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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109858/radiological-dilemma-in-an-extra-axial-petroclival-lesion-low-vs-high-grade
#1
Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Chirag Kamal Ahuja, Debjyoti Chatterjee, Pravin Salunke
BACKGROUND: Radiological differentiation between a low and high grade lesion is crucial on deciding the extent of resection and prognostication. Occasionally the imaging features can be confusing between the two. We report such a case which was a radiological dilemma. The lesion appeared apparently benign and extra-axial on routine magnetic resonance (MR) sequences. However, there were subtle clinical and imaging clues towards high grade lesion. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old lady presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies, gait ataxia and features of raised intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097486/the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-delayed-fetal-spinal-cord-tissue-transplantation-on-respiratory-function-following-mid-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Chia-Ching Lin, Sih-Rong Lai, Yu-Han Shao, Chun-Lin Chen, Kun-Ze Lee
Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury...
January 17, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077261/ventral-medullary-control-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-atonia
#3
Michael C Chen, Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Chun-Ni Guo, Catie Chang, Patrick M Fuller, Jun Lu
Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep...
January 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069157/mri-detection-of-cerebral-lesions-in-post-traumatic-anisocoria-specificity-and-prognostic-significance
#4
D Woischneck, B Schmitz, T Kapapa
AIM: To identify whether increased numbers of brainstem lesions are found in the presence of a post-traumatic pupillary function disturbance and classify them anatomically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination was performed within 8 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients who had been unconscious for more than 24 hours post-TBI. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was evaluated 6 months after TBI. The data obtained from 140 consecutively enrolled patients between 2005 and 2011 were analysed...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059798/sporadic-cases-with-novel-mutations-and-pedigree-in-hereditary-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids
#5
Liyong Wu, Jia Liu, Longze Sha, Xianling Wang, Jieying Li, Jing Dong, Jianping Jia
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease, featured by cerebral white matter degeneration with demyelination and axonal spheroids. We collected three gene-confirmed HDLS cases in our neurodegenerative clinic. Two HDLS cases were sporadic with novel mutations, while another case had a family history with previously described mutations. All three cases suffered memory problems with white matter lesions and pyramid signs. No obvious clinical differences were observed between sporadic and familial HDLS cases...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#6
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054915/auditory-processing-disorder-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-a-cerebellopontine-and-internal-auditory-canal-lesion
#7
Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Nikos Eleftheriadis
BACKGROUND: Clinical importance of auditory processing disorder (APD) testing is often overlooked and regarded with skepticism given the challenging interpretation of results and the current growing debate of its nature and clinical entity. PURPOSE: Presentation of this case is highly educational as APD is the single clinical manifestation of a large cerebellopontine and internal auditory canal lesion. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case report. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The patient underwent a standard audiological evaluation with normal results...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051280/tongue-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-reflect-midbrain-involvement-in-patients-with-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#8
Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Ivan Adamec, Luka Crnošija, Tereza Gabelić, Barbara Barun, Ivana Zadro, Silva Butković Soldo, Mario Habek
AIM: To test the hypothesis that tSSEP findings reflect clinical and MRI MS lesions, the aim of this study was to investigate tSSEP changes in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in relation to clinical and brainstem MRI findings. The second aim was to investigate whether the interpretation of the tSSEP results in the form of the tSSEP score enables better evaluation of the afferent trigeminal pathway involvement than analyzing each tSSEP parameter separately. METHODS: 115 consecutive CIS patients were enrolled from August 1, 2014 until March 1, 2016...
December 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048583/su-f-t-503-trajectory-modulated-arc-therapy-of-intracranial-lesions-development-of-a-standardized-path-based-technique-for-fully-dynamic-couch-gantry-modulated-treatments
#9
S Khan, E Chin, K Otto, L Xing, D Hristov, B Fahimian
PURPOSE: The integration of couch motion during arc delivery is necessitated to enable irradiation trajectories such as coronal arcs, and to enhance the geometrical sampling for dynamic deliveries to the highest extent. To enable such capability, a platform of Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT) is developed in conjunction with standardized noncollisional dynamic path-set for irradiation of intracranial lesions. METHODS: A generalized path-set was constructed through the combination of sagittal arcs (45 degrees from the CAX), axial arcs, and coronal arcs produced through modulation of the dynamic rotation of couch...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048514/su-f-t-613-multi-lesion-cranial-srs-vmat-plan-quality
#10
A Ballangrud, L Kuo, L Happersett, S Lim, X Li, K Beal, Y Yamada, T LoSasso, J Mechalakos
PURPOSE: Cranial SRS VMAT plans must have steep dose gradient around each target to reduce dose to normal brain. This study reports on the correlation between gradient index (GI=V50%/V100%), target size and target dose heterogeneity index (HI=PTV Dmax/prescription dose) for multi-lesion cranial SRS VMAT plans. METHODS: VMAT plans for 10 cranial cases with 3 to 6 lesions (total 39 lesions) generated in Varian Eclipse V11.0.47 with a fine-tuned AAA beam model and 0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047589/su-g-tep4-10-do-small-errors-matter-when-treating-pituitary-adenoma-patients-using-gamma-knife
#11
P Johnson, F Yang, N Lamichhane
PURPOSE: To determine whether positional errors on the order of 0.5-1 mm have any effect on critical structure dose or target coverage for pituitary adenoma patients treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. METHODS: Treatment plans for six pituitary adenoma patients were modified to include positional shifts of 0.5 mm and 1 mm for each shot and in each cardinal direction. Twelve new plans were created per patient, and changes in target coverage and maximum dose to surrounding critical structures were recorded...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046642/mo-g-201-04-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#12
B Ziemer, S Shiraishi, J Hattangadi-Gluth, P Sanghvi, K Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, linac-based SRS for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal radiation doses and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other therapy techniques. This study aims to quantify the dosimetric benefits of knowledge-based planning (KBP) for multi-met treatments. METHODS: Using a previously-published KBP methodology (an artificial neural network (ANN) trained on single-target linac-based SRS plans), 3D dose distribution predictions for multi-met patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual predictions into a single distribution using a dose-weighted geometric averaging to obtain the best results in the inter-target space...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046492/su-f-t-594-dosimetric-impact-of-multileaf-collimator-leaf-width-on-single-and-multiple-isocenter-stereotactactic-imrt-treatment-plans-for-four-or-more-intracranial-tumors
#13
E Kendall, O Algan, I Ali, J Arntzen, S Ahmad, S Hossain
PURPOSE: To compare the impact of MLC width on the dose conformity, doses received by the normal brain tissue, and other critical structures for single isocenter (SI) and multiple isocenter (MI) stereotactic IMRT (SRT) treatments for patients with at least four brain tumors. METHODS: Six patients (three with seven and three with four lesions) planned in BrainLab iPlan were evaluated using Varian HD MLC (2.5mm leaf-width) and Millennium-120 MLC (5mm leaf-width). Prescribed doses in all plans were 25 Gy delivered in five fractions normalized to 98% dose covering 98% of the target volume...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046447/su-f-t-612-investigation-of-acoustic-neuroma-planning-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-utilizing-linac-based-cone-collimators
#14
C Yeboah, M Ruschin, Y Lee, A Sarfehnia, B Chugh, S Myrehaug, M Tsao, H Soliman, A Sahgal
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of designing clinically-acceptable stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans utilizing linac-based cone collimators for patients presenting with acoustic neuroma. METHODS: Five acoustic neuroma patients with gross tumour volumes (GTVs) of sizes from 1.3 to 2.7 cc were studied. The cranial-caudal extent of the GTVs range from 1.1 to 1.7 cm whereas the largest cross-sectional extent of the lesions varied from 2.0 to 2.4 cm. No PTV margin was added...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039366/the-use-of-o-2-18f-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine-pet-in-the-diagnosis-of-gliomas-located-in-the-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#15
Caroline Tscherpel, Veronika Dunkl, Garry Ceccon, Gabriele Stoffels, Natalie Judov, Marion Rapp, Philipp T Meyer, Elena Rota Kops, Johannes Ermert, Gereon R Fink, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing number of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET studies in supratentorial gliomas, studies regarding the usefulness of (18)F-FET PET in brainstem and spinal cord gliomas to date remain scarce. METHODS: Thirty-six (18)F-FET PET scans were performed in 29 patients with brainstem (n = 29 scans) or spinal cord glioma (n = 7 scans). In 32 of 36 PET scans, a dynamic acquisition was performed. Fifteen scans in 15 patients were performed to assess newly diagnosed lesions, and 21 scans were obtained during follow-up: for diagnosing tumor progression (n = 15 scans in 14 patients) as well as for treatment monitoring (n = 6 scans in 3 patients)...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025863/anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-hepatoma-tumour-bearing-rats-requires-the-area-postrema-but-not-vagal-afferents-and-is-paralleled-by-increased-mic-1-gdf15
#16
Tito Borner, Myrtha Arnold, Johan Ruud, Samuel N Breit, Wolfgang Langhans, Thomas A Lutz, Anders Blomqvist, Thomas Riediger
BACKGROUND: The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017229/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-mri-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-validation-of-the-vemp-score
#17
Luka Crnošija, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Tereza Gabelić, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
BACKGROUND: To validate the VEMP score as a measure of brainstem dysfunction in patients with the first symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) (clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)) and to investigate the correlation between VEMP and brainstem MRI results. METHODS: 121 consecutive CIS patients were enrolled and brainstem functional system score (BSFS) was determined. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) were analyzed for latencies, conduction block and amplitude asymmetry ratio and the VEMP score was calculated...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009231/the-superior-fovea-triangle-approach-a-novel-safe-entry-zone-to-the-brainstem
#18
Kaan Yagmurlu, M Yashar S Kalani, Mark C Preul, Robert F Spetzler
The authors describe a safe entry zone, the superior fovea triangle, on the floor of the fourth ventricle for resection of deep dorsal pontine lesions at the level of the facial colliculus. Clinical data from a patient undergoing a suboccipital telovelar transsuperior fovea triangle approach to a deep pontine cavernous malformation were reviewed and supplemented with 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstem and 2 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads using the fiber dissection technique to illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007649/nicotinic-receptors-modulate-the-onset-of-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-evoked-by-glutamate-uptake-block-in-the-rat-hypoglossal-nucleus
#19
Maria Tortora, Silvia Corsini, Andrea Nistri
In several neurodegenerative diseases, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is considered to be a major process to initiate cell degeneration. Indeed, subsequent to excessive glutamate receptor stimulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are regarded as two major gateways leading to neuron death. These processes are mimicked in an in vitro model of rat brainstem slice when excitotoxicity is induced by DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), a specific glutamate-uptake blocker that increases extracellular glutamate...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002082/long-term-synergistic-interaction-of-cisplatin-and-noise-induced-hearing-losses
#20
J Riley DeBacker, Ryan T Harrison, Eric C Bielefeld
OBJECTIVE: Past experiments in the literature have shown that cisplatin interacts synergistically with noise to create hearing loss. Much of the previous work on the synergistic interaction of noise and cisplatin tested exposures that occurred very close together in time. The present study assessed whether rats that have been exposed to cisplatin continue to show increased susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss months after conclusion of the cisplatin exposure. DESIGN: Thirty-two Fischer 344/NHsd rats were exposed to one of five conditions: (1) cisplatin exposure followed by immediate cochlear tissue harvest, (2) cisplatin exposure and a 20-week monitoring period before tissue harvest, (3) cisplatin exposure followed immediately by noise exposure, (4) cisplatin exposure followed by noise exposure 16 weeks later, and (5) noise exposure without cisplatin exposure...
December 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
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