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Zsolt Zador, Andrew T King, Nophar Geifman
BACKGROUND: Atypical meningiomas are common central nervous system neoplasms with high recurrence rate and poorer prognosis compared to their grade I counterparts. Surgical excision and radiotherapy remains the mainstay therapy but medical treatments are limited. We explore new drug candidates using computational drug repurposing based on the gene expression signature of atypical meningioma tissue with subsequent analysis of drug-generated expression profiles. We further explore possible mechanisms of action for the identified drug candidates using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2018: PloS One
Yarden Shalev, Shannon M Soucy, R Thane Papke, J Peter Gogarten, Jerry Eichler, Uri Gophna
Within the Haloferax genus, both the surface (S)-layer protein, and the glycans that can decorate it, vary between species, which can potentially result in many different surface types, analogous to bacterial serotypes. This variation may mediate phenotypes, such as sensitivity to different viruses and mating preferences. Here, we describe S-layer glycoproteins found in multiple Haloferax strains and perform comparative genomics analyses of major and alternative glycosylation clusters of isolates from two coastal sites...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Han-Yu Jiang, Jin-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Wei Yang, Hui-Ling Ma
Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ) is the preferred green lawn grass, with excellent turf characteristics but poor disease resistance. At present, the mechanisms of disease resistance in creeping bentgrass are poorly understood, especially the ethylene signal transduction pathway under the induced systemic resistance (ISR) response. In this study, butanediol (BDO), as a new type of disease-resistance compound, was applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings to induce the ISR response. Then, we measured ethylene production and related enzyme activities...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gerard K Nguyen, Vincent M Mellnick, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Amber Salter, Joseph E Ippolito
Purpose To determine if sex differences in abdominal visceral fat composition, measured by using computed tomography (CT), and tumor glucose metabolism, measured by gene expression, can help predict outcomes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 222 patients with clear cell RCC from The Cancer Imaging Atlas. By using CT, body fat was segmented into subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas (VFAs) and normalized to total fat to obtain the relative VFA (rVFA) and relative subcutaneous fat area...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Ming Li Wang, Charles Y Chen, Brandon Tonnis, David Pinnow, Jerry Davis, Y Q An, Phat Dang
The level of oleic acid in peanut seed is one of the most important factors in determining seed quality and is controlled by two pairs of homeologous genes (FAD2A and FAD2B). The genotypes of eight F8 breeding lines were determined as AABB, aaBB, AAbb, and aabb by real-time PCR and sequencing. Fresh seeds were collected from five seed developmental stages and, after drying, were used for chemical analysis. Our results showed (1) as seeds developed, seed weight, oil content, and oleic acid level significantly increased, whereas four other fatty acid levels decreased, but protein content and another four fatty acid levels did not significantly change...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Lei Yang, Jing Li, Jun Cai
The role and miRNA expression profile of exosomes in hypertension remain largely unknown. Therefore, next-generation sequencing was used to define the miRNA expression profile of plasma exosomes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), the most widely used animal model of human essential hypertension, and their controls, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Results revealed that percentages of miRNA in the total small RNA isolated from SHRs and WKYs were not significantly different. Twenty-seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between SHR and WKY exosomes, including 23 up-regulated and four down-regulated in SHR exosomes as compared to WKY exosomes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Qian Zhou, Hui Zeng, Peng Ye, Yu Shi, Juan Guo, Xinghua Long
Increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with drug resistance. Fulvestrant and tamoxifen represent the major endocrine drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients, and yet little is known about the biological mechanisms of acquiring resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen, let alone the differences between cell lines resistant to these two drugs. Exploration of the differential miRNA profiles between these two cell lines is a useful way to further clarify these resistance mechanisms...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Daniel Freund, Silke Brilloff, Tamer Ghazy, Stephan Kirschner, Gabor Gäbel, Irene Hinterseher, Norbert Weiss, Adrian Mahlmann
BACKGROUND: Microarray analysis has been carried out in this pilot study to compare delineated gene expression profiles in the biopsies of skeletal muscle taken from patients with chronic critical limb ischaemia (CLI) and non-ischaemic control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Biopsy of gastrocnemius muscle was obtained from six patients with unreconstructed CLI referred for surgical major amputation. As control, biopsies of six patients undergoing elective knee arthroplasty without evidence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease were taken...
March 20, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Kim Ngan Tran, Jong-Il Choi
PURPOSE: To study gene expression modulation in response to continuous whole-body exposure to low-dose-rate gamma radiation and improve our understanding of the mechanism of this impact at the molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA microarray method with complete pooling of samples was used to study expression changes in the transcriptome profile of livers from rats treated with prolonged low-dose-rate ionizing radiation relative to that of sham-irradiated rats...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Xin Dai, Gayan Bowatte, Adrian J Lowe, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, John A Burgess, Shyamali C Dharmage, Caroline J Lodge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in oxidative stress management and may modify the impact of indoor air pollution. We aimed to assess the influence of GST genes on the relationship between indoor air pollution and allergy/lung function. RECENT FINDINGS: Our systematic review identified 22 eligible studies, with 15 supporting a gene-environment interaction. Carriers of GSTM1/T1 null and GSTP1 val genotypes were more susceptible to indoor air pollution exposures, having a higher risk of asthma and lung function deficits...
March 20, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Jingting Shu, Gaige Ji, Ming Zhang, Yunjie Tu, Yanju Shan, Yifan Liu, Xiaojun Ju, Di Zhang
TNNI1 encodes the slow skeletal muscle isoform of troponin I. In the present study, the basic characteristic and expressing profile of the TNNI1 gene was first explored in Gaoyou ducks. Full-length TNNI1 cDNA of Gaoyou duck was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA consisted of a 57-base pair (bp) 5'UTR, a 345-bp 3'UTR, and a 564-bp open reading frame. The predicted protein was predicted to be hydrophilic, nonsecretory protein and contained 17 phosphorylation sites...
March 20, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Chunyao Zhou, Yongheng Wang, Xing Liu, Yuchao Liang, Ziwen Fan, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: The newly proposed putamen classification system shows good prognostic value in patients with insular LGGs, yet no study towards the molecular profiles of putamen involved LGGs has been proposed. METHODS: Clinical information and imaging data of patients diagnosed with insular low-grade gliomas were collected retrospectively. Genetic information of the 34 tumors was assessed using RNA-sequencing. Gene set enrichment analysis was further performed to identify the genes showing differential expression between putamen-involved tumors and putamen non-involved tumors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, Sathvik Aithala, Visweswaran Ravikumar, Youyun Zheng, Basak Dogan, Emerlinda Bonaccio, Elizabeth S Burnside, Elizabeth Morris, Elizabeth Sutton, Gary J Whitman, Jose Net, Kathy Brandt, Marie Ganott, Margarita Zuley, Arvind Rao
Background: Imaging features derived from MRI scans can be used for not only breast cancer detection and measuring disease extent, but can also determine gene expression and patient outcomes. The relationships between imaging features, gene/protein expression, and response to therapy hold potential to guide personalized medicine. We aim to characterize the relationship between radiologist-annotated tumor phenotypic features (based on MRI) and the underlying biological processes (based on proteomic profiling) in the tumor...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Goro Katsuumi, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Tohru Minamino
In mammals, aging is associated with accumulation of senescent cells. Stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species induce "cellular senescence", which is characterized by growth arrest and alteration of the gene expression profile. Chronological aging is associated with development of age-related diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease, and studies have shown that accumulation of senescent cells has a causative role in the pathology of these age-related disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick embryos were dosed with the test chemical and then at different developmental stages of incubation, they were monitored for the changes in the expression of certain genes, which are indispensable for the ventral body wall closure since they regulate the cell fate, proliferation and survival...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Tianxiang Lei, Huan Wang, Songling Li, Jianwei Shen, Shilong Chen, Xiaojian Cai, Dangwei Zhou
To achieve a high yield of tropane alkaloids (TA) and exploit the alpine plant sustainably, an optimized protocol for induction and establishment of hairy roots culture of Prezwalskia tangutica Maxim was developed through selection of appropriate Agrobacterium strain and the explant type. The hypocotyl is more readily facile to induce the HR than the cotyledon is when infected with the three different agrobacterium strains. MUS440 has an efficiency (of up to 20%), whereas the ATCC10060 (A4) can induce HR on both types of explants with the highest frequency (33...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Sakiko Fujii, Katsumi Fujimoto, Noriko Goto, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Asayo Imaoka, Jinchang Shao, Kazuko Kitayama, Masami Kanawa, Agung Sosiawan, Ketut Suardita, Fusanori Nishimura, Yukio Kato
Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are promising candidates for use as transplantable cells in regenerative medicine. However, ex vivo expansion of these cells typically requires culture media containing fetal bovine serum, which may cause infection and immunological reaction following transplantation. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of DPCs markedly depend upon serum batches. Therefore, the present study examined whether DPCs could be expanded under serum-free conditions. DPCs obtained from four donors were identified to proliferate actively in the serum-free medium, STK2, when compared with those cells in control medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% serum)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Elide Formentin, Cristina Sudiro, Giorgio Perin, Samantha Riccadonna, Elisabetta Barizza, Elena Baldoni, Enrico Lavezzo, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Paolo Fontana, Stefano Toppo, Tomas Morosinotto, Michela Zottini, Fiorella Lo Schiavo
Salinity tolerance has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its agricultural importance. Several features, such as the regulation of ionic transporters and metabolic adjustments, have been identified as salt tolerance hallmarks. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the trait, the results achieved to date have met with limited success in improving the salt tolerance of rice plants when tested in the field, thus suggesting that a better understanding of the tolerance mechanisms is still required...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Feng Yang, Yonggen Jiang, Lihua Yang, Juanxiu Qin, Mingquan Guo, Yuxia Lu, Hongyou Chen, Yuan Zhuang, Jinghao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Zhaoyun Dai, Min Li, Changqing Yang, Min Chen, Yanmei Zhang, Hu Zhao
Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods. Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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