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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491030/the-encephalophone-a-novel-musical-biofeedback-device-using-conscious-control-of-electroencephalogram-eeg
#1
Thomas A Deuel, Juan Pampin, Jacob Sundstrom, Felix Darvas
A novel musical instrument and biofeedback device was created using electroencephalogram (EEG) posterior dominant rhythm (PDR) or mu rhythm to control a synthesized piano, which we call the Encephalophone. Alpha-frequency (8-12 Hz) signal power from PDR in the visual cortex or from mu rhythm in the motor cortex was used to create a power scale which was then converted into a musical scale, which could be manipulated by the individual in real time. Subjects could then generate different notes of the scale by activation (event-related synchronization) or de-activation (event-related desynchronization) of the PDR or mu rhythms in visual or motor cortex, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483068/factors-associated-with-multidimensional-aspect-of-post-stroke-fatigue-in-acute-stroke-period
#2
Hitoshi Mutai, Tomomi Furukawa, Ayumi Houri, Akihito Suzuki, Tokiji Hanihara
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a frequent and distressing consequence of stroke, and can be both acute and long lasting. We aimed to investigate multidimensional aspects of acute PSF and to determine the clinical factors relevant to acute PSF. METHODS: We collected data of 101 patients admitted to the hospital for acute stroke. PSF was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory within 2 weeks of stroke. Measures included Mini-Mental State Examination, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Functional Independence Measure...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461834/vertebral-artery-dissection-a-contemporary-perspective
#3
Tiu Cristina, Terecoasa Elena, Grecu Nicolae, Nistor Raluca, Frangu Smaranda, Antochi Florina
Arterial dissections are among the most frequent causes of stroke in young adults. Usually they are associated with trauma, but as the modern imaging tools are evolving, more dissections are being diagnosed and more etiologies are being described. Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) have the distinct particularity that they can cause ischemic stroke (in the brainstem, cerebellum or even the spinal cord), but also subarachnoid hemorrhage, when the dissection occurs in the intracranial segment of the vertebral artery...
June 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413710/combination-of-standard-axial-and-thin-section-coronal-diffusion-weighted-imaging-facilitates-the-diagnosis-of-brainstem-infarction
#4
Philippe Felfeli, Holger Wenz, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a very sensitive technique for the detection of small ischemic lesions in the human brain, in particular in the brainstem it may fail to demonstrate acute ischemic infarction. In this study, we sought to evaluate the value of additional thin-section coronal DWI for the detection of brainstem infarction. METHODS: In 155 consecutive patients (median age 69 [interquartile range, IQR 57-78] years, 95 [61...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337694/the-posterior-fossa-and-foreign-accent-syndrome-report-of-two-new-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Roelien Bastiaanse, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven
Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction...
March 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324264/reverse-locked-in-syndrome
#6
Pooja Raibagkar, Ram V Chavali, Tamara B Kaplan, Jennifer A Kim, Meaghan V Nitka, Sherry H-Y Chou, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Basilar artery occlusion can cause locked-in syndrome, which is characterized by quadriplegia, anarthria, and limited communication via eye movements. Here, we describe an uncommon stroke syndrome associated with endovascular recanalization of the top of the basilar artery: "reverse locked-in syndrome." METHODS: We report the case of a patient with atypical neurological deficits caused by acute ischemic stroke of the midbrain tegmentum. We perform neuroanatomic localization of the patient's infarcts by mapping the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto a brainstem atlas...
March 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320635/safety-and-efficacy-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-masters-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David C Hess, Lawrence R Wechsler, Wayne M Clark, Sean I Savitz, Gary A Ford, David Chiu, Dileep R Yavagal, Ken Uchino, David S Liebeskind, Alexander P Auchus, Souvik Sen, Cathy A Sila, Jeffrey D Vest, Robert W Mays
BACKGROUND: Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA...
May 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314977/isolated-vestibular-syndromes-due-to-brainstem-and-cerebellar-lesions
#8
Sung-Hee Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Dizziness/vertigo is the most common symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Isolated vestibular symptoms and signs without other neurologic deficits have been found in infarctions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. In the brainstem, infarctions responsible for isolated vestibular syndrome are usually restricted to the dorsal portion that contains the vestibular nucleus and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. Cerebellar lesions confined to the flocculus, tonsil, and nodulus also produce isolated vertigo and imbalance...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281385/electroacupuncture-brain-protection-during-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system
#9
Laiting Chi, Kairong Du, Dongdong Liu, Yulong Bo, Wenzhi Li
The demand for using parasympathetic activation for stroke therapy is unmet. In the current study, we investigated whether the neuroprotection provided by electroacupuncture (EA) in an experimental stroke model was associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The results showed that parasympathetic dysfunction (PD), performed as unilateral vagotomy combined with peripheral atropine, attenuated both the functional benefits of EA and its effects in improving cerebral perfusion, reducing infarct volume, and hindering apoptosis, neuronal and peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278447/depressive-disorder-may-be-associated-with-raphe-nuclei-lesions-in-patients-with-brainstem-infarction
#10
Yoshiyuki Numasawa, Takaaki Hattori, Sumio Ishiai, Zen Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Kamata, Minoru Kotera, Satoru Ishibashi, Nobuo Sanjo, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Takanori Yokota
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common symptom after stroke, but its neural substrates remain unclear. The ascending serotonergic system originates from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem. We hypothesized that depressive disorder due to brainstem infarction is associated with damage to the raphe nuclei. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 19 patients who had the first-ever acute isolated brainstem infarction in an observational cross-sectional study. All patients were evaluated by using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the clinician-rated version of Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-C) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275351/botulinum-toxin-is-effective-in-the-management-of-neurogenic-dysphagia-clinical-electrophysiological-findings-and-tips-on-safety-in-different-neurological-disorders
#11
Enrico Alfonsi, Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberto De Icco, Giulia Bertino, Antonio Schindler, Massimiliano Todisco, Mauro Fresia, Andrea Cortese, Paolo Prunetti, Matteo C Ramusino, Arrigo Moglia, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15-20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273059/effect-of-admission-hyperglycemia-on-6-month-functional-outcome-in-patients-with-spontaneous-cerebellar-hemorrhage
#12
Chuanyuan Tao, Xin Hu, Jiajing Wang, Chao You
BACKGROUND Cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) has a quite different treatment strategy and prognostic factors compared with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prognostic role of hyperglycemia has been discussed mainly in cases of supratentorial hemorrhage; it remains to be elucidated following CH. We aimed to determine the association of hyperglycemia on admission with 6-month functional outcome in CH patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients with acute CH between September 2010 and April 2015 in West China Hospital...
March 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256416/the-triage-score-for-vertigo-or-dizziness-a-diagnostic-model-for-stroke-in-the-emergency-department
#13
R Kuroda, T Nakada, T Ojima, M Serizawa, N Imai, N Yagi, A Tasaki, M Aoki, T Oiwa, T Ogane, K Mochizuki, M Kobari, H Miyajima
BACKGROUND: Vertigo or dizziness is a common occurrence, but it remains a challenging symptom when encountered in the emergency department (ED). A diagnostic score for stroke with high accuracy is therefore required. METHODS: A single-center observational study (498 patients) was conducted. The predictor variables were derived from a multivariate logistic regression analysis with Akaike information criterion. The outcome was the occurrence of stroke. We evaluated the utility of a new diagnostic score (TriAGe+) and compared it with the ABCD2 score...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137928/efficiency-of-physical-therapy-on-postural-imbalance-after-stroke-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
A Hugues, J Di Marco, P Janiaud, Y Xue, J Pires, H Khademi, M Cucherat, I Bonan, F Gueyffier, G Rode
INTRODUCTION: Stroke frequently results in balance disorders, leading to lower levels of activity and a diminution in autonomy. Current physical therapies (PT) aiming to reduce postural imbalance have shown a large variety of effects with low levels of evidence. The objectives are to determine the efficiency of PT in recovering from postural imbalance in patients after a stroke and to assess which PT is more effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search several databases from inception to October 2015...
January 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127514/interhemispheric-characterization-of-small-vessel-disease-imaging-markers-after-subcortical-infarct
#15
Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Xinyi Qiu, Xin Wang, Stewart Wiseman, Eleni Sakka, Lucy C Maconick, Fergus Doubal, Cathie L M Sudlow, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: In structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patients with a recent small subcortical infarct (RSSI) and small vessel disease (SVD) imaging markers coexist. However, their spatial distribution and prevalence with respect to the hemisphere of the RSSI remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From brain MRI in 187 patients with an acute lacunar ischemic stroke clinical syndrome and a relevant diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-positive lesion, we semiautomatically extracted the RSSI, microbleeds, lacunes, old cortical infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) using optimized thresholding in the relevant sequences, and rated the load of perivascular spaces...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110853/an-unusual-presentation-of-listeria-monocytogenes-rhombencephalitis
#16
Albert Acewicz, Grzegorz Witkowski, Rafal Rola, Danuta Ryglewicz, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz
We describe a case of 52-year-old woman with a medical history of Crohn's disease presented abrupt fever, asymmetrical multiple cranial nerve palsies and focal neurological symptoms localized to the brainstem. The patient was initially diagnosed with ischaemic stroke, because of acute clinical course and results of neuroimaging. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mild infection with negative Gram staining and culture. Final diagnosis of Listeria monocytogenes brainstem infection (rhombencephalitis) was set up on the basis of further clinical course and positive blood cultures...
March 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089423/crossed-cheiro-oral-syndrome-a-warning-sign-for-medullary-involvement-and-neurological-deterioration
#17
Wei-Hsi Chen, Tsung-Pei Yang, Hsin-Ling Yin
Crossed cheiro-oral syndrome (CCOS) is characterized by crossed sensory disturbance confined to the unilateral perioral area and contralateral hand/finger(s). Although a few classical crossed sensory syndromes accurately predict brainstem or spinal involvement, the clinical significance of CCOS remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the etiology, localization and outcome of CCOS patients. The results showed that ischemic stroke is the exclusive cause of CCOS. The location of responsible stroke is pertinent to the middle or upper level of the lateral medulla oblongata medial to the lateral sulcus...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064358/incipient-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-is-more-common-than-expected-and-may-comprise-clinicopathological-subtypes-a-forensic-autopsy-series
#18
Koji Yoshida, Yukiko Hata, Koshi Kinoshita, Shutaro Takashima, Kortaro Tanaka, Naoki Nishida
We investigated 998 serial Japanese forensic autopsy cases (0-101 years old, mean age 61.7 ± 21.9), with no case selection, using immunohistochemistry to detect cases with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Twenty-nine cases (mean age 82.3 ± 7.2 years, 11 males, 18 females) fulfilled the National Institute of Neuronal Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)-PSP pathological criteria (2.9% of all cases, 4.6% of cases over 60). All had neuronal and glial inclusions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. However, 13 cases had low tau pathology and were categorized as atypical PSP...
May 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960181/stroke-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Ka Sing Wong, Louis R Caplan, Jong S Kim
Recent advances in neuroimaging technologies, such as diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion weighted computed tomography (CT)/MRI, MR/CT angiography and Doppler ultrasonography allow us to determine the mechanisms of stroke and transient ischemic attack. In addition, high-resolution vessel wall MRI is nowadays increasingly used to understand the stroke mechanism in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Artery to artery embolism, hypoperfusion and the combination of the two are the important stroke mechanisms in patients with extracranial atherosclerosis...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942467/can-pontine-trigeminal-t2-hyperintensity-suggest-herpetic-etiology-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#20
Alessandra D'Amico, Carmela Russo, Lorenzo Ugga, Federica Mazio, Elisa Capone, Felice D'Arco, Kshitij Mankad, Ferdinando Caranci, Enrico Marano, Arturo Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is usually classified into two different categories: idiopathic and secondary. We have investigated the frequency of brainstem pontine lesions in patients with idiopathic TN without multiple sclerosis (MS) or stroke, and their association with herpes zoster (HZ) infection. METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 28 patients with TN were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: We found seven patients with clinical suspicion of HZ infection and pontine T2 hyperintense lesions, associated with nerve atrophy in one case...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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