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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914796/convection-enhanced-delivery-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-a-single-centre-dose-escalation-phase-1-trial
#1
Mark M Souweidane, Kim Kramer, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Zhiping Zhou, Sofia Haque, Pat Zanzonico, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Serge K Lyashchenko, Sunitha B Thakur, Maria Donzelli, Ryan S Turner, Jason S Lewis, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Steven M Larson, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is one of the deadliest central nervous system tumours of childhood, with a median overall survival of less than 12 months. Convection-enhanced delivery has been proposed as a means to efficiently deliver therapeutic agents directly into the brainstem while minimising systemic exposure and associated toxic effects. We did this study to evaluate the safety of convection-enhanced delivery of a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting the glioma-associated B7-H3 antigen in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
June 15, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913745/review-of-neuroimaging-studies-related-to-pain-modulation
#2
Lone Knudsen, Gitte Laue Petersen, Kathrine Næsted Nørskov, Lene Vase, Nanna Finnerup, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Peter Svensson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A noxious stimulus does not necessarily cause pain. Nociceptive signals arising from a noxious stimulus are subject to modulation via endogenous inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms as they travel from the periphery to the dorsal horn or brainstem and on to higher brain sites. Research on the neural structures underlying endogenous pain modulation has largely been restricted to animal research due to the invasiveness of such studies (e.g., spinal cord transection, brain lesioning, brain site stimulation)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911736/neuroimaging-in-juvenile-alexander-disease-tumour-like-brainstem-lesions
#3
Ai Peng Tan, Chhabda Sahil, Robert Robinson, Ata Siddiqui, Elizabeth Wraige, Christopher Chandler, Kshitij Mankad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908240/the-gabaergic-gudden-s-dorsal-tegmental-nucleus-a-new-relay-for-serotonergic-regulation-of-sleep-wake-behavior-in-the-mouse
#4
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905510/bleeding-risk-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-in-patients-on-%C3%AE-blocker-medication-a-cohort-study
#5
Johannes Goldberg, Christian Jaeggi, Daniel Schoeni, Pasquale Mordasini, Andreas Raabe, David Bervini
OBJECTIVE Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are frequently diagnosed vascular malformations of the brain. Although most CCMs are asymptomatic, some can be responsible for intracerebral hemorrhage or seizures. In selected cases, microsurgical resection is the preferred treatment option. Treatment with the unselective β-blocker propranolol has been presumed to stabilize and eventually lead to CCM size regression in a limited number of published case series; however, the underlying mechanism and evidence for this effect remain unclear...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904635/successful-treatment-of-holmes-tremor-with-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-prelemniscal-radiations
#6
Vicente Martinez, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Foutz, Andew Ko
Holmes tremor (HT) is a rare movement disorder that is typically associated with cerebellar, thalamic or brainstem lesions following a delay. Treatment of HT with deep brain stimulation (DBS) has yielded positive results however; it is unclear which deep brain targets provide optimal therapeutic effects. Here we describe a case report in which a 34 year old man with HT treated successfully with DBS. The ventrointermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus was considered as the initial target. Following electrode placement we determined that the ventral-most electrode contacts were located in the prelemniscal radiations (Raprl)...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903454/physiology-of-the-cerebellum
#7
Egidio D'Angelo
The cerebellum is a central brain structure deeply integrated into major loops with the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The cerebellum shows a complex regional organization consisting of modules with sagittal orientation. The cerebellum takes part in motor control and its lesions cause a movement incoordination syndrome called ataxia. Recent observations also imply involvement of the cerebellum in cognition and executive control, with an impact on pathologies like dyslexia and autism. The cerebellum operates as a forward controller learning to predict the precise timing of correlated events...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903448/historic-notes-on-anatomic-physiologic-and-clinical-research-on-the-cerebellum
#8
Jan Voogd, Peter J Koehler
This chapter is concerned with ideas on the function, structure, and pathology that shaped our present knowledge of the cerebellum. One of the main themes in its early history is its localization subtentorially, leading to misattributions due to clinical observations in trauma and lesion experiments that caused collateral damage to the brainstem. Improvement of techniques led to the insight that it plays a role in movement control (Rolando) or coordination (Flourens). Purkinje initiated the histology of the cerebellar cortex in 1837...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903436/the-neuropathology-of-the-adult-cerebellum
#9
Arnulf H Koeppen
This chapter summarizes the neuropathologic features of nonneoplastic disorders of the adult cerebellum. Gait ataxia and extremity dysmetria are clinical manifestations of diseases that interrupt the complex cerebellar circuitry between the neurons of the cerebellar cortex, the cerebellar nuclei (especially the dentate nuclei), and the inferior olivary nuclei. The cerebellum is a prominent target of several sporadic and hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple system atrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, and Friedreich ataxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902610/modified-extended-suboccipital-subtonsillar-clipping-of-a-ruptured-proximal-pica-aneurysm-technical-note-with-relevant-anatomical-demonstration
#10
Alberto Di Somma, Paloma Cancela, Magdalena Olivares, Teresa Somma, Antonio López-González, Alvaro Campero, Juan Emmerich, Javier Márquez-Rivas
BACKGROUND: and importance: Lesions located lateral to the lower brainstem, such as proximal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms, are surgically challenging. In this study we report a case of a patient with a left proximal PICA aneurysm that was successfully clipped via a so-called "extended" suboccipital subtonsillar approach, which allowed to obtain proper vascular control without removal of the atlas. The anatomy relevant for this approach has been studied...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899028/hand-motor-recovery-following-extensive-frontoparietal-cortical-injury-is-accompanied-by-upregulated-corticoreticular-projections-in-the-monkey
#11
W G Darling, J Ge, K S Stilwell-Morecraft, D L Rotella, M A Pizzimenti, R J Morecraft
We tested the hypothesis that arm/hand motor recovery after injury of lateral sensorimotor cortex is associated with upregulation of the corticoreticular projection (CRP) from supplementary motor cortex (M2) to the gigantocellular reticular nucleus of the medulla (Gi). Three groups of rhesus monkeys of both genders were studied: 5 controls, 4 cases with lesions of the arm/hand area of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) (F2 lesion group) and 5 cases with lesions of the arm/hand area of M1, LPMC, S1 and anterior parietal cortex (F2P2 lesion group)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893955/endoscopic-endonasal-focal-transclival-medial-condylectomy-approach-for-resection-of-a-foramen-magnum-meningioma-2-dimensional-operative-video
#12
Juan M Revuelta Barbero, Alaa S Montaser, Mostafa Shahein, André Beer-Furlan, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau, Daniel M Prevedello
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) provides direct access to foramen magnum meningiomas; however, it often requires extensive exposure including septal flap elevation with septum removal, complete sphenoidotomy, and panclivectomy.We present a case of a 54-yr-old-female with an incidental foramen magnum lesion followed up with serial imaging who presented 10 mo later with progressive neck discomfort and episodes of dizziness, with confirmed tumor progression and further brainstem compression. A focal transclival EEA with medial condylectomy was performed preserving the upper two-thirds of the clivus, the nasal septum, and the sphenoid sinus...
June 11, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891075/the-cerebellum-from-the-fetus-to-the-elderly-history-advances-and-future-challenges
#13
Mario Manto, Thierry A G M Huisman
The cerebellum is now at the forefront of research in neuroscience. This is not just a coincidence, occurring about 250 years after the first description of the human cerebellum. The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the central nervous system and it is heavily connected with almost all cortical and subcortical areas of the supratentorial region as well as with the brainstem and the spinal cord. Cerebellar circuits are embedded in large-scale networks contributing to motor control and neurocognition...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891070/toxic-induced-cerebellar-syndrome-from-the-fetal-period-to-the-elderly
#14
Mario Manto, Gaetano Perrotta
The cerebellum is a brain region which is particularly susceptible to intoxication. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous. It is often considered that elderly patients and patients presenting pre-existing structural lesions of the posterior fossa are particularly at risk of developing a toxic-induced cerebellar syndrome (TOICS). However, TOICS may occur at any age, including in utero. Indeed, the cerebellum is highly vulnerable during neurodevelopment. Amongst cerebellotoxic agents, ethanol is the most commonly implicated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881656/somatosensory-evoked-potentials-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-brainstem-herniation-in-the-neuroscience-intensive-care-unit
#15
Nakul Katyal, Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanamai, Jonathan M Beary, Agnieszka Ardelt, Anantha Vellipuram
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are a sensitive, minimally invasive technique used to localize dysfunction of myelinated peripheral and central axons in the nervous system. The utility of SSEPs in acutely assessing central nervous system function in brainstem herniation in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU) has not been well established. We discuss a case of an 18-year-old, postpartum female who presented with intermittent headache, diplopia, nausea/vomiting and cachexia following delivery two months prior...
April 6, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881316/relevance-of-deprivation-studies-in-understanding-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Rachna Mehta, Shafa Khan, Birendra N Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a unique phenomenon essential for maintaining normal physiological processes and is expressed at least in species higher in the evolution. The basic scaffold of the neuronal network responsible for REMS regulation is present in the brainstem, which may be directly or indirectly influenced by most other physiological processes. It is regulated by the neurons in the brainstem. Various manipulations including chemical, elec-trophysiological, lesion, stimulation, behavioral, ontogenic and deprivation studies have been designed to understand REMS genesis, maintenance, physiology and functional significance...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872139/gut-vagal-sensory-signaling-regulates-hippocampus-function-through-multi-order-pathways
#17
Andrea N Suarez, Ted M Hsu, Clarissa M Liu, Emily E Noble, Alyssa M Cortella, Emily M Nakamoto, Joel D Hahn, Guillaume de Lartigue, Scott E Kanoski
The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers...
June 5, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867735/adult-periodic-alternating-nystagmus-masked-by-involuntary-head-movements
#18
Diego Kaski, Salman Haider, Amanda Male, Alex Radunovich, Fan Liu, Carla Cordivari, Kailash P Bhatia, Adolfo M Bronstein
Acquired periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) describes a horizontal jerk nystagmus that reverses its direction with a predictable cycle, and is thought to arise from lesions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. We report a 20-year-old patient with PAN who presented with an acute vertiginous episode and developed an involuntary head movement that initially masked the PAN. The involuntary head movements were abolished with a subtherapeutic dose of botulinum toxin to the neck muscles. We propose that the head movements initially developed as a compensatory movement to the nystagmus, to maintain visual fixation in the presence of the underlying nystagmus, and became an entrained involuntary behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861128/conjugate-eye-deviation-caused-by-upper-medial-medullary-infarction-a-case-report
#19
Takashi Ogawa, Yuji Ueno, Hikaru Kamo, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kazuo Yamashiro, Ryota Tanaka, Yasushi Shimo, Nobutaka Hattori
Conjugate eye deviation (CED) is defined as a sustained shift in horizontal gaze toward 1 side, together with gaze failure to the other side, caused by lesions in the brainstem, basal ganglia, or cortical frontal eye fields. To date, very few reports have described CED in patients with medullary infarction. A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of vertigo and right hemiparesis, accompanied by CED to the right with gaze palsy to the left. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed left upper medial medullary infarction involving the left nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and adjacent to the left inferior olivary nucleus (ION)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847602/characteristics-of-vestibular-corrective-saccades-in-patients-with-slow-visual-saccades-vestibular-disorders-and-controls-a-descriptive-analysis
#20
Dario Andres Yacovino, Leigh Alexander Martin, Manuel Perez Akly, Timothy Carl Hain
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether overt catch up saccades (OS) provoked by vestibular stimuli, as observed in the video head impulse test (vHIT), have comparable metrics as visually triggered horizontal saccades (VS), indicating a common saccadic brainstem generator. METHODS: Three groups of patients were studied: patients with neurological disorders causing slow saccades (group 1, n = 12), patients with peripheral vestibular lesions (group 2, n = 43), and normal controls (group 3, = 24)...
2018: PloS One
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