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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675936/pediatric-ganglioglioma-with-an-h3-k27m-mutation-arising-from-the-cervical-spinal-cord
#1
Tomohiro Okuda, Nobuhiro Hata, Satoshi O Suzuki, Koji Yoshimoto, Koichi Arimura, Takeo Amemiya, Yojiro Akagi, Daisuke Kuga, Utako Oba, Yuhki Koga, Shouichi Ohga, Toru Iwaki, Koji Iihara
The 2016 edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System introduced "diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M mutant" as a new diagnostic entity. These tumors predominately affect pediatric patients and arise from midline structures such as the brainstem, thalamus and spinal cord. Here, we report a rare patient with spinal ganglioglioma carrying an H3 K27M mutation. A 10-year-old boy presented with an intramedullary tumor in the cervical spinal cord. The lesion was partially removed and histologically diagnosed as ganglioglioma...
April 19, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675599/immunoadsorption-plasmapheresis-treatment-for-the-recurrent-exacerbation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-a-fluctuating-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-level
#2
Hiroaki Nishimura, Hideki Enokida, Taiji Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Hayami, Masayuki Nakagawa
The pathogenesis in the exacerbation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) involves mainly the serum anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-AQP4 antibody). If high-dose corticosteroid treatment is not achieved during remission, rescue plasmapheresis is recommended. However, there are few reports on the therapeutic efficacy of repetitive immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) for the recurrent exacerbation of NMOSD with a fluctuating anti-AQP4 antibody level. A 36-year-old man presented with a reduction of visual acuity (VA) on the right eye (OD) to 20/250...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673579/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-primary-hemifacial-spasm
#3
J-P Lefaucheur
Primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS) is due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by an offending vessel, leading to increased nerve excitability. Facial nerve hyperexcitability presents two different aspects. First, there is a spontaneous and ectopic generation of action potentials on the incriminated nerve and then this ectopic impulse can propagate and spread "laterally" from one facial nerve branch to another. This results in spontaneous and synkinetic spasms affecting one hemiface. Although the increase in excitability certainly concerns the nucleus of the facial motor nerve in the brainstem, it seems unlikely that the primary origin of this hyperexcitability and the associated phenomenon of lateral spreading strictly originate at the nuclear level...
April 16, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671688/a-guide-to-identification-and-selection-of-axial-planes-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain
#4
Shoichiro Otake, Toshiaki Taoka, Masayuki Maeda, William Tc Yuh
For brain magnetic resonance (MR) examination, three-dimensional imaging is commonly performed. Radiologists need to know the appropriate imaging angle for viewing. We present six imaging angles for the axial images. Each angle is determined by the reference line. The landmarks on the midsagittal MR image to determine the angle of the reference lines are as follows: the supraorbito-meatal line (the center of the mammillary body and the fastigium of the fourth ventricle), the orbito-meatal (OM) line (the center of the mammillary body and the most posterior point of the cerebellar tentorium), the Talairach anterior commissure (AC)-posterior commissure (PC) line (the superior edge of the AC and the inferior edge of the PC), the Schaltenbrand AC-PC line (the center of the AC and the center of the PC), the subcallosal line (the inferior border of the genu and the inferior border of the splenium of the corpus callosum), Reid's baseline (the center of the pituitary gland and the most posterior point of the cerebellar tentorium) and the brainstem vertical line (the line perpendicular to the posterior border of the brainstem)...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#5
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664458/brainstem-encephalitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#6
Sarah A Bin Abdulqader, Hisham M Alkhalidi, Abdulrazag M Ajlan
Brainstem encephalitis (BE) is a rare, severe, and potentially life-threatening inflammation of the central nervous system. Brainstem encephalitis has multiple etiologies, which vary in treatment and outcomes. The current literature is generally focused on the infectious causes of BE, while little is known about the other entities, including cases with inconclusive diagnoses. Additionally, the outcomes of BE are not well documented. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with progressive symptoms of brainstem involvement...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#7
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648522/the-impact-of-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-lesion-on-oropharyngeal-muscle-activity-and-sensorimotor-integration-in-an-infant-pig-model
#8
Katherine R DeLozier, Francois David Henry Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Allan J Thexton, Rebecca Z German
The successful performance of a swallow requires dynamic integration, between a wide range of sensory inputs and muscle activities, to produce the coordinated kinematics of oropharyngeal structures. Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) produces dysphagia in infants, with food or liquid entering the airway, despite this nerve having minimal direct sensory or motor connections to the act of swallowing, apart from vocal fold closure. Previous results have demonstrated that a complete RLN lesion disrupts both performance and kinematics prior to initiation of the pharyngeal swallow in infants...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648501/new-versus-old-implications-of-evolving-diagnostic-criteria-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Nuala McNicholas, Andrew Lockhart, Siew M Yap, Karen O'Connell, Niall Tubridy, Michael Hutchinson, Christopher McGuigan
The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) recently revised the 2010 McDonald criteria and made recommendations for revision, allowing for the earliest possible, accurate diagnosis of MS. For relapsing-remitting MS, positive, unmatched cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands may substitute for dissemination in time. Symptomatic lesions, including brainstem and spinal cord, may demonstrate dissemination in space or in time if enhancing (with the exception of the optic nerve). Cortical and juxtacortical lesions are equivalent...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628174/early-identification-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-cerebral-lesions-in-unconventional-locations-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Weihe Zhang, Lei Cui, Wei Wang, Yujuan Jiao, Yeqiong Zhang, Jinsong Jiao
To facilitate the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting with brain lesions in unconventional locations (BLUL) on MRI, we retrospectively analyzed forty-five Chinese patients. Eighteen (40.0%) of their MRI initially exhibited one or more BLUL. These locations predominantly included cerebral gray matter (cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus), as well as white matter and brainstem. Due to these BLUL, thirteen (72.2%) patients were originally misdiagnosed with other diseases and developed poor clinical and imaging outcomes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621638/proving-cortical-death-after-vascular-coma-evoked-potentials-eeg-and-neuroimaging
#11
Florent Gobert, Frederic Dailler, Catherine Fischer, Nathalie André-Obadia, Jacques Luauté
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown that bilateral abolition of somatosensory evoked potentials after a nontraumatic coma has 100% specificity for nonawakening with ethical consequences for active care withdrawal. We propose to evaluate the prognostic value of bilateral abolished cortical components of SEPs in severe vascular coma. METHODS: A total of 144 comatose patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage were evaluated by multimodal evoked potentials (EPs); 7 patients presented a bilateral abolition of somatosensory and auditory EPs...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620649/primary-medullary-hemorrhage-in-a-patient-with-coagulopathy-due-to-alcoholic-cirrhosis-a-case-report
#12
Guangxun Shen, Yu Gao, Kwee-Yum Lee, Guangxian Nan
RATIONALE: Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618068/occipital-artery-to-posterior-cerebral-artery-bypass-using-descending-branch-of-the-lateral-circumflex-femoral-artery-graft-for-treatment-of-fusiform-unruptured-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-3-dimensional-operative-video
#13
Kristine Ravina, Ian A Buchanan, Robert C Rennert, Ben A Strickland, Joseph N Carey, Jonathan J Russin
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms can be technically challenging lesions due to the intricacy of perforating branches and the relationship to cranial nerves and the brainstem. Fusiform aneurysms of the perimesencephalic segment of the PCA are a rare finding which does not favor direct clip occlusion or reconstruction. In such cases, proximal parent vessel occlusion is an option for aneurysm treatment. Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass can be used to revascularize beyond the lesion when considering proximal occlusion...
April 3, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607917/-cadasil-with-cysteine-sparing-notch3-mutation-manifesting-as-dissociated-progression-between-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-image-findings-in-3-years-a-case-report
#14
Keisuke Tachiyama, Yuji Shiga, Yutaka Shimoe, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno, Masaru Kuriyama
A 55-year-old man with no history of stroke or migraine presented to the clinic with cognitive impairment and depression that had been experiencing for two years. Neurological examination showed bilateral pyramidal signs, and impairments in cognition and attention. Brain MRI revealed multiple lacunar lesions and microbleeds in the deep cerebral white matter, subcortical regions, and brainstem, as well as diffuse white matter hyperintensities without anterior temporal pole involvement. Cerebral single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed bilateral hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593921/unilateral-asterixis-in-arm-and-leg-caused-by-internal-capsula-stroke
#15
Katharina Feil, Marion Huber, Nicolina Goldschagg, Lars Kellert
We report an unusual clinical manifestation of ischemic stroke with acute right-sided asterixis affecting the arm as well as the leg due to a lesion in the left posterior limb of the internal capsula. After treatment with intravenous thrombolysis the patient made a good recovery. Notably, in this case unilateral asterixis affected the arm as well as the leg, resulting in postural and gait instability. In addition, damage in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network, as in our patient, has to be distinguished from other supratentorial causes of acute asterixis like thalamic or frontal lobe lesions linked to the cerebello-brainstem-thalamo-frontal lobe circuits...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570519/cystic-progression-of-a-cavernous-malformation-at-the-level-of-the-trigeminal-root-entry-zone-presenting-with-sudden-onset-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#16
Carlo Giacobbo Scavo, Raffaelino Roperto, Guglielmo Cacciotti, Luciano Mastronardi
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations (CM) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are rare, and most of them are solid and extend from the internal auditory canal into the CPA. In contrast, cystic CM arising in the CPA and not involving the internal auditory canal and dura of the skull base are extremely rare. The authors present an uncommon large cystic progression of a cavernous malformation at the level of the trigeminal root entry zone evolving to severe trigeminal neuralgia and brainstem compression...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570483/sudden-and-unexpected-death-during-sexual-activity-due-to-a-glial-cyst-of-the-pineal-gland
#17
Rosario Barranco, Sara Lo Pinto, Maria Cuccì, Fiorella Caputo, Francesca Fossati, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura
Cysts of the pineal gland are benign lesions. Often asymptomatic, in the majority of cases they are discovered incidentally during brain magnetic resonance imaging or autopsy. Sporadically, however, they may cause such symptoms as chronic headache, loss of consciousness, corticospinal and sensory impairment, and, in some cases, even sudden death. A 45-year-old woman, in apparently good health, collapsed and died suddenly, after reaching orgasm while engaged in sexual intercourse. According to the circumstantial account of her relatives, the woman suffered from severe headaches, which were exacerbated by certain types of physical strain, such as sexual activity...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560323/usefulness-of-early-videofluoroscopic-swallowing-study-in-acute-stroke-patients-with-dysphagia
#18
Sang Beom Kim, Sook Joung Lee, Kyeong Woo Lee, Jong Hwa Lee, Dong Won Kim
Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of early videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and to investigate change patterns in dietary methods in stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods: The VFSS was performed within 7 days of stroke onset in neurologically stable patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to type of brain lesion: cortical lesion (CL), subcortical lesion (SCL), and brainstem/cerebellar lesion (BCL). Based on the VFSS results, this study investigated change patterns in feeding method and discrepancies in the aspiration risk predicted by the Water Swallowing Test (WST) and the VFSS...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559783/association-between-etiology-and-lesion-site-in-ischemic-brainstem-infarcts-a-retrospective-observational-study
#19
Gozde Baran, Tugce Ozdemir Gultekin, Oguz Baran, Cigdem Deniz, Salim Katar, Gulsen Babacan Yildiz, Talip Asil
Background and purpose: To assess the anatomical distribution of the ischemic strokes of the brainstem, the effect of anatomical distribution on clinical features and prognosis, and the association between etiology and anatomical involvement. Methods: A retrospective search of the patient database of our institution was performed for a total of 227 patients who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty of Bezmialem Vakif University between January 2012 and September 2014...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558220/mri-findings-of-suprasellar-germ-cell-tumors-in-two-dogs
#20
Laurie Cook, Michelle Tensley, Wm Tod Drost, Christopher Koivisto, Michael Oglesbee
A 4 yr old border collie presenting for mydriasis and decreased mentation and a 7 yr old Boston terrier presenting for obtundation, head tilt, and paraparesis were both evaluated using MRI. Findings in both included mass lesions of the thalamus and brainstem that were hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regions of hypointensity, and robust contrast enhancement and displacement of adjacent structures. Postmortem histopathology findings, tumor location, and a mixed pattern of epithelial cell differentiation were consistent with germ cell tumor in both cases...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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