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Christopher K Giardina, Tatyana E Khan, Stephen H Pulver, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Harold C Pillsbury, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVES: Electrocochleography is increasingly being utilized as an intraoperative monitor of cochlear function during cochlear implantation (CI). Intracochlear recordings from the advancing electrode can be obtained through the device by on-board capabilities. However, such recordings may not be ideal as a monitor because the recording electrode moves in relation to the neural and hair cell generators producing the responses. The purposes of this study were to compare two extracochlear recording locations in terms of signal strength and feasibility as intraoperative monitoring sites and to characterize changes in cochlear physiology during CI insertion...
March 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Alec N Salt, Stefan K Plontke
Local drug delivery to the ear has gained wide clinical acceptance, with the choice of drug and application protocol in humans largely empirically-derived. Here, we review the pharmacokinetics underlying local therapy of the ear using the drugs commonly used in clinical practice as examples. Based on molecular properties and perilymph measurements interpreted through computer simulations we now better understand the principles underlying entry and distribution of these and other drugs in the ear. From our analysis, we have determined that dexamethasone-phosphate, a pro-drug widely-used clinically, has molecular and pharmacokinetic properties that make it ill-suited for use as a local therapy for hearing disorders...
March 11, 2018: Hearing Research
E Verheij, L Elden, T B Crowley, F A Pameijer, E H Zackai, D M McDonald-McGinn, H G X M Thomeer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by a heterogenic phenotype, including hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss, especially sensorineural hearing loss, is not yet clear. Therefore, our objective was to describe anatomic malformations in the middle and inner ear in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted in 2 tertiary referral centers. All patients with 22q11...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Hannes Petersen, Alexandra Gliese, Yannick Stober, Stephanie Maier, Nils-Owe Hansen, Sebastian Kruber, Dennis Eggert, Miklós Tóth, Tobias Gosau, Hartmut Schlüter, Klaus Püschel, Udo Schumacher, Robert John Dwayne Miller, Adrian Münscher, Carsten Dalchow
OBJECTIVE: Using a contact-free laser technique for stapedotomy reduces the risk of mechanical damage of the stapes footplate. However, the risk of inner ear dysfunction due to thermal, acoustic, or direct damage has still not been solved. The objective of this study was to describe the first experiences in footplate perforation in cadaver tissue performed by the novel Picosecond-Infrared-Laser (PIRL), allowing a tissue preserving ablation. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: Three human cadaver stapes were perforated using a fiber-coupled PIRL...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Kilian Gladiné, Joris J J Dirckx
For the validation of modelling results or the comparison of middle ear interventions, such as prostheses placement, average responses of middle ear vibrations are needed. One such response is the amplitude and phase of the vibration of the stapes footplate as a function of frequency. Average responses and their standard deviation are commonly obtained by calculating the mean of a number of measured responses at each frequency. A typical middle ear magnitude response curve shows a number of distinct peaks, and the location of these peaks varies between ears...
February 24, 2018: Hearing Research
Inge Wegner, Robert Vincent, Laura S M Derks, Simone P Rauh, Martijn W Heymans, Inge Stegeman, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can accurately predict the chance of success following revision stapes surgery in patients with recurrent or persistent otosclerosis at 2- to 6-months follow-up and to validate this model internally. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of prospectively gathered data in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: The associations of 11 prognostic factors with treatment success were tested in 705 cases using multivariable logistic regression analysis with backward selection...
March 9, 2018: Laryngoscope
Badi Aldosari, Jean-Marc Thomassin
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate our experience with endoscopic repair of ossicular discontinuity at the incudostapedial joint, with or without an intact stapes suprastructure, and present our hearing results. We classify results based on the causative pathology, the type of ossiculoplasty, and type of lesion. We demonstrate the ability to endoscopically place a total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), measuring 4.25 mm, between the stapes footplate and the incus remnant to reestablish ossicular continuity...
September 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jacek Kuchinka
The persistent stapedial artery is a component of the main arterial roads of the head in some animal groups (Frąckowiak 2003). This type of vascularization occurs in the Mongolian gerbil, among others. The stapedial artery is common in a variety of forms in rodents. It has been described, for example, in Sciuridae, Muridae, Heteromyidae, Geomyidae, Splacidae, Cricetidae, Arvicolinae, and in genus Jaculus (Cox and Hautier, 2015). The aim of this study was the analysis of morphology, and of course, of the stapedial artery in this species...
March 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Adrien A Eshraghi, Fred F Telischi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
John T McElveen, J Walter Kutz
Controversies have been associated with the etiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of otosclerosis since Valsalva first described stapes fixation as a cause of hearing loss. Although the exact mechanism of the bone remodeling associated with otosclerosis remains uncertain, stapedotomy has been accepted as the surgical treatment of most patients with stapedial otosclerosis. There remains a disparity of opinion, however, regarding the role of preoperative imaging, surgical technique, implant selection, and medical therapy for cochlear otosclerosis...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Adrien A Eshraghi, Kadri Ila, Emre Ocak, Fred F Telischi
Diagnosis and treatment of advanced otosclerosis can be controversial. In 1961, House and Sheehy defined advanced otosclerosis as hearing loss in air conduction threshold by 85 dB with nonmeasurable bone conduction. Recently, the definition of advanced otosclerosis is mostly based on the decrease of speech recognition. There are some treatment modalities: stapes surgery and hearing aids, cochlear implantation, or direct acoustic cochlear implant. The authors propose a new algorithm for treatment. If the patient is treated with cochlear implantation, the surgeon should be cautious for facial nerve stimulation after surgery because it is the most prevalent complication...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Alexander Sevy, Moises Arriaga
Since the original carved Teflon stapes over vein graft, stapedectomy prostheses have undergone evolution. Prostheses shapes, materials, and surgical techniques for placement have reflected advances in biomaterials and surgical tools. The variability in prostheses has reflected alternative techniques of stapedectomy and stapedotomy and differing strategies for attachment to the incus. Although many iterations of stapes prostheses have been proposed, excellent results can be achieved with various prostheses designed to rest on tissue grafts in stapedectomy techniques or pass through the footplate in stapedotomy techniques when used by surgeons experienced with technique details specific to the selected prosthesis...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Amit Wolfovitz, Michal Luntz
The use of imaging in otosclerosis for diagnosis, preoperative assessment, and follow-up has the potential to give the clinician an additional tier of patient evaluation and validation of diagnosis. Before stapes surgery, imaging may help avoid unnecessary middle ear explorations in nonotosclerotic cases, prevent potential complications, and assist in appropriate patient counseling regarding management expectations. Postoperatively, following unsuccessful air-bone gap closure in stapes surgery or conductive hearing deterioration following initial successful closure of the air bone gap, imaging can be used to determine the prosthesis position in the middle ear...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Ronen Nazarian, John T McElveen, Adrien A Eshraghi
The current advancements in otosclerosis therapy cannot be fully appreciated without studying the history, rediscovery, and modification of a once-forgotten procedure. The evolution of stapes surgery can be best summarized into 4 noteworthy eras: the preantibiotic era (which was forgotten and then rediscovered), the fenestration era (mainstreamed by Julius Lempert), the mobilization era (led by Samuel Rosen), and the modern stapedectomy era (revived and revolutionized by John Shea). Each era is unique with its own challenges and ingenious techniques to overcome what used to be among the leading causes of deafness...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Shan Ding, Shibao Xie, Weiquan Chen, Lu Wen, Junyi Wang, Fan Yang, Gang Chen
Drug delivery to the inner ear by nanomedicine strategies has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach for the management of inner ear diseases including hearing and balance disorders. It is well accepted that substance enters the perilymph from the middle ear through the round window membrane (RWM), but the passage through the oval window (OW) has long been neglected. Up to now, researchers still know little about the pathway via which nanoparticles (NPs) enter the inner ear or how they reach the inner ear following local applications...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tae Hoon Kong, Sunkon Yu, Byungjo Jung, Jin Sil Choi, Young Joon Seo
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) enables continuous high-resolution assessment of microcirculation in real-time. We applied an endoscope to LSCI to measure cochlear blood-flow in an ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. We also explored whether using xenon light in combination with LSCI facilitates visualization of anatomical position. Based on a previous preliminary study, the appropriate wavelength for penetrating the thin bony cochlea was 830 nm. A 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope was used, as appropriate for the size of the mouse cochlea...
2018: PloS One
Shangyuan Jiang, Rong Z Gan
The incudostapedial joint (ISJ) is a synovial joint connecting the incus and stapes in the middle ear. Mechanical properties of the ISJ directly affect sound transmission from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. However, how ISJ properties change with frequency has not been investigated. In this paper, we report the dynamic properties of the human ISJ measured in eight samples using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) for frequencies from 1 to 80 Hz at three temperatures of 5, 25 and 37 °C. The frequency-temperature superposition (FTS) principle was used to extrapolate the results to 8 kHz...
February 22, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Julia A Schultz, Irina Ruf, Thomas Martin
Middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) are known for few multituberculate taxa, and three different stapedial morphotypes have been suggested: (i) slender, columelliform and microperforate, (ii) robust and rod-like, and (iii) bicrural. Reinvestigation of Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) mammalian petrosals from the Guimarota coal mine in central Portugal (Western Europe) revealed an asymmetric bicrural stapes (ABS) in the paulchoffatiid Pseudobolodon oreas The middle ear ossicles displaced inside the osseous vestibule were detected by a µCT analysis...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Meeta Bathla, Hiren Doshi, Atul Kansara
Role of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone is established in cases of atticoantral chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with intracranial complications. Routine use of HRCT in management of patients of atticoantral CSOM without intracranial complications has been an issue of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the routine use of HRCT of temporal bone in such cases. This study was a prospective study done at LG hospital, AMC MET Medical College, Ahmedabad to evaluate and compare the temporal bone findings in HRCT and intraoperative findings in 100 patients with atticoantral CSOM...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
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