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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785132/influence-of-fto-rs9939609-polymorphism-on-appetite-ghrelin-leptin-il6-tnf%C3%AE-levels-and-food-intake-of-women-with-morbid-obesity
#1
Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos Magno, Helena Chrispim Guaraná, Ana Carolina Proença Fonseca, Giselda Maria Kalil Cabello, João Régis Ivar Carneiro, Aline Pereira Pedrosa, Ana Carolina Ximenes, Eliane Lopes Rosado
Background: The fat mass and obesity-related ( FTO ) gene has a strong relationship with obesity, extreme obesity and inflammatory state, and may also be associated with food intake regulation. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism of the FTO gene on appetite, ghrelin, leptin, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) levels and food intake of morbidly obese women. Materials and methods: The study comprised 70 women, aged between 20 and 48 years, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781479/substrate-mediated-redox-partner-selectivity-of-cytochrome-p450
#2
Katherine A Gentry, Meng Zhang, Sang-Choul Im, Lucy Waskell, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Investigating the interplay between cytochrome-P450 and its redox partners (CPR and cytochrome-b5) is vital for understanding the metabolism of most hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic structural interactions with the ternary complex, with and without substrates, captured by NMR reveal a gating mechanism for redox partners to promote P450 function.
May 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778080/atrazine-xenobiotic-nuclear-receptor-interactions-induce-cardiac-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-quail-coturnix-coturnix-coturnix
#3
Xue-Nan Li, Yu-Zhu Zuo, Lei Qin, Wei Liu, Yan-Hua Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most extensively used herbicide that eventually leaches into groundwater and surface water from agricultural areas. Exposure to ATR does harm to the health of human and animals, especially the heart. However, ATR exposure caused cardiotoxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate ATR-exerted potential cardiotoxicity in heart, quail were exposed with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day ATR by gavage treatment for 45 days. Cardiac histopathological alternation was observed in ATR-induced quail...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774085/quantum-chemical-dft-study-of-direct-and-h-and-c-assisted-co-dissociation-on-the-%C3%AF-fe-5-c-2-h%C3%A3-gg-carbide
#4
Robin J P Broos, Bart Zijlstra, Ivo A W Filot, Emiel J M Hensen
The first step in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is the production of C1 monomers by the dissociation of the C-O bond. Although Fe is the active metal, it is well known that under typical reaction conditions, it changes into various carbide phases. The Hägg carbide (χ-Fe5 C2 ) phase is usually considered as the catalytically active phase. We carried out a comprehensive DFT study of CO dissociation on various surface terminations of the Hägg carbide, selected on their specific site topology and the presence of stepped sites...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767814/inborn-errors-of-coenzyme-a-metabolism-and-neurodegeneration
#5
Ivano Di Meo, Miryam Carecchio, Valeria Tiranti
Two inborn errors of coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism are responsible for distinct forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator iron accumulation mainly in the inner portion of globus pallidus. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA and is caused by mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2), coding for a mitochondrial enzyme, which phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA biosynthetic pathway...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767695/molybdenum
#6
Janet A Novotny, Catherine A Peterson
Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764858/distinct-regulation-of-snail-in-two-muscle-lineages-of-the-ascidian-embryo-achieves-temporal-coordination-of-muscle-development
#7
Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou
The transcriptional repressor Snail is required for proper differentiation of the tail muscle of ascidian tadpole larvae. Two muscle lineages (B5.1 and B6.4) contribute to the anterior tail muscle cells, and are consecutively separated from a transcriptionally quiescent germ cell lineage at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Concomitantly, cells of these lineages begin to express Tbx6.b at the 16- and 32-cell stages, respectively. Meanwhile, Snail expression begins in these two lineages simultaneously at the 32-cell stage...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755558/antiparasitic-activity-and-essential-oil-chemical-analysis-of-the-piper-tuberculatum-jacq-fruit
#8
Valterlúcio Dos Santos Sales, Álefe Brito Monteiro, Gyllyandeson de Araújo Delmondes, Emmily Petícia do Nascimento, Francisco Rodolpho Sobreira Dantas Nóbrega de Figuêiredo, Cristina Kelly de Souza Rodrigues, Josefa Fernanda Evangelista de Lacerda, Cícera Norma Fernandes, Maysa de Oliveira Barbosa, Adamo Xenofonte Brasil, Saulo Relison Tintino, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Cathia Coronel, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Cícero Francisco Bezerra Felipe, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Marta Regina Kerntopf
With the increase of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, there was a need for the search for new therapeutic alternatives that reduce the harm caused by medicine available for treatment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq, against lines of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/CO/88/UA301), Leishmania infantum (MHOM/ES/92/BCN83) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LC-B5 clone). Before running protocols, an analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil was conducted, which presented monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754768/mutations-in-ppcs-encoding-phosphopantothenoylcysteine-synthetase-cause-autosomal-recessive-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#9
Arcangela Iuso, Marit Wiersma, Hans-Joachim Schüller, Ben Pode-Shakked, Dina Marek-Yagel, Mathias Grigat, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Riccardo Berutti, Bader Alhaddad, Bart Kanon, Nicola A Grzeschik, Jürgen G Okun, Zeev Perles, Yishay Salem, Ortal Barel, Amir Vardi, Marina Rubinshtein, Tal Tirosh, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Ana C Messias, Caterina Terrile, Iris Barshack, Alex Volkov, Camilla Avivi, Eran Eyal, Elisa Mastantuono, Muhamad Kumbar, Shachar Abudi, Matthias Braunisch, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, Georg F Hoffmann, Holger Prokisch, Tobias B Haack, Bianca J J M Brundel, Dorothea Haas, Ody C M Sibon, Yair Anikster
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolic cofactor used by around 4% of cellular enzymes. Its role is to carry and transfer acetyl and acyl groups to other molecules. Cells can synthesize CoA de novo from vitamin B5 (pantothenate) through five consecutive enzymatic steps. Phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS) catalyzes the second step of the pathway during which phosphopantothenate reacts with ATP and cysteine to form phosphopantothenoylcysteine. Inborn errors of CoA biosynthesis have been implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a group of rare neurological disorders characterized by accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia and progressive neurodegeneration...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737393/a-highly-active-pantothenate-synthetase-from-corynebacterium-glutamicum-enables-the-production-of-d-pantothenic-acid-with-high-productivity
#10
Fitsum Tigu, Junli Zhang, Guoxia Liu, Zhen Cai, Yin Li
D-Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5 ) has wide applications in the feed, food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Its biological production routes which employ pantothenate synthetase (PS) as the key enzyme are attractive since they avoid the tedious and time-consuming optical resolution process. However, little data is available on the activity and kinetics of this enzyme, hampering the rational selection of an efficient enzyme for the biological production of D-pantothenic acid. In this study, six phylogenetically distant PS-encoding genes, from Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Enterobacter cloacae, were expressed in E...
May 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726283/lactobacillus-plantarum-is-10506-activates-intestinal-stem-cells-in-a-rodent-model
#11
A F Athiyyah, A Darma, R Ranuh, W Riawan, A Endaryanto, F A Rantam, I S Surono, S M Sudarmo
This study investigated the probiotic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 in activating and regenerating leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr)5- and B lymphoma Moloney murine leukaemia virus insertion region (Bmi)1-expressing intestinal stem cells in rodents following Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=64) were randomised into control (KN), LPS (KL), probiotic + LPS (KL-Pr), and sequential probiotic + LPS + probiotic (KPR-7L) groups...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725811/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-turkish-patients
#12
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Somayeh Sharifynia, Yasemin Öz, Müge Aslan, Nuray Gündoğdu, Ayşe Serin, Haleh Rafati, Faezeh Mohammadi, Dilek Yeşim-Metin, Aylin Döğen, Macit Ilkit, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto is an emerging cause of hospital-acquired Candida infections, predominantly in southern Europe, South America, and Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profile of 170 independent C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains obtained from patients with candidemia who were treated at the Ege University Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, between 2006 and 2014. The identity of each strain was confirmed via PCR amplification and digestion of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene...
May 3, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722926/a-minimal-functional-complex-of-cytochrome-p450-and-fbd-of-cytochrome-p450-reductase-in-nanodiscs
#13
Elke Prade, Mukesh Mahajan, Sang-Choul Im, Meng Zhang, G M Anantharamaiah, Lucy Waskell, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Structural interactions that enable electron transfer to cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) from its redox partner CYP450-reductase (CPR) are a vital prerequisite for its catalytic mechanism. Here, we report the first structural model for the membrane-bound functional complex to reveal interactions between the full-length CYP450 and a minimal domain of CPR. Our results suggest that anchorage of the proteins in a lipid bilayer is a minimal requirement for CYP450 catalytic function. Akin to cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5), Arg125 on the C-helix of CYP450s is found to be important for effective electron transfer, thus supporting the competitive behavior of redox partners for CYP450s...
May 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721250/congenital-methemoglobinemia-misdiagnosed-as-polycythemia-vera-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Dina Sameh Soliman, Mohamed Yassin
Methemoglobinemia is a rare overlooked differential diagnosis in patients presented with cyanosis and dyspnea unrelated to cardiopulmonary causes. Our patient is 29 year old Indian non-smoker male, his story started 6 months prior to presentation to our center when he had generalized fatigue and discoloration of hands. He presented with persistent polycythemia with elevated hemoglobin level. The patient was misdiagnosed in another center as polycythemia and treated with Imatinib. The diagnosis of PV was revisited and ruled out in view of negative JAK2, normal erythropoietin level and absence of features of panmyelosis...
March 2, 2018: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713216/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-upper-abdominal-organs-acquired-with-multiple-b-value-combinations-value-of-normalization-using-spleen-as-the-reference-organ
#15
Bo Ram Kim, Ji Soo Song, Eun Jung Choi, Seung Bae Hwang, Hong Pil Hwang
Objective: To compare apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the upper abdominal organs acquired with multiple b-value combinations and to investigate usefulness of normalization. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data, including 3T diffusion-weighted images, of 100 patients (56 men, 44 women; mean age, 63.9) that underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging. An ADC map was derived with the following six b-value combinations: b1 = 0, 50, 400, 800; b2 = 0, 800; b3 = 0, 50, 800; b4 = 0, 400, 800; b5 = 50, 800; and b6 = 50, 400, 800 s/mm2 ...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706024/overexpression-of-cyb5r3-and-nqo1-two-nad-producing-enzymes-mimics-aspects-of-caloric-restriction
#16
Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Michael Lanasa, Joseph Garcia, Hector Mora, Frances Fan, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Andrea Di Francesco, Miguel Calvo-Rubio, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Miguel A Aon, Kenneth W Fishbein, Kevin J Pearson, Jose Manuel Villalba, Placido Navas, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo
Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most robust means to improve health and survival in model organisms. CR imposes a metabolic program that leads to increased stress resistance and delayed onset of chronic diseases, including cancer. In rodents, CR induces the upregulation of two NADH-dehydrogenases, namely NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (Cyb5r3), which provide electrons for energy metabolism. It has been proposed that this upregulation may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of CR, and defects in their activity are linked to aging and several age-associated diseases...
April 28, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699910/investigation-of-novel-pyrazole-carboxamides-as-new-apoptosis-inducers-on-neuronal-cells-in-helicoverpa-zea
#17
Yuanhang Ren, Na Yang, Ying Yue, Hong Jin, Ke Tao, Taiping Hou
Novel pyrazole carboxamides with a diarylamine-modified scaffold were modified based on the bixafen (Bayer) fungicide, which has excellent activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. To discover the potential insecticidal activity of these novel pyrazole carboxamides, the present study explored their possible cytoactivity on the insect neuronal cells (RP-HzVNC-AW1) in Helicoverpa zea. The preliminary bioassays showed that some of the target compounds exhibited good cytoactivity against AW1 cells...
March 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691749/determination-of-size-segregated-elements-in-diesel-biodiesel-blend-exhaust-emissions
#18
Luiz Diego Silva Rocha, Sergio Machado Corrêa
This study was based on the determination of metals in particulate matter emitted by a typical diesel engine used by busses and trucks in Brazil. Emissions were sampled using a cascade impactor, and the engine was operated using diesel with 5% (B5), 10% (B10), 15% (B15), and 20% (B20) of biodiesel. The particulate matter was stratified in different sizes, i.e., 18, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.560, 0.320, 0.180, 0.100, and 0.056 μm. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn with concentrations within 10 to 1000 ng m-3 were determined...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689715/antibody-fusion-proteins-with-human-ribonucleases-1-to-8
#19
Xenia Wezler, Stefan Dübel, Thomas Schirrmann
ImmunoRNases combine tumor targeting by antibodies with the cytotoxic action of ribonucleases from the RNase A superfamily. This study investigated for the first time all catalytic active human RNase A family members (1 to 8) as effector components of antibody fusion proteins. ImmunoRNase fusion proteins were constructed using the CD30-specific bivalent recombinant scFv-Fc antibody SH313-B5. Production of the resulting entirely human immunoRNases 1 to 8 was done in mammalian cells by secretion of active forms...
April 10, 2018: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686395/heterogeneous-fe-3-single-cluster-catalyst-for-ammonia-synthesis-via-an-associative-mechanism
#20
Jin-Cheng Liu, Xue-Lu Ma, Yong Li, Yang-Gang Wang, Hai Xiao, Jun Li
The current industrial ammonia synthesis relies on Haber-Bosch process that is initiated by the dissociative mechanism, in which the adsorbed N2 dissociates directly, and thus is limited by Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation. Here we propose a new strategy that an anchored Fe3 cluster on the θ-Al2 O3 (010) surface as a heterogeneous catalyst for ammonia synthesis from first-principles theoretical study and microkinetic analysis. We have studied the whole catalytic mechanism for conversion of N2 to NH3 on Fe3 /θ-Al2 O3 (010), and find that an associative mechanism, in which the adsorbed N2 is first hydrogenated to NNH, dominates over the dissociative mechanism, which we attribute to the large spin polarization, low oxidation state of iron, and multi-step redox capability of Fe3 cluster...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
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