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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415891/influence-of-two-electrode-montages-on-the-level-specific-ls-ce-chirp-auditory-brainstem-response-abr-at-multiple-intensity-levels
#1
Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain, Siti Hajra Mu'minah Noor Ibrahim, Nur Farah Aida Anuar, Siti Aisyah Abdullah, Tengku Zulaila Hasma Tengku Zam Zam, Sarah Rahmat, Muhammad Amar Mohd Ruzai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of two different electrode montages (ipsilateral: reference to mastoid and vertical: reference to nape of neck) to the ABR results recorded using a level-specific (LS)-CE-Chirp® in normally hearing subjects at multiple intensities levels. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental and repeated measure study designs were applied in this study. Two different stopping criteria were used, (1) a fixed-signal averaging 4000 sweeps and, (2) a minimum quality indicator of Fmp = 3...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413710/combination-of-standard-axial-and-thin-section-coronal-diffusion-weighted-imaging-facilitates-the-diagnosis-of-brainstem-infarction
#2
Philippe Felfeli, Holger Wenz, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a very sensitive technique for the detection of small ischemic lesions in the human brain, in particular in the brainstem it may fail to demonstrate acute ischemic infarction. In this study, we sought to evaluate the value of additional thin-section coronal DWI for the detection of brainstem infarction. METHODS: In 155 consecutive patients (median age 69 [interquartile range, IQR 57-78] years, 95 [61...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410279/ocular-motor-manifestations-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Elodie Nerrant, Caroline Tilikete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to disability, especially in young patients. Acute or chronic lesions of MS within the brainstem and the cerebellum frequently result in ocular motor disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review encompasses the spectrum of ocular motor disorders in patients with MS emphasizing prevalence, examination findings, diagnostic features, functional consequences, classification of MS course, and management of these disturbances of ocular motility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395088/neuropathological-hallmarks-of-brain-malformations-in-extreme-phenotypes-related-to-dync1h1-mutations
#4
Annie Laquerriere, Camille Maillard, Mara Cavallin, Françoise Chapon, Florent Marguet, Arnaud Molin, Sabine Sigaudy, Marie Blouet, Guillaume Benoist, Carla Fernandez, Karine Poirier, Jamel Chelly, Sophie Thomas, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Dyneins play a critical role in a wide variety of cellular functions such as the movement of organelles and numerous aspects of mitosis, making it central player in neocortical neurogenesis and migration. Recently, cytoplasmic dynein-1, heavy chain-1 (DYNC1H1) mutations have been found to cause a wide spectrum of brain cortical malformations. We report on the detailed neuropathological features of brain lesions from 2 fetuses aged 36 and 22 weeks of gestation (WG), respectively, carrying de novo DYNC1H1 mutations, p...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391987/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-reactivity-to-psychological-stress-neurophysiological-substrates-and-links-to-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Annie T Ginty, Thomas E Kraynak, James P Fisher, Peter J Gianaros
Psychologically stressful experiences evoke changes in cardiovascular physiology that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But what are the neural circuits and intermediate physiological pathways that link stressful experiences to cardiovascular changes that might in turn confer disease risk? This question is important because it has broader implications for our understanding of the neurophysiological pathways that link stressful and other psychological experiences to physical health. This review highlights selected findings from brain imaging studies of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and CVD risk...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387624/dolichoectatic-aneurysms-of-the-vertebrobasilar-system-clinical-and-radiographic-factors-that-predict-poor-outcomes
#6
David S Xu, Michael R Levitt, M Yashar S Kalani, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Celene B Mulholland, Isaac J Abecassis, Ryan P Morton, John D Nerva, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy, Robert F Spetzler, Felipe C Albuquerque, Cameron G McDougall
OBJECTIVE Fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms are rare, challenging lesions. The natural history of these lesions and medium- and long-term patient outcomes are poorly understood. The authors sought to evaluate patient prognosis after diagnosis of fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms and to identify clinical and radiographic predictors of neurological deterioration. METHODS The authors reviewed multiple, prospectively maintained, single-provider databases at 3 large-volume cerebrovascular centers to obtain data on patients with unruptured, fusiform, basilar artery dolichoectatic aneurysms diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382578/orofacial-proprioceptive-thalamus-of-the-rat
#7
Atsushi Yoshida, Takashi Fujio, Fumihiko Sato, Md Sams Sazzad Ali, Tahsinul Haque, Haruka Ohara, Masayuki Moritani, Takafumi Kato, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Yoshihisa Tachibana
The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM)...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367478/central-hypoventilation-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#8
Kory S Herrick, Randy Woltjer, Thao Pham, Megan Chalupsky, Amie L Hiller
Central hypoventilation, also known as Ondine's curse, results from an impairment of the autonomic respiratory drive. It is characterized by an attenuated or absent respiratory response to hypoxemia and hypercapnia with preservation of volitional respiratory function. RJ was a 75-year-old woman with a diagnosis of probably PSP who developed central hypoventilation approximately four years after her initial onset of symptoms. Brain MRI showed no evidence of medullary lesions, one of the more common causes of adult onset central hypoventilation...
January 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364548/distinct-brain-imaging-characteristics-of-autoantibody-mediated-cns-conditions-and-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Maciej Jurynczyk, Ruth Geraldes, Fay Probert, Mark R Woodhall, Patrick Waters, George Tackley, Gabriele DeLuca, Saleel Chandratre, Maria I Leite, Angela Vincent, Jacqueline Palace
Brain imaging characteristics of MOG antibody disease are largely unknown and it is unclear whether they differ from those of multiple sclerosis and AQP4 antibody disease. The aim of this study was to identify brain imaging discriminators between those three inflammatory central nervous system diseases in adults and children to support diagnostic decisions, drive antibody testing and generate disease mechanism hypotheses. Clinical brain scans of 83 patients with brain lesions (67 in the training and 16 in the validation cohort, 65 adults and 18 children) with MOG antibody (n = 26), AQP4 antibody disease (n = 26) and multiple sclerosis (n = 31) recruited from Oxford neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis clinical services were retrospectively and anonymously scored on a set of 29 predefined magnetic resonance imaging features by two independent raters...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364102/-value-of-1h-mrs-on-sca3-mjd-diagnosis-and-clinical-course
#10
Wu Xing, Xinxin Liao, Tingting Guan, Fangfang Xie, Lu Shen, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang
To investigate the value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) on the diagnosis of SCA3/MJD, and to calculate the correlation between 1H-MRS ratio and the clinical score.
 Methods: Sixteen patients with SCA3/MJD and 19 healthy volunteers were scanned with 1H-MRS. The data of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline-containing compounds, myoinositol, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratio were collected, which were grouped for comparative study. The onset patients with SCA3/MJD were evaluated with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale and Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, the correlation between NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr or mI/Cr ratio and the clinical score was calculated...
March 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363257/brain-lesions-associated-with-acute-toxic-hepatopathy-in-cattle
#11
Angelica T B Wouters, Flademir Wouters, Fabiana M Boabaid, Tatiane T N Watanabe, Gabriela Fredo, Mary S Varaschin, David Driemeier
Samples of the liver, telencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum were obtained from 22 bovids suffering from spontaneous or experimental acute toxic liver disease. Perreyia flavipes larvae, and leaves of Cestrum corymbosum, Cestrum intermedium, Dodonaea viscosa, Trema micrantha, and Xanthium cavanillesii were the causal agents in the disorders studied. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, as well as anti-S100 protein (anti-S100), anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), and anti-vimentin immunostaining were used to evaluate the brain sections...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357160/mapping-the-internal-anatomy-of-the-lateral-brainstem-anatomical-study-with-application-to-far-lateral-approaches-to-intrinsic-brainstem-tumors
#12
Joe Iwanaga, Andre Granger, Payman Vahedi, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Fabian N Fries, Iraj Lotfinia, Martin M Mortazavi, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Intramedullary brainstem tumors present a special challenge to the neurosurgeon. Unfortunately, there is no ideal part of the brainstem to incise for approaches to such pathology. Therefore, the present study was performed to identify what incisions on the lateral brainstem would result in the least amount of damage to eloquent tracts and nuclei. Case illustrations are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight human brainstems were evaluated. Based on dissections and the use of standard atlases of brainstem anatomy, the most important deeper brainstem structures were mapped to the surface of the lateral brainstem...
February 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351484/hypocapnic-hypothesis-of-leigh-disease
#13
Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a neurogenetic disorder of children caused by mutations in at least 75 genes which impair mitochondrial bioenergetics. The changes have typical localization in basal ganglia and brainstem, and typical histological picture of spongiform appearance, vascular proliferation and gliosis. ATP deprivation, free radicals and lactate accumulation are suspected to be the causes. Hypocapnic hypothesis proposed in the paper questions the energy deprivation as the mechanism of LS. We assume that the primary harmful factor is hypocapnia (decrease in pCO2) and respiratory alkalosis (increase in pH) due to hyperventilation, permanent or in response to stress...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347345/serotonergic-system-in-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-in-unilateral-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Kryspin Andrzejewski, Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Małgorzata Zaremba
BACKGROUND: Malfunctioning of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease may contribute to non-motor symptoms such as respiratory complications. Thus the aim of our study was to investigate the role of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the modulation of normoxic breathing and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in rat model of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Wistar rats were lesioned unilaterally with double 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection to the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#15
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338441/radiosurgery-in-the-management-of-brain-metastasis-a-retrospective-single-center-study-comparing-gamma-knife-and-linac-treatment
#16
Constantin Tuleasca, Laura Negretti, Mohamed Faouzi, Vera Magaddino, Thierry Gevaert, Erik von Elm, Marc Levivier
OBJECTIVE The authors present a retrospective analysis of a single-center experience with treatment of brain metastases using Gamma Knife (GK) and linear accelerator (LINAC)-based radiosurgery and compare the results. METHODS From July 2010 to July 2012, 63 patients with brain metastases were treated with radiosurgery. Among them, 28 (with 83 lesions) were treated with a GK unit and 35 (with 47 lesions) with a LINAC. The primary outcome was local progression-free survival (LPFS), evaluated on a per-lesion basis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337694/the-posterior-fossa-and-foreign-accent-syndrome-report-of-two-new-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Roelien Bastiaanse, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven
Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction...
March 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#18
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330960/a-multi-institutional-study-of-brainstem-gliomas-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#19
Jasia Mahdi, Amish C Shah, Aimee Sato, Stephanie M Morris, Robert C McKinstry, Robert Listernick, Roger J Packer, Michael J Fisher, David H Gutmann
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical and radiologic features of brainstem gliomas (BSGs) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 133 children with NF1 and concurrent BSGs cared for at 4 NF1 referral centers. BSG was determined using radiographic criteria. Age at diagnosis, tumor location and appearance, clinical symptoms, treatment, and presence of a concurrent optic pathway glioma were assessed...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325621/-diplopia-an-important-symptom-in-internal-medicine
#20
S Bidot, V Biousse
Diplopia is defined as "double vision" when looking at a single object. Monocular diplopia is related to an ocular disorder and must be differentiated from binocular diplopia which is secondary to ocular misalignment. The examination of the patient with binocular diplopia is often challenging for non-specialists. However, a careful and systematic clinical examination followed by targeted ancillary testing allows the clinician to localize the lesion along the oculomotor pathways. The lesion may involve the brainstem, the ocular motor nerves III, IV or VI, the neuromuscular junction, the extraocular ocular muscles, or the orbit...
March 18, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
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