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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#1
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045569/altered-expression-of-reorganized-inputs-as-they-ascend-from-the-cuneate-nucleus-to-cortical-area-3b-in-monkeys-with-long-term-spinal-cord-injuries
#2
Priyabrata Halder, Niranjan Kambi, Prem Chand, Neeraj Jain
Chronic deafferentations in adult mammals result in reorganization of the brain. Lesions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at cervical levels in monkeys result in expansion of the intact chin inputs into the deafferented hand representation in area 3b, second somatosensory (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) areas of the somatosensory cortex, ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. Here, we describe the extent and nature of reorganization of the cuneate and gracile nuclei of adult macaque monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns, and compare it with the reorganization of area 3b in the same monkeys...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044454/the-role-of-telovelar-approach-in-fourth-ventricular-surgery-a-new-perspective
#3
Ehab Eissa
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation the efficiency of the telovelar approach for 4th ventricular lesions through identifying and preserving neurovascular structures. METHODS: Forty cases of fourth ventricular tumours using the telovelar approach Results: It provides adequate exposure in all cases. The brainstem and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were early identified and preserved in all cases. Potential tumour attachment was observed at the floor of the fourth ventricle in twenty two (55%) cases, 5 of them were brain stem glioma...
August 31, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044415/morphologic-and-elemental-analysis-of-primary-melanosis-of-the-dentate-nucleus-review-and-correlation-with-neuromelanin
#4
Richard T Hopley, Edward Haller, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Amyn M Rojiani
Primary melanosis of the dentate nucleus is a rarely described entity with neither known cause nor definitive clinicopathologic correlation. We revisit this previously reported phenomenon by presenting one such case with a review of the pathology as well as additional investigations including elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The lesion presented macroscopically as a sharply defined, black pigmentation that was restricted to the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043102/the-distribution-of-calbindin-d28k-parvalbumin-and-calretinin-immunoreactivity-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-circling-mouse
#5
Jin-Koo Lee, Myeung Ju Kim
The circling mice with tmie gene mutation are known as an animal deafness model, which showed hyperactive circling movement. Recently, the reinvestigation of circling mouse was performed to check the inner ear pathology as a main lesion of early hearing loss. In this trial, the inner ear organs were not so damaged to cause the hearing deficit of circling (cir/cir) mouse at 18 postnatal day (P18) though auditory brainstem response data indicated hearing loss of cir/cir mice at P18. Thus, another mechanism may be correlated with the early hearing loss of cir/cir mice at P18...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#6
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035724/factors-associated-with-post-stroke-suicidal-death
#7
Jin Pyo Hong, Subin Park, Sung-Ho Ahn, Jong S Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the relative risk of suicidal death compared to the general population and to identify risk factors for suicidal death among stroke patients. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 7175 patients who were diagnosed with stroke and admitted at Asan Medical Center from January 2005 to December 2012. Information on suicidal death was obtained from the database of the Korean National Statistical Office. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for post-stroke suicide was estimated...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032218/the-hypoglossal-nerve-anatomical-study-of-its-entire-course
#8
Giorgio Iaconetta, Domenico Solari, Alessandro Villa, Clotilde Castaldo, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Gianluigi Califano, Stefania Montagnani, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECT: Only a few anatomic studies concerning the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) have been reported. The purpose of the present study is to analyze all the relationships of the XII nerve with the surrounding structures from the brainstem to the tongue through a microscopic perspective. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected with the aim to explore the entire course of the XII cranial nerve via the lateral suboccipital, the far lateral partial or total transcondilar routes...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030748/neuroimaging-of-cavernous-malformations
#9
REVIEW
Maxim Mokin, Siviero Agazzi, Lowell Dawson, Christopher T Primiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular abnormalities often discovered on imaging as an incidental finding. The most common clinical presentations of CCMs include seizure, headache, focal neurological deficits, and intracranial hemorrhage. This article discusses the most recent guidelines including imaging diagnostic criteria and radiographic standards of CCMs and reviews the utility of currently available imaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Gradient echo T2*-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging are the recommended imaging protocols for evaluation of suspected CCMs...
October 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028764/the-prognostic-value-of-mri-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Hourmazd Haghbayan, Amélie Boutin, Mathieu Laflamme, François Lauzier, Michèle Shemilt, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Vincent Douville, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability, yet many predictors of outcome are not precise enough to guide initial clinical decision-making. Although increasingly used in the early phase following traumatic brain injury, the prognostic utility of MRI remains uncertain. We thus undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the predictive value of acute MRI lesion patterns for discriminating clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury...
October 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#11
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992239/investigation-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-cyberknife-hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-brainstem-metastases-using-a-new-evaluation-criterion-symptomatic-control
#12
Masaki Nakamura, Hideki Nishimura, Hiroshi Mayahara, Haruka Uezono, Aya Harada, Naoki Hashimoto, Yasuo Ejima, Takeaki Ishihara, Ryo Nishikawa, Ryohei Sasaki
The treatment of brainstem metastases remains a challenge as the brainstem itself is considered a neurological organ at risk. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of CyberKnife hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for brainstem metastases, and to examine the balance between efficacy and safety for the management of neurological symptoms. A total of 26 lesions [pons (n = 18), medulla (n = 4) and midbrain (n = 4)] in 20 patients treated with CyberKnife hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991702/cerebral-autoregulation-is-preserved-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#13
Daniel Ferreira, Pedro Castro, Gonçalo Videira, João Pedro Filipe, Rosa Santos, Maria José Sá, Elsa Azevedo, Pedro Abreu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that may also be associated with vascular dysfunction. One master component of vascular regulation is cerebral autoregulation (CA). We aimed to investigate the integrity of CA in MS patients and study its relationship with autonomic dysfunction (AD), magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) lesion load and hemodynamic parameters. We enrolled 20 relapsing-remitting MS and 20 healthy subjects. CA was assessed by transfer function analysis parameters (coherence, gain and phase), as obtained in the very low, low and high-frequency domains (VLF, LF, HF, respectively)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989289/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-optimal-management-of-glioma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#14
REVIEW
Tejan P Diwanji, Alexander Engelman, James W Snider, Pranshu Mohindra
Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most frequently encountered solid tumors of childhood, but are less common in adolescents and young adults (AYA), aged 15-39 years. Gliomas account for 29%-35% of the CNS tumors in AYA, with approximately two-thirds being low-grade glioma (LGG) and the remaining being high-grade glioma (HGG). We review the epidemiology, work-up, and management of LGG and HGG, focusing on the particular issues faced by the AYA population relative to pediatric and adult populations...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987175/inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which occur against the background of an acute or chronic inflammatory process. The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the presence of focal demyelinated lesions with partial axonal preservation and reactive astrogliosis. Demyelinated plaques are present in the white as well as gray matter, such as the cerebral or cerebellar cortex and brainstem nuclei. Activity of the disease process is reflected by the presence of lesions with ongoing myelin destruction...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982335/reduced-serotonin-transporter-levels-and-inflammation-in-the-midbrain-raphe-of-12-month-old-appswe-psen1de9-mice
#16
Athanasios Metaxas, Ramanan Vaitheeswaran, Katrine T Jensen, Camilla Thygesen, Laura Ilkjaer, Sultan Darvesh, Bente Finsen
Background Although mood and sleep disturbances are nearly universal among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain structures involved in non-cognitive processing remain under characterized in terms of AD pathology. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate hallmarks of AD pathology in the brainstem of the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of familial AD. Methods Fresh-frozen sections from female, 12 month old, transgenic and control B6C3 mice (n=6/genotype) were examined for amyloid burden and neurofibrillary alterations, by using 6E10 immunohistochemistry and the Gallyas silver stain, respectively...
October 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979169/severe-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-successfully-treated-with-rituximab-an-alternative-to-standard-of-care
#17
Elisabetta Chessa, Matteo Piga, Alberto Floris, Alessandro Mathieu, Alberto Cauli
Demyelinating syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (DS-SLE) is a rare encephalomyelitis burden with a high risk of disability and death. We report on a 49-year-old Caucasian woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by severe cognitive dysfunction, brainstem disease, cranial nerve palsies, weakness and numbness in limbs and multiple discrete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) areas of damage within the white matter of semioval centers, temporal lobe, external capsule, claustrum, subinsular regions and midbrain...
2017: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977718/sustained-cell-body-reactivity-and-loss-of-neun-in-a-subset-of-axotomized-bulbospinal-neurons-after-a-chronic-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Fannie Darlot, Stéphane Vinit, Valéry Matarazzo, Anne Kastner
Following central nervous system lesion, the ability of injured axons to regrowth may depend on the level and duration of the injured cell body response (CBR). Therefore, in order to investigate whether axotomized brainstem neurons maintain a durable growth-competent state after spinal cord injury, we studied the effect of a chronic C2 hemisection in rats on the expression of various CBR markers involved in axon regeneration, such as c-Jun, ATF-3, HSP27, NO synthase (NOS), and also of the neural mature phenotype marker NeuN, in the bulbospinal respiratory neurons as compared to the Gigantocellularis nucleus...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977137/dorsal-brainstem-syndrome-and-the-use-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-in-an-infant
#19
José Colleti, Walter Koga, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of dorsal brainstem syndrome in an infant after hypoxic-ischemic episode due to severe sepsis and the use of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) to aid in diagnosis and in the removal of mechanical ventilation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-month-old male infant, previously healthy, presented with severe sepsis that evolved to dorsal brainstem syndrome, which usually occurs after hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonates and infants, and is related to very specific magnetic resonance images...
September 21, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966151/the-long-and-winding-road-thoracic-myelopathy-associated-with-occipitocervical-davf
#20
Angelique Sao-Mai Do, Joseph Kapurch, Ravi Kumar, John Port, Jeffrey W Miller, Jamie J Van Gompel
Spinal DAVFs have diverse presentations. MRIs reveal spinal cord swelling in only 45-74%. We present an unusual case of a 57 yo male with a craniocervical junction DAVFs in which the edema appeared in the thoracolumbar region skipping the cervical spinal cord. A case report and literature review from a tertiary referral center. In our patient, symptoms progressed over 3 months from low back and radicular pain to weakness, saddle anesthesia, and urinary retention. MRI showed T2 hyperintensity from T3-4 to the conus medullaris (Fig 1 a,b)...
September 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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