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Fabrizio Toscano, Giovanni Spani, Michael Papio, Frank J Rühli, Francesco M Galassi
Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron contains a novella that details the sudden death of a young man called Gabriotto, including a portrayal of the discomfort that the protagonist experienced and a rudimentary autopsy performed by local physicians. The intriguing description of symptoms and pathologies has made it possible to read a 7-century-old case through the modern clinical lens. Thanks to the medical and philological analysis of the text-despite the vast difference between modern and medieval medicine-2 hypothetical diagnoses have emerged: either an aortic dissection or an atrial myxoma...
July 8, 2016: Circulation Research
Yohko Natsume, Kamlesh K Bhutani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Pharmaceutical Historian
Francesco M Galassi, Raffaella Bianucci, Giacomo Gorini, Giacomo M Paganotti, Michael E Habicht, Frank J Rühli
BACKGROUND: Alaric I (c. 370-410AD), King of the Visigoths, sacked Rome for the second time in over eight centuries of history. Historians suggest that malaria, probably contracted either in Rome or in the Pontine Marshes, was responsible for his sudden death in Cosenza (Calabria) in the autumn of 410AD, where he was allegedly buried in the River Busento. In this article, we aim to examine this hypothesis through a full pathographic reassessment of the most likely cause of Alaric's demise...
June 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Yincan Chen, Jianping Zhu
Zhu Danxi, one of the four Major Schools of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties, had a lot of works circulated with its authorship in disarray. Part of the works were compiled by his disciples, while others were by his self-taught followers based on prior circulated Danxi's originals, plus some apocryphal so-called Danxi's works circulated posthumously. When sorting out Danxi's Hand Mirror, we found that some of its contents are closely related to Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Qian jin yi fang (Supplements to Qian jin yao fang), Tai ping sheng hui fang (Peaceful Holy Benevolent Prescriptions), Zhu jie shang han lun (Annotated Treatises of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Shang han ming li lun (Elucidation of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Ge zhi yu lun (Treatise of Inquiring the Properties of Things), either by transcription or with an identical origin...
May 2015: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Lorraine Daston, Glenn W Most
While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices...
June 2015: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Rens Bod
While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and compared. This is at the level of underlying methods, especially at the level of formalisms and rule systems used by different disciplines. The essay formally compares linguistics and computer science by noting that the same grammar formalism was used in the 1950s for describing both human and...
June 2015: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Christine Blättler
"Chemistry of Concepts" and "Historical Sense". On Philosophical Concept Formation. The question concerning concepts and their relations to objects and words has had a long and controversial history. Recently, it is challenged by an anew turn towards objects and an emphasized object-oriented ontology. The article argues that one reason for this is the reduction of concepts towards pure rational constructions and offers arguments for alternative understandings. In this context, the article proposes a re-reading of Nietzsche's particular approach and shows that Nietzsche's thought is decisively shaped by the sciences of his time, especially physiology and chemistry...
June 2015: Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte
Wen-Jin Zhang, Ting Xue, Xue-Yan Fu, Xin-Hui Zhang
By using the method of philology, 65 Hui prescriptions for treating cough were been collected to compare Arabic and Chinese names of pennisetum, anemarrhenae, honey, pease, white mustard, perilla and towel gourd stem. The Countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to count frequency of drugs in the prescriptions and summarize eight common Hui medicine for treating cough, namely sugar, honey, almond, fritillaria, liquorice, orange peel, white mulberry root-bark and lily. According to the commonly used drugs, philological studies and theories of Hui medicines, pathology and therapy of Hui medicines for treating cough were preliminarily inferred...
January 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Daniela Manetti
Nothing is known about Cassius Iatrophist, author of a collection of Problemata, which is medical oriented but has often affinities with the analogous texts of Pseudo-Aristoteles and Pseudo-Alexander of Aphrodisia. This is a provisory survey of the elements for a possible datation: as the surname of the author suggests a late compilation, the content of some problems has very high value and reveals surprisingly a close connection between ancient medicine and philology.
2012: Medicina Nei Secoli
Rui Jin, Qian Zhao, Bing Zhang
Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state...
October 2014: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Frank W Stahnisch
Already emerging as an original thinker in the field of classical philology and history of medicine, German scholar Ludwig Edelstein became one of many scholars who lost his academic position when the National Socialists came to power in early 1933. This paper details his life before and after his difficult transition from Europe to North America, while reviewing the lasting significance of his translation and commentary on the Hippocratic Oath.
February 19, 2015: Journal of Medical Biography
Jeffrey G Copeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Missouri Medicine
Jeffrey G Copeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Missouri Medicine
Takeshi Kinoshita
This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera...
2014: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Daniel Schäfer, Karl August Neuhausen
Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), one of the most renowned German poets, also received a professional training (1776-80) as surgeon at the military academy at Stuttgart. It is almost unknown that Schiller received a formal education in medical history during the first year of his academic curriculum. His exam in medical history included the public defense of 38 Latin theses presenting historical interpretations, philological criticism and an evaluation of 18th century medicine side by side. These theses had been compiled by his teacher Johann Friedrich Consbruch, who recommended an eclectic use of contemporary knowledge and was an adherent of Haller's experimental medicine...
2014: Sudhoffs Archiv
Michael Molnar
In 1863 Theodor Gomperz came to England to propose to Helen Taylor Mill, step-daughter of J. S. Mill. For several months he delayed the proposal while studying transcripts of the Philodemus papyri in the Bodleian Library. There a threatening note, supposedly left on his desk, triggered an attack of paranoia. My study of this incident, initially a mere footnote, expanded into an examination of the obscure causes of this attack. The philosophical question of the nature of desire and the researcher's passion to reconstruct a fragmented classical text are related to Gomperz's unfocussed relationship with both Mill and his step-daughter, and his ensuing confusion between reality and fantasy...
2014: Luzifer-Amor: Zeitschrift Zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse
Barbara Tomasino, Alberto Chiesa, Franco Fabbro
The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled. While mindfulness is the focus of Buddhist meditation reached by focusing sustained attention on the body, on breathing and on the content of the thoughts, reaching an ineffable state of nothigness accompanied by a loss of sense of self and duality (Samadhi) is the main focus of Hinduism-inspired meditation...
October 2014: Brain and Cognition
Su-Yun Li
The research methods, such as philology of medicine history and comparison between tradition and modern and so on were adopted in this article to study the acupuncture-moxibustion development after western medicine spreading to the East in Japan and its main transition under the impact of western medicine. The results showed that from Meiji to Showa period, under the influence of western medicine, the transition of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion mainly embodied in following three aspects, incuinng acupuncture works absorbing western medicine knowledge, applying experiment measures to explore acupuncture principle and launching acupuncture teaching in accordance with Europe and America academy educational pattern...
April 2014: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Jared A Linck, Peter Osthus, Joel T Koeth, Michael F Bunting
Although working memory (WM) figures centrally in many theories of second language (L2) proficiency development and processing, some have argued that the importance of WM is overstated (e.g., Juffs, Transactions of the Philological Society, 102, 199-225, 2004). Despite many studies over the past two decades, the literature lacks a quantitative synthesis of the extant results. In this article, we report a meta-analysis of data from 79 samples involving 3,707 participants providing 748 effect sizes. The results indicate that WM is positively associated with both L2 processing and proficiency outcomes, with an estimated population effect size (ρ) of ...
August 2014: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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