whether brain networks for intranasal chemosensory processing are detectable in functional connectivity resting-state functional MRI (fMRI)...
May 4, 2016: Neuroreport
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