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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904821/auditory-brainstem-response-and-late-latency-response-in-individuals-with-tinnitus-having-normal-hearing
#1
Sreeraj Konadath, Puttabasappa Manjula
Tinnitus is a commonly encountered complaint in routine audiology practice. The pathophysiology and exact generation site of tinnitus is not precisely established. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and late latency response (LLR) findings in individuals with tinnitus show mixed results in the literature. Majority of studies have focused on individuals having tinnitus with peripheral hearing loss. The present study explores ABR and LLR characteristics among tinnitus patients with normal audiometric presentation; with no direct indication of any cochlear lesion...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904123/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-extensive-deep-white-matter-lesions-including-the-temporal-pole
#2
Junichiro Ohira, Nobuyuki Mori, Shunsuke Kajikawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Tetsuya Arisato, Makio Takahashi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891034/the-anatomical-perspective-of-human-occipital-condyle-in-relation-to-the-hypoglossal-canal-condylar-canal-and-jugular-foramen-and-its-surgical-significance
#3
Ranjana Verma, Shalini Kumar, Arpita Mahajan Rai, Iqra Mansoor, Raj D Mehra
BACKGROUND: The transcondylar approach (TCA) has gained importance in recent era which enables shorter and direct route to access the lesions ventral to the brainstem. The important step in this approach is resection of the occipital condyle (OC). The detailed knowledge of bony anatomy of OC and its relation to the hypoglossal canal (HC), condylar canal (CC), and jugular foramen (JF) is very important to avoid any iatrogenic injury during craniovertebral surgeries. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric and morphological study and note the variations of the OC and the structures surrounding it in North Indian population...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876660/total-resection-of-brainstem-extension-of-tentorial-schwannoma-using-an-occipital-trans-tentorial-approach-a-case-report
#5
Liu Xinrui, Yuichi Sato, Mitsuru Dan, Hiroki Kuroda, Toshihiro Kumabe
BACKGROUND: Approximately 60 cases of schwannoma unrelated to the cranial nerve have been reported, and only 12 arose from the tentorium. We present a case of tentorial schwannoma extending into the pons and midbrain without cranial nerve involvement, which was almost totally resected through an occipital trans-tentorial approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old man was admitted to our institution with memory disturbance beginning 2 years ago and gait disturbance from one year ago...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862327/an-order-in-lewy-body-disorders-retrograde-degeneration-in-hyperbranching-axons-as-a-fundamental-structural-template-accounting-for-focal-multifocal-lewy-body-disease
#6
REVIEW
Toshiki Uchihara 内原 俊記
Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857875/dual-endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-and-precaruncular-transorbital-approaches-for-clipping-of-the-cavernous-carotid-artery-a-cadaveric-simulation
#7
Jeremy Ciporen, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Aclan Dogan, Justin S Cetas, William E Cameron
Background Endoscopic skull base approaches are being used to address complicated neurovascular pathology. These approaches are safest when proximal vascular control of the cavernous carotid artery (CavCA) can be obtained. Methods We present a cadaver-based anatomic simulation study showing the feasibility of clip placement for the CavCA as it courses through the cavernous sinus. The arterial vessels were injected with red microfil (Flow Tech, Carver, Massachusetts) to enhance visibility. The endoscope was directed through a precaruncular transorbital approach and instrumentation was managed through an endonasal transsphenoidal approach...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857794/a-rare-case-of-white-pearls-in-brainstem
#8
Dipanker Singh Mankotia, Vivek Tandon, Hardik Sardana, Madhu Rajeshwari, Vaishali Suri, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
Intrinsic brainstem epidermoid is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported. Authors report a classic case of brainstem epidermoid in a 14-year-old male child presenting with symptoms of brainstem involvement. The child underwent a successful surgical excision. The lesion was intrinsic and caused diagnostic dilemma based on conventional radiological images. Based on our experience in this case and a thorough review of literature, we are of the opinion that diffusion-weighted images are very important in establishing the diagnosis...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854093/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-mimicking-brainstem-infarction-a-dilemma
#9
Tsung-Han Ho, Chia-Lin Tsai, Yaw-Don Hsu, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Fu-Chi Yang, Chia-Ching Hsu, Chun-Chieh Lin
PURPOSE: We had recently reported one case at American Journal of Emergency Medicine about centralvariant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an 84-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Here, we introduce another case of centralvariant PRES in a 49-year-old man mimicking as acute brainstem infarction in the cranial computed tomography (CT) findings. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of vertigo, cognitive decline, and difficulty in walking...
June 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851717/central-trochlear-palsy-report-of-two-patients-with-ipsilesional-palsy-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Seong-Hae Jeong, Sung-Hee Kim, Seung-Han Lee, Seong-Ho Park, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The trochlear (fourth) nerve is the only cranial nerve that decussates before emerging from the posterior aspect of the brainstem. Lesions involving the trochlear nucleus or fascicles mostly give rise to contralesional superior oblique palsy (SOP). METHODS: We report 2 patients with SOP on the side of intraaxial lesions with a literature review on central trochlear palsy. RESULTS: The lesions are more commonly located posterior to the cerebral aqueduct in patients with ipsilesional SOP than in those with contralesional SOP...
December 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833932/targeted-treatment-of-brainstem-neurohistiocytosis-guided-by-urinary-cell-free-dna
#11
David Hunt, Paul Milne, Peter Fernandes, Venetia Bigley, Matthew Collin
OBJECTIVE: To identify a treatment-responsive BRAF(V600E) mutation in brainstem neurohistiocytosis, where no lesional tissue was readily obtainable, using a cell-free DNA approach. METHODS: Cell-free DNA was extracted from urine and allele-specific PCR for the BRAF(V600E) mutation was performed. Response to conventional treatment (corticosteroids and interferon) and targeted treatment with a BRAF inhibitor was assessed by clinical evaluation, gadolinium-enhanced MRI brain scan, and serial testing of urinary cell-free DNA for mutant alleles...
January 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833521/treatment-responsive-holmes-tremor-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Mohammed Alqwaifly
Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder, characterized by a combination of resting, postural, and action tremors. It is usually caused by lesions involving the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebellum. It is often difficult to treat, many medications have been used with varying degrees of success. It may respond to stereotactic thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation in ventralis intermedius nucleus. Here I report a case of Holmes tremor secondary to multiple sclerosis that treated with L-dopa/carpidopa and showed marked improvement...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826325/enterovirus-71-infection-and-neurological-complications
#13
REVIEW
Kyung Yeon Lee
Since the outbreak of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in Malaysia in 1997, large epidemics of EV71 have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Many children and infants have died from serious neurological complications during these epidemics, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in these areas. EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, and usually resolves spontaneously. However, EV71 occasionally involves the central nervous system (CNS), and induces diverse neurological complications such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#14
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821089/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-as-the-first-manifestation-of-bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis
#15
Pei-Ru Chen, Shih-Pin Chen
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in rare cases. Here we report a patient in whom PRES was the presenting manifestation of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman presented with acute onset of hypertension, headache, blurred vision, and left eyelid drooping. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed characteristic PRES lesions involving the parietal and occipital lobes bilaterally...
November 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815403/coma-causing-brainstem-lesions
#16
S M Golaszewski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815400/a-human-brain-network-derived-from-coma-causing-brainstem-lesions
#17
David B Fischer, Aaron D Boes, Athena Demertzi, Henry C Evrard, Steven Laureys, Brian L Edlow, Hesheng Liu, Clifford B Saper, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael D Fox, Joel C Geerling
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a brainstem location specific to coma-causing lesions, and its functional connectivity network. METHODS: We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem lesions using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a case-control design to identify a site significantly associated with coma. We next used resting-state functional connectivity from a healthy cohort to identify a network of regions functionally connected to this brainstem site...
November 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807855/atypical-scrapie-in-australia
#18
R W Cook, J Bingham, A S Besier, C L Bayley, M Hawes, P L Shearer, M Yamada, J Bergfeld, D T Williams, D J Middleton
BACKGROUND: Since its initial detection in Norway in 1998, atypical scrapie ('atypical/Nor98 scrapie') has been reported in sheep in the majority of European countries (including in regions free of classical scrapie) and in the Falkland Islands, the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. CASE SERIES: The diagnosis in Australia of atypical scrapie in four Merino and one Merino-cross sheep showing clinical signs of neurological disease was based on the detection of grey matter neuropil vacuolation (spongiform change) in the brain (particularly in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex) and associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) deposition in both grey and white matter...
November 3, 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802825/mog-igg-in-nmo-and-related-disorders-a-multicenter-study-of-50-patients-part-3-brainstem-involvement-frequency-presentation-and-outcome
#19
Sven Jarius, Ingo Kleiter, Klemens Ruprecht, Nasrin Asgari, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Nadja Borisow, Martin W Hümmert, Corinna Trebst, Florence Pache, Alexander Winkelmann, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Marius Ringelstein, Oliver Stich, Orhan Aktas, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Alexander Schwarz, Carsten Lukas, Jürgen Haas, Kai Fechner, Mathias Buttmann, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexander U Brandt, Diego Franciotta, Kathrin Schanda, Friedemann Paul, Markus Reindl, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical and paraclinical features, course, outcome, and prognostic implications of brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. METHODS: Retrospective case study...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798639/new-findings-classification-and-long-term-follow-up-study-based-on-mri-characterization-of-brainstem-encephalitis-induced-by-enterovirus-71
#20
Hongwu Zeng, Feiqiu Wen, Wenxian Huang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Yonker Wang, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K L Wong
BACKGROUND: To report the diversity of MRI features of brainstem encephalitis (BE) induced by Enterovirus 71. This is supported by implementation and testing of our new classification scheme in order to improve the diagnostic level on this specific disease. METHODS: Neuroimaging of 91 pediatric patients who got EV71 related BE were hospitalized between March, 2010 to October, 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI scan...
2016: PloS One
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