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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907094/continuous-descending-modulation-of-the-spinal-cord-revealed-by-functional-mri
#1
Patrick W Stroman, Rachael L Bosma, Andreea I Cotoi, Roxanne H Leung, Jennifer Kornelsen, Jane M Lawrence-Dewar, Caroline F Pukall, Roland Staud
Spontaneous variations in spinal cord activity may arise from regulation of any of a number of functions including sensory, motor, and autonomic control. Here, we use functional MRI (fMRI) of healthy participants to identify properties of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) variations in the spinal cord in response to knowledge that either a noxious stimulus is impending, or that no stimulus is to be expected. Expectation of a noxious stimulus, or no stimulus, is shown to have a significant effect on wide-spread BOLD signal variations in the spinal cord over the entire time period of the fMRI acquisition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898202/optimization-of-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-using-functional-mri
#2
Natalia Yakunina, Sam Soo Kim, Eui-Cheol Nam
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and a number of other disorders. Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (tVNS) has been considered as a non-invasive alternative. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the effects of tVNS used different stimulation parameters and locations in the ear, which makes it difficult to determine the optimal tVNS methodology...
November 29, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881783/multivariate-brain-prediction-of-heart-rate-and-skin-conductance-responses-to-social-threat
#3
Hedwig Eisenbarth, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
: Psychosocial stressors induce autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses in multiple body systems that are linked to health risks. Much work has focused on the common effects of stress, but ANS responses in different body systems are dissociable and may result from distinct patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Here, we used machine learning to develop multivariate patterns of fMRI activity predictive of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) responses during social threat in humans (N = 18)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859973/reorganization-of-brain-connectivity-in-obesity
#4
Paul Geha, Guillermo Cecchi, R Todd Constable, Chadi Abdallah, Dana M Small
Global brain connectivity (GBC) identifies regions of the brain, termed "hubs," which are densely connected and metabolically costly, and have a wide influence on brain function. Since obesity is associated with central and peripheral metabolic dysfunction we sought to determine if GBC is altered in obesity. Two independent fMRI data sets were subjected to GBC analyses. The first data set was acquired while participants (n = 15 healthy weight and 15 obese) tasted milkshake and the second with participants at rest (n = 33 healthy weight and 28 obese)...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853428/goal-directed-worry-rules-are-associated-with-distinct-patterns-of-amygdala-functional-connectivity-and-vagal-modulation-during-perseverative-cognition
#5
Frances Meeten, Graham C L Davey, Elena Makovac, David R Watson, Sarah N Garfinkel, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Excessive and uncontrollable worry is a defining feature of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). An important endeavor in the treatment of pathological worry is to understand why some people are unable to stop worrying once they have started. Worry perseveration is associated with a tendency to deploy goal-directed worry rules (known as "as many as can" worry rules; AMA). These require attention to the goal of the worry task and continuation of worry until the aims of the "worry bout" are achieved. This study examined the association between the tendency to use AMA worry rules and neural and autonomic responses to a perseverative cognition induction...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843697/filtering-and-storage-working-memory-networks-in-younger-and-older-age
#6
Anne-Katrin Vellage, Andreas Becke, Hendrik Strumpf, Bernhard Baier, Mircea Ariel Schönfeld, Jens-Max Hopf, Notger G Müller
INTRODUCTION: Working memory (WM) is a multi-component model that among others involves the two processes of filtering and storage. The first reflects the necessity to inhibit irrelevant information from entering memory, whereas the latter refers to the active maintenance of object representations in memory. In this study, we aimed at a) redefining the neuronal networks sustaining filtering and storage within visual working memory by avoiding shortcomings of prior studies, and b) assessing age-related changes in these networks...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#7
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791015/overdrinking-swallowing-inhibition-and-regional-brain-responses-prior-to-swallowing
#8
Pascal Saker, Michael J Farrell, Gary F Egan, Michael J McKinley, Derek A Denton
In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504262/associations-of-limbic-affective-brain-activity-and-severity-of-ongoing-chronic-arthritis-pain-are-explained-by-trait-anxiety
#9
William J Cottam, Laura Condon, Hamza Alshuft, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436308/brain-responses-to-disorder-related-visual-threat-in-panic-disorder
#10
Katharina Feldker, Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Paula Neumeister, Maximilian Bruchmann, Laura Vibrans, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
Panic disorder (PD) patients show aberrant neural responses to threatening stimuli in an extended fear network, but results are only partially comparable, and studies implementing disorder-related visual scenes are lacking as stimuli. The neural responses and functional connectivity to a newly developed set of disorder-related, ecologically valid scenes as compared with matched neutral visual scenes, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 26 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) were investigated...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429176/regional-brain-signal-variability-a-novel-indicator-of-pain-sensitivity-and-coping
#11
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Nathalie Erpelding, Kasey S Hemington, Adrian P Crawley, Karen D Davis
Variability in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflects the moment-by-moment fluctuations in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) activity within specific areas of the brain. Regional BOLD signal variability was recently proposed to serve an important functional role in the efficacy of neural systems because of its relationship to behavioural performance in aging and cognition studies. We previously showed that individuals who better cope with pain have greater fluctuations in interregional functional connectivity, but it is not known whether regional brain signal variability is a mechanism underlying pain coping...
July 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351350/brain-functional-network-connectivity-development-in-very-preterm-infants-the-first-six-months
#12
Lili He, Nehal A Parikh
Nearly 10% of premature infants are born very preterm at 32weeks gestational age or less in the United States. Up to 35% of these very preterm survivors are at risk for cognitive and behavioral deficits. Yet accurate diagnosis of such deficits cannot be made until early childhood. Resting-state fMRI provides noninvasive assessment of the brain's functional networks and is a promising tool for early prognostication. In our present study, we enrolled a cohort of very preterm infants soon after birth and performed resting state fMRI at 32, 39 and additionally at 52weeks postmenstrual age...
July 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322194/investigating-default-mode-and-sensorimotor-network-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Sneha Chenji, Shankar Jha, Dawon Lee, Matthew Brown, Peter Seres, Dennell Mah, Sanjay Kalra
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) arising from the motor cortex in the brain and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral changes create differences in brain activity captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including the spontaneous and simultaneous activity occurring between regions known as the resting state networks (RSNs). Progressive neurodegeneration as observed in ALS may lead to a disruption of RSNs which could provide insights into the disease process...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295078/epileptic-network-of-hypothalamic-hamartoma-an-eeg-fmri-study
#14
Kiyohide Usami, Riki Matsumoto, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Hiroatsu Murakami, Morito Inouchi, Tomoyuki Fumuro, Akihiro Shimotake, Takeo Kato, Tatsuya Mima, Hiroshi Shirozu, Hiroshi Masuda, Hidenao Fukuyama, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shigeki Kameyama, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the brain networks involved in epileptogenesis/encephalopathy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) by EEG with functional MRI (EEG-fMRI), and evaluate its efficacy in locating the HH interface in comparison with subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM). METHODS: Eight HH patients underwent EEG-fMRI. All had gelastic seizures (GS) and 7 developed other seizure types. Using a general linear model, spike-related activation/deactivation was analyzed individually by applying a hemodynamic response function before, at, and after spike onset (time-shift model=-8-+4s)...
September 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291493/spontaneous-pupil-dilations-during-the-resting-state-are-associated-with-activation-of-the-salience-network
#15
Max Schneider, Pamela Hathway, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271710/exploration-and-identification-of-cortico-cerebellar-brainstem-closed-loop-during-a-motivational-motor-task-an-fmri-study
#16
Chama Belkhiria, Tarak Driss, Christophe Habas, Hamdi Jaafar, Remy Guillevin, Giovanni de Marco
The cerebellum is involved not only in motor coordination, training, and memory, but also in cognition and emotion. Lobule VI in particular belongs to sensorimotor, salience, and executive cerebellar networks. This study aims to determine whether lobule VI would constitute an integrative interface between motor and cognitive/emotional circuits during a motor task with verbal encouragement, likely in conjunction with the basal ganglia (reward and motivational system). We used fMRI to identify specific recruitment of cerebellar and striatal systems during physical performance using two motor tasks with and without encouragement...
June 7, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213774/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-neurofeedback-in-motor-neurorehabilitation
#17
David E J Linden, Duncan L Turner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have catalyzed a new field of translational neuroscience. Using fMRI to monitor the aspects of task-related changes in neural activation or brain connectivity, investigators can offer feedback of simple or complex neural signals/patterns back to the participant on a quasireal-time basis [real-time-fMRI-based neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NF)]. Here, we introduce some background methodology of the new developments in this field and give a perspective on how they may be used in neurorehabilitation in the future...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197812/lateralization-and-binaural-interaction-of-middle-latency-and-late-brainstem-components-of-the-auditory-evoked-response
#18
Andrew R Dykstra, Daniel Burchard, Christian Starzynski, Helmut Riedel, Andre Rupp, Alexander Gutschalk
We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally...
August 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168407/mica-a-toolbox-for-masked-independent-component-analysis-of-fmri-data
#19
Tawfik Moher Alsady, Esther M Blessing, Florian Beissner
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely used technique for investigating functional connectivity (fc) in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Masked independent component analysis (mICA), that is, ICA restricted to a defined region of interest, has been shown to detect local fc networks in particular brain regions, including the cerebellum, brainstem, posterior cingulate cortex, operculo-insular cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord. Here, we present the mICA toolbox, an open-source GUI toolbox based on FSL command line tools that performs mICA and related analyses in an integrated way...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157883/the-role-of-prosody-and-context-in-sarcasm-comprehension-behavioral-and-fmri-evidence
#20
Tomoko Matsui, Tagiru Nakamura, Akira Utsumi, Akihiro T Sasaki, Takahiko Koike, Yumiko Yoshida, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato
A hearer's perception of an utterance as sarcastic depends on integration of the heard statement, the discourse context, and the prosody of the utterance, as well as evaluation of the incongruity among these aspects. The effect of prosody in sarcasm comprehension is evident in everyday conversation, but little is known about its underlying mechanism or neural substrates. To elucidate the neural underpinnings of sarcasm comprehension in the auditory modality, we conducted a functional MRI experiment with 21 adult participants...
July 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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