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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642586/lateral-habenula-regulation-of-emotional-hyperthermia-mediation-via-the-medullary-raph%C3%A3
#1
Youichirou Ootsuka, Mazher Mohammed, William W Blessing
The lateral habenula (LHb) has an important role in the behavioural response to salient, usually aversive, events. We previously demonstrated that activation of neurons in the LHb increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and constricts the cutaneous vascular bed, indicating that the LHb contributes to the central control of sympathetic outflow to thermoregulatory effector organs. We have now investigated whether the LHb mediates BAT thermogenesis elicited by emotional stress, and whether the LHb modulates thermoregulatory sympathetic outflow via the rostral medullary raphé, a key integrative lower brainstem sympathetic control centre...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637936/a-case-of-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-with-transient-reflex-myoclonus
#2
Ryusuke Takaki, Takamura Nagasaka, Yumi Suwa, Mai Tsuchiya, Kishin Kho, Yoshihisa Takiyama
A 33-year-old woman was admitted due to disturbance of consciousness, dysarthria, dysphagia, sensory disturbances and weakness of the left upper limb after mycoplasma infection. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). On the 15th hospital day, reflex myoclonus appeared on her face, neck, body and limbs induced by techniques of jaw jerk reflex and patellar tendon reflex. The myoclonus was disappeared after two weeks in accordance with improvement of BBE...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621620/deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-early-treatment-of-the-minimally-conscious-state-and-vegetative-state-experience-in-14-patients
#3
Darko Chudy, Vedran Deletis, Fadi Almahariq, Petar Marčinković, Jasenka Škrlin, Veronika Paradžik
OBJECTIVE An effective treatment of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) caused by hypoxic encephalopathy or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic reticular nuclei has been attempted as a therapeutic procedure mainly in patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic use of DBS for patients in VS or MCS. METHODS Fourteen of 49 patients in VS or MCS qualified for inclusion in this study and underwent DBS...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621573/update-on-the-diagnostic-value-and-safety-of-stereotactic-biopsy-for-pediatric-brainstem-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-735-cases
#4
Christina Hamisch, Philipp Kickingereder, Matthias Fischer, Thorsten Simon, Maximilian I Ruge
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shed light on the molecular makeup of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and led to the identification of potential treatment targets for these lesions, which account for the majority of pediatric brainstem tumors (pedBSTs). Therefore, stereotactic biopsy-driven molecular characterization of pedBSTs may become an important prerequisite for the management of these fatal brain tumors. The authors conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to precisely determine the safety and diagnostic success of stereotactic biopsy of pedBSTs...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619435/video-head-impulse-test-can-detect-brainstem-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Ivan Pavlović, Berislav Ruška, Tin Pavičić, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Luka Crnošija, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of video head impulse test (vHIT) in the detection of brainstem lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Sixty-eight participants were enrolled and divided into two groups: 39 healthy subjects (HC) (78 ears, 20 females, mean age 25,3±6,3) and 29 MS patients (58 ears, 14 females, mean age 33,7±7,7). Both groups underwent vHIT, and in MS group MRI was analyzed for the presence of brainstem lesions...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616778/auditory-brainstem-responses-after-electrolytic-lesions-in-bilateral-subdivisions-of-the-medial-geniculate-body-of-tree-shrews
#6
Meichan Zhu, Heng Li, Bibek Gyanwali, Guangyao He, Chenglin Qi, Xuemin Yang, Zhenhua Li, Zhenxing Yao, Zhi Wang, Anzhou Tang
This study aimed to establish a tree shrew model of bilateral electrolytic lesions in the medial geniculate body (MGB) to determine the advantages of using a tree shrew model and to assess the pattern of sound processing in tree shrews after bilateral electrolytic damage in different parts of the MGB. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) of a normal control group (n = 30) and an electrical damage group (n = 30) were tested at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after surgery. (1) The bilateral ablations group exhibited a significant increase in the ABR threshold of the electrolytic damage group between pre- and post-operation...
June 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614989/a-challenging-entity-of-endovascular-embolization-with-onyx-for-brainstem-arteriovenous-malformation-experience-from-13-cases
#7
Hengwei Jin, Zhan Liu, Qing Chang, Chang Chen, Huijian Ge, Xianli Lv, Youxiang Li
Objective Brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage and are challenging to treat. We present our experience of endovascular embolization with Onyx in these aggressive lesions. Materials and methods Between 2007 and 2016, 13 patients with brainstem AVMs were embolized with Onyx at our center. Twelve patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage and one with headache. Retrospective examinations of patient demographics, clinical presentation, angiographic features, treatment modalities, postoperative complications and outcomes were carried out...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614181/cochleovestibular-gene-transfer-in-neonatal-mice-by-canalostomy
#8
Jing-Ying Guo, Yu-Ying Liu, Teng-Fei Qu, Zhe Peng, Jing Xie, Guo-Peng Wang, Shu-Sheng Gong
Impairments of the inner ear result in sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction in humans. A large proportion of these disorders are congenital, and involve both auditory and vestibular systems. Therefore, genetic interventions to correct deficits must be administered during early developmental stages. In this study, we evaluated inner ear gene transfer in neonatal mice by canalostomy using an adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vector. AAV8 with the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene was inoculated into the inner ear of the neonatal mice through the posterior semicircular canal (canalostomy)...
June 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601978/recurrent-or-symptomatic-residual-posterior-fossa-hemangioblastomas-how-are-they-different-from-their-primary-counterparts
#9
Shruti Gupta, Lily Pal, Jayesh C Sardhara, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sanjay Behari
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa hemangioblastomas are WHO grade I benign lesions with a surprisingly high recurrence rate. This study determines the factors responsible for recurrence and the clinico-radiological and histopathological differences between primary (group A; n = 60) and recurrent/symptomatic residual (group B; n = 24) tumors. METHODS: Radiologically, tumors were differentiated into cystic, cystic with a mural nodule, solid-cystic/microcystic and solid...
June 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589450/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-adults-with-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-single-center-study
#10
Guilan Cai, Yini Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Yanfei Han, Zhao Wang
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by proliferation and diffuse infiltration multiple organs with histiocytes, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations of HLH have been recognized in different studies with children, but they remain relatively ill-defined in adults with HLH. From March 2008 to October 2014, 289 adult patients with HLH were admitted to our center. Clinical, radiological, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) data of the patients with CNS involvement were reviewed, and a retrospective study in our single-center was carried out...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578629/chaetomiaceae-fungi-novel-pathogens-of-equine-neurotropic-phaeohyphomycosis
#11
Quinci Plumlee, Courtney Meason-Smith, Alexandra Dieterly, Gabriel Gomez, Brian F Porter, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573831/auditory-and-otologic-profile-of-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-comprehensive-single-center-data-on-38-patients
#12
Spencer Lindsey, Carmen Brewer, Olga Stakhovskaya, Hung Jeffrey Kim, Chris Zalewski, Joy Bryant, Kelly A King, Jürgen K Naggert, William A Gahl, Jan D Marshall, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. Hallmark characteristics include childhood onset of severe retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Here we comprehensively characterize the auditory and otologic manifestations in a prospective case series of 38 individuals, aged 1.7-37.9 years, with genetically confirmed AS. Hearing loss was preceded by retinal dystrophy in all cases, and had an average age of detection of 7...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571098/prenatal-brainstem-disruptions-small-lesions-big-problems
#13
Eugen Boltshauser, Florian Bauder, Miriam Giarrana, Anette Hackenberg, Sébastien Lebon, Eliane Roulet-Perez, Regula Schmid, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Andrea Poretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567027/transient-vestibulopathy-in-wallenberg-s-syndrome-pathologic-analysis
#14
Jorge C Kattah, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Sigrun Roeber, Meena Gujrati, Sarah E Bach, David E Newman Toker, Ari M Blitz, Anja K E Horn
OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual lateral medullary stroke (LMS) associated with transient unidirectional horizontal, nystagmus, and decreased horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (h-VOR) gain that mimicked a peripheral vestibulopathy. MRI suggested involvement of caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); however, the rapid resolution of the nystagmus and improved h-VOR gain favored transient ischemia without infarction. Decreased h-VOR gain is expected with peripheral vestibular lesions within the labyrinth or superior vestibular nerve; less frequently lateral pontine strokes involving the vestibular root entry, the vestibular fascicle, or neurons within the MVN may be responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559965/brainstem-injury-associated-with-supratentorial-lesions-is-revealed-by-electronystagmography-of-the-cold-caloric-reflex-test
#15
Qizhi Fu, Zhiguo Qi, Ruirui Yang, Ke Cheng, Yongtao Yang, Peng Xie
To explore the brainstem injury associated with supratentorial lesions, we conducted analysis of ICP levels and detected ENG parameters by using the cold caloric reflex test and histopathological examinations of the brainstem. Rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage was well-established in the study of supratentorial lesions of varying severities (n=210). Intracerebral pressure monitoring and electronystagmography of the cold caloric reflex test were simultaneously performed in animals. Apoptotic, immunohistochemical, and histopathological changes in different segments of the brainstem were investigated at various time intervals...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552152/brainstem-and-cerebellar-cavernous-malformations
#16
Gursant S Atwal, Christina E Sarris, Robert F Spetzler
Cavernous malformations are vascular lesions that occur throughout the central nervous system, most commonly in the supratentorial location, with brainstem and cerebellar cavernous malformations occurring more rarely. Cavernous malformations are associated with developmental venous anomalies that occur sporadically or in familial form. Patients with a cavernous malformation can present with headaches, seizures, sensorimotor disturbances, or focal neurologic deficits based on the anatomic location of the lesion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551039/clinical-features-in-very-early-onset-demyelinating-disease-with-anti-mog-antibody
#17
Masahiro Nishiyama, Hiroaki Nagase, Masaaki Matsumoto, Kazumi Tomioka, Hiroyuki Awano, Tsukasa Tanaka, Daisaku Toyoshima, Kyoko Fujita, Azusa Maruyama, Yoshinobu Oyazato, Keisuke Saeki, Kazuhiro Shiraishi, Satoshi Takada, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of patients with very early-onset acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS) with the anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody are unknown. We investigated the clinical characteristics and described detailed treatment of weekly intramuscular interferon β-1a (IFNβ-1a) in children aged <4years with ADS and the anti-MOG antibody. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with anti-MOG positivity who were diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) at <4years of age...
May 24, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540179/evaluating-the-effect-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-on-automatic-brain-structure-segmentation
#18
Sandra González-Villà, Sergi Valverde, Mariano Cabezas, Deborah Pareto, Joan C Vilanova, Lluís Ramió-Torrentà, Àlex Rovira, Arnau Oliver, Xavier Lladó
In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI'12)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535974/role-of-the-area-postrema-in-the-hypophagic-effects-of-oleoylethanolamide
#19
Adele Romano, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Fiona E Braegger, Annabella Vitalone, Mario Falchi, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Carlo Cifani, Tommaso Cassano, Thomas A Lutz, Silvana Gaetani
The satiety-promoting action of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been associated to the indirect activation of selected brain areas, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the brainstem and the tuberomammillary (TMN) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei in the hypothalamus, where noradrenergic, histaminergic and oxytocinergic neurons play a necessary role. Visceral ascending fibers were hypothesized to mediate such effects. However, our previous findings demonstrated that the hypophagic action of peripherally administered OEA does not require intact vagal afferents and is associated to a strong activation of the area postrema (AP)...
May 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533776/reactivity-to-novel-autoantigens-in-patients-with-coexisting-central-nervous-system-demyelinating-disease-and-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#20
Judith M Greer, Simon Broadley, Michael P Pender
Several lines of evidence suggest a definite and unique link between CNS demyelinating diseases and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of the current study was to systematically compare the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coexistent AITD and CNS demyelinating disease with those of patients with just CNS demyelinating disease. Forty-four patients with coexisting CNS demyelinating disease and AITD were identified and their clinical and radiological features were recorded. Blood and DNA were collected and tested for HLA type and for the response of T cells and antibodies to a variety of antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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