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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455171/visual-motor-integration-and-fine-motor-skills-at-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-associations-with-neonatal-brain-volumes-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-in-sweden-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454959/exophytic-cerebral-hemispheric-low-grade-glioma-an-unusual-growth-pattern-of-a-common-central-nervous-system-tumour
#2
Suyash Singh, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sushila Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Exophytic growth (EG), where in the tumor mass grows beyond the neuraxial boundary formed by pia mater, remains a rare pattern of glioma growth. It has been described in gliomas at several locations like the brainstem, cerebellum, suprasellar area, spinal cord and the insula. However, EG in hemispheric grade 2 astrocytomas, particularly affecting the convexity subarachnoid space, as against the more spacious basal subarachnoid space, is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the English literature...
February 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452865/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-multiple-brain-metastases-results-of-multicenter-benchmark-planning-studies
#3
David J Eaton, Jonathan Lee, Ian Paddick
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery is indicated for treatment of multiple brain metastases. Various treatment platforms are available, but most comparisons are limited to single-center studies. As part of a national commissioning program, benchmark planning cases were completed by 21 clinical centers, providing a unique dataset of current practice across a large number of providers and equipment platforms. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two brain metastases cases were provided, with images and structures predrawn, involving 3 and 7 lesions...
December 30, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419480/comparative-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-quantifications-of-pathological-tau-deposits-and-their-association-with-neurodegeneration-in-tauopathy-mouse-models
#4
Ruiqing Ni, Bin Ji, Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
Fibrillary tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and allied neurodegenerative disorders have been visualized in-vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), while mechanistic links between PET-detectable tau deposits and neurotoxicity remain elusive. Here, we took advantage of transgenic mouse models of tauopathies to evaluate associations between PET and postmortem measures of tau probe binding and their relation to neuronal loss. Methods: PET with a tau probe, 11C-PBB3 (2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(11C-methylamino)pyridine-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol), and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414291/a-cerebral-phenotype-of-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Sho Okune, Kazuhiro Ishii, Shogo Ouchi, Kazuki Sakakura, Masahide Matsuda, Akira Tamaoka
CLIPPERS (chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) is an inflammatory central nervous system disorder that gives rise to brainstem symptoms such as diplopia and articulatory disorders. It shows characteristic "salt-and-pepper" enhancing brainstem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present an unusual case of CLIPPERS, in which a 29-year-old man initially presented with a seizure. Brain MRI revealed faint open-ring enhancements in the right frontal lobe, and a brain biopsy was performed to make a definitive diagnosis...
January 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407941/active-inference-and-the-anatomy-of-oculomotion
#6
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Given that eye movement control can be framed as an inferential process, how are the requisite forces generated to produce anticipated or desired fixation? Starting from a generative model based on simple Newtonian equations of motion, we derive a variational solution to this problem and illustrate the plausibility of its implementation in the oculomotor brainstem. We show, through simulation, that the Bayesian filtering equations that implement 'planning as inference' can generate both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406569/neospora-caninum-and-ehrlichia-canis-co-infection-in-a-dog-with-meningoencephalitis
#7
Itamar Aroch, Gad Baneth, Harold Salant, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Asaf Berkowitz, Merav Shamir, Orit Chai
An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented for acute, progressive weakness and ataxia, inappetence, and weight loss. The patient was mentally normal, but nonambulatory, with a right head tilt, right positional ventral strabismus, and slight head tremors. A neurologic lesion was localized to the cerebellum and right brainstem. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly increased protein concentration and mixed pleocytosis, with eosinophil predominance (44%), intracytoplasmic inclusions within eosinophils, consistent with Ehrlichia canis (E canis) morulae, and Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) or Neospora caninum (N caninum) tachyzoites within eosinophils and monocytes...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404583/differences-in-the-reponses-to-apheresis-therapy-of-patients-with-3-histopathologically-classified-immunopathological-patterns-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Lidia Stork, David Ellenberger, Tim Beißbarth, Tim Friede, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Wolfgang Brück, Imke Metz
Importance: Plasma exchange and immunoadsorption are second-line apheresis therapies for patients experiencing multiple sclerosis relapses. Early active multiple sclerosis lesions can be classified into different histopathological patterns of demyelination. Pattern 1 and 2 lesions show T-cell- and macrophage-associated demyelination, and pattern 2 is selectively associated with immunoglobulin and complement deposits, suggesting a humoral immune response. Pattern 3 lesions show signs of oligodendrocyte degeneration...
February 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401065/cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-in-hypoglossal-nerve-schwannoma-a-case-report
#9
Aravind Kumar Rajasekaran, Amey Rajan Savardekar, Nagaraja Rao Shivashankar
BACKGROUND: Schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve is rare. This case report documents an atypical abnormality of the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) in a patient with schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. The observed abnormality was attributed to the proximity of the hypoglossal nerve to the spinal accessory nerve in the medullary cistern and base of the skull. PURPOSE: To report cVEMP abnormality in a patient with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma and provide an anatomical correlation for this abnormality...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388807/spectrum-of-mri-brain-lesion-patterns-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-pictorial-review
#10
Kevin Y Wang, Justin A Chetta, Pavit Bains, Anthony Balzer, John A Lincoln, Tomas Uribe, Christie M Lincoln
Neuromyelitis optica is a neurotropic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system traditionally thought to exclusively involve the optic nerves and spinal cord. With the discovery of the disease-specific aquaporin-4 antibody and the increasing recognition of clinical and characteristic imaging patterns of brain involvement in what is now termed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), magnetic resonance imaging now plays a greater role in diagnosis of NMOSD based on the 2015 consensus criteria and in distinguishing it from other inflammatory disorders, particularly multiple sclerosis...
February 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386416/childhood-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-with-atypical-neuroimaging-abnormalities-and-a-novel-mutation
#11
M Muranjan, S Karande, S Sankhe, S Eichler
Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD) typically manifests with symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency and a variety of neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities. A major diagnostic clue is the characteristic neuroinflammatory parieto-occipital white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. This study reports a 5-year 10-month old boy presenting with generalized skin hyperpigmentation since 3 years of age. Over the past 9 months, he had developed right-sided hemiparesis and speech and behavioral abnormalities, which had progressed over 5 months to bilateral hemiparesis...
January 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386274/efficacy-of-balance-and-eye-movement-exercises-for-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-beems
#12
Jeffrey R Hebert, John R Corboy, Timothy Vollmer, Jeri E Forster, Margaret Schenkman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multifaceted vestibular-related rehabilitation program (Balance and Eye-Movement Exercises for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis; BEEMS) improves balance in persons with MS and whether there are differences in outcomes based on brainstem/cerebellar lesion involvement. METHODS: A 2-arm, examiner-blinded, stratified (involvement vs no involvement of brainstem/cerebellar structures), randomized controlled trial was implemented. Eighty-eight participants were allocated to BEEMS or no treatment control...
January 31, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382617/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-neurosurgical-perspective-and-literature-review
#13
Mehmet Resid Onen, Kelli Moore, Ulas Cikla, Melih Ucer, Bradley Schmidt, Aaron S Field, Mustafa K Baskaya
INTRODUCTION: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) occurs as a result of posterior fossa or brainstem lesions that disrupt the dentato-rubro-olivary tract, well known as the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. Clinical and radiological hallmarks of this condition are palatal myoclonus and T2 hyperintensity of the inferior olivary complex on MRI, respectively. Since symptomatic HOD may complicate the recovery of patients with posterior fossa or brainstem lesions, the purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical and imaging findings of patients with HOD...
January 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381606/endoscopic-anatomic-study-via-grinding-partial-petrous-ridge-to-the-middle-fossa-in-retromastoid-keyhole-approach
#14
Can Tang, Lujun Pang, Hengzhu Zhang, Zhengcun Yan, Xiaodong Wang, Lun Dong, Lei She, Xingdong Wang, Min Wei
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the range of exposure, indications, and feasibility of the retromastoid keyhole approach via grinding partial petrous ridge to the middle fossa. METHODS: Simulated endoscopic surgeries via grinding suprameatal tubercle and petrous ridge to expose the middle fossa in retromastoid keyhole approach were performed on 8 adult cadaver heads (16 sides) fixed by formalin. The maximum exposure range in endoscope was observed. The boundaries of Parkinson triangle and the anatomic structures contained by Meckel cave and cavernous sinus (CS) lateral wall were revealed...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379961/review-of-the-neurological-implications-of-von-hippel-lindau-disease
#15
David Dornbos, H Jeffrey Kim, John A Butman, Russell R Lonser
Importance: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease-associated central nervous system (CNS) lesions include hemangioblastomas and endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs), which are associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality. Recent studies provide critical new biological, diagnostic, and management insights into these tumors. Observations: Biological features, natural history, clinical findings, and management strategies of VHL disease-associated CNS tumors are reviewed...
January 29, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374313/-importance-of-virchow-robin-spaces
#16
REVIEW
W Reith, A Haußmann
Virchow-Robin spaces are perivascular fluid-filled cavities that surround perforating arteries and veins in the brain parenchyma. As a rule in healthy people they are approximately 5 mm in diameter. Typical localizations are brainstem ganglia, mesencephalon and the white matter of the brain. Morphological imaging characteristics of Virchow-Robin spaces are round or tubular, smoothly bordered areas which are hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Virchow-Robin spaces represent a physiological structure in normal brain parenchyma...
January 26, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358106/the-stereotactic-suboccipitaltranscerebellar-approach-to-lesions-of-the-brainstem-and-the-cerebellum
#17
Julia M Nakagawa, Michael Trippel, Soroush Doostkam, Irina Mader, Volker A Coenen, Peter C Reinacher
OBJECTIVE: The stereotactic suboccipital-transcerebellar approach is widely regarded as technically demanding requiring substantial modifications of the standard stereotactic methods thus often making a transfrontal approach preferable. In this comprehensive series we aim to present our experience with the stereotactic suboccipital-transcerebellar approach to lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum using two standard stereotactic systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period of 2000-2015 overall 80 patients (mean age 43...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357014/ipsilateral-saccade-hypometria-and-contralateral-saccadic-pursuit-in-a-focal-brainstem-lesion-a-rare-oculomotor-pattern
#18
Francesca Bianchi, Marie Vidailhet, Bertrand Gaymard
Eye movement examination may be used to rapidly differentiate peripheral and central vestibular syndromes in patients with acute unsteadiness. The analysis of oculomotor impairments may also support the accurate localization of cerebral lesions, particularly those in the brainstem, that are often loosely defined by cerebral MRIs. Saccades, smooth pursuit, and nystagmus were recorded with video-oculography in a patient who had developed sudden vertigo as a consequence of a focal lesion in the depth of the brachium pontis...
January 22, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348287/recurrent-hiccups-may-signal-brainstem-pathology-and-should-be-investigated
#19
Dmitri Shastin, Priya Nidamanuri, Ravindra Nannapaneni
While occasional hiccups are normal, their persistent recurrence is distressing and may have an underlying aetiology. Patients with recurrent hiccups may undergo a long journey and see many physicians before the diagnosis is finally made. The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of central nervous system lesions as a possible cause for recurrent hiccups and provide an illustrative case of an otherwise fit man presenting with ongoing hiccups caused by a medullary haemangioblastoma.
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336132/auditory-system-synchronization-and-cochlear-function-in-patients-with-normal-hearing-with-tinnitus-comparison-of-multiple-feature-with-longer-duration-and-single-feature-with-shorter-duration-tinnitus
#20
Sujoy Kumar Makar, Geetha Mukundan, Geeta Gore
OBJECTIVE: To observe cochlear and brainstem function in normal hearing ears with tinnitus using DPOAE and ABR audiometry. DESIGN: Case-control study. SAMPLE SIZE: Included 60 normal hearing male patients with age less than 45 years; control group consisted of 30 patients without tinnitus and the study group consisted of those with unilateral tinnitus of at least 6 month duration. Pure tone audiometry, tinnitus matching (pitch & loudness), DPOAE (SNR & Amplitude) and ABR results of absolute latency of wave I, III and V, with IPL difference of I-III, III-V & I-V, and ILD-V were investigated...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
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