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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640846/endothelial-angiogenesis-is-directed-by-runx1t1-regulated-vegfa-bmp4-and-tgf-%C3%AE-2-expression
#1
Ko-Hsun Liao, Shing-Jyh Chang, Hsin-Chuan Chang, Chen-Li Chien, Tse-Shun Huang, Te-Chia Feng, Wen-Wei Lin, Chuan-Chi Shih, Muh-Hwa Yang, Shung-Haur Yang, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Lun Hwang, Oscar K Lee
Tissue angiogenesis is intimately regulated during embryogenesis and postnatal development. Defected angiogenesis contributes to aberrant development and is the main complication associated with ischemia-related diseases. We previously identified the increased expression of RUNX1T1 in umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) by gene expression microarray. However, the biological relevance of RUNX1T1 in endothelial lineage is not defined clearly. Here, we demonstrate RUNX1T1 regulates the survival, motility and tube forming capability of ECFCs and EA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636844/clonal-hematopoiesis-and-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Siddhartha Jaiswal, Pradeep Natarajan, Alexander J Silver, Christopher J Gibson, Alexander G Bick, Eugenia Shvartz, Marie McConkey, Namrata Gupta, Stacey Gabriel, Diego Ardissino, Usman Baber, Roxana Mehran, Valentin Fuster, John Danesh, Philippe Frossard, Danish Saleheen, Olle Melander, Galina K Sukhova, Donna Neuberg, Peter Libby, Sekar Kathiresan, Benjamin L Ebert
Background Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is defined as the presence of an expanded somatic blood-cell clone in persons without other hematologic abnormalities, is common among older persons and is associated with an increased risk of hematologic cancer. We previously found preliminary evidence for an association between CHIP and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the nature of this association was unclear. Methods We used whole-exome sequencing to detect the presence of CHIP in peripheral-blood cells and associated such presence with coronary heart disease using samples from four case-control studies that together enrolled 4726 participants with coronary heart disease and 3529 controls...
June 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635683/blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-with-pulmonary-involvement-and-atypical-skin-lesion
#3
Cyndi Myrelle da Silva Barros Romão, Cláudio José Dos Santos Júnior, Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite, Maria Jordana Rocha Gomes Alves, Nathalia Silva Araújo, Anderson F L Castro, Muriel Silva Moura, Vitória Mikaelly da Silva Gomes, Arthur Moacir Costa Sampaio Batinga, João Antonio S Queiroz, Natanael Barbosa Dos Santos
BACKGROUND Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematodermic malignancy neoplasm with highly aggressive course and poor prognosis. This disease typically presents with cutaneous involvement as the first manifestation, with subsequent or simultaneous spread to bone marrow and peripheral blood.  CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old woman who presented a violaceus skin lesion on the lateral region of the right thigh, weight loss, fever, and lymphadenopathies. Computed tomography (CT) displayed thoracic and abdominal lymph node and alveolar bleeding...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633925/the-discovery-of-plasma-cells-an-historical-note
#4
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
The name plasma cell was introduced by the anatomist Heinrich H. von Hartz-Waldeyer in 1875. Plasma cells derive from small B lymphocytes after their activation. A fully mature plasma cell lacks surface immunoglobulin expression. Its form is round or oval, with characteristic basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus that contains coarse heterochromatin. Antigen activation of mature B cells leads initially to germinal center development, the transient generation of plasmablasts that secrete antibody while still dividing, and short-lived extrafollicular plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific germ line-encoded antibodies...
June 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#5
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632184/crude-fucoidan-extracts-impair-angiogenesis-in-models-relevant-for-bone-regeneration-and-osteosarcoma-via-reduction-of-vegf-and-sdf-1
#6
Fanlu Wang, Harald Schmidt, Dijana Pavleska, Thees Wermann, Andreas Seekamp, Sabine Fuchs
The marine origin polysaccharide fucoidan combines multiple biological activities. As demonstrated by various studies in vitro and in vivo, fucoidans show anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties, although the detailed molecular action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of crude fucoidan extracts, on the formation of vascular structures in co-culture models relevant for bone vascularization during bone repair and for vascularization processes in osteosarcoma...
June 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629749/a-distinct-biomolecular-profile-identifies-monoclonal-mast-cell-disorders-in-patients-with-idiopathic-anaphylaxis
#7
Melody C Carter, Avanti Desai, Hirsh D Komarow, Yun Bai, Sarah T Clayton, Alicia S Clark, Karina N Ruiz-Esteves, Lauren M Long, Daly Cantave, Todd M Wilson, Linda M Scott, Olga Simakova, Mi-Yeon Jung, Jamie Hahn, Irina Maric, Dean D Metcalfe
BACKGROUND: Clonal mast cell disorders are known to occur in a subset of patients with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. This observation has prompted the question as to whether clonal mast cell disorders also occur in patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of clonal mast cell disorders among patients with IA, criteria to identify those patients who require a bone marrow biopsy and whether the pathogenesis of IA involves a hyper-responsive mast cell compartment...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629733/an-optimized-protocol-for-the-generation-and-functional-analysis-of-human-mast-cells-from-cd34-enriched-cell-populations
#8
Yuzhi Yin, Yun Bai, Ana Olivera, Avanti Desai, Dean D Metcalfe
The culture of mast cells from human tissues such a cord blood, peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirates has advanced our understanding of human mast cells (huMC) degranulation, mediator production and response to pharmacologic agents. However, existing methods for huMC culture tend to be laborious and expensive. Combining technical approaches from several of these protocols, we designed a simplified and more cost effective approach to the culture of mast cells from human cell populations including peripheral blood and cryopreserved cells from lymphocytapheresis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628602/procoagulant-activity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Barbara A Christy, Maryanne C Herzig, Robbie K Montgomery, Christopher Delavan, James A Bynum, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and procoagulant activity to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627369/plekho2-is-essential-for-m-csf-dependent-macrophage-survival
#10
Pengfei Zhang, Chenchen Zhou, Cheng Lu, Wenfei Li, Wei Li, Bin Jing, Wenxia Chen, Yuhua Zha, Peng Zhang, Changqin Bai, Huiying Liu, Luo Zhang
Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is crucial for macrophage survival; however, the mechanism associated with this signaling has not been fully elucidated. Here, we identified pleckstrin homology domain-containing family O member 2 (PLEKHO2), a protein with unknown function, as a novel regulator of macrophage survival in vitro and in vivo. We found that PLEKHO2-deficient mice exhibited severe reductions in macrophage population in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, and blood, and that PLEKHO2 expression was upregulated during macrophage differentiation and maturation...
June 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626778/single-cell-based-vector-tracing-in-patients-with-ada-scid-treated-with-stem-cell-gene-therapy
#11
Yuka Igarashi, Toru Uchiyama, Tomoko Minegishi, Sirirat Takahashi, Nobuyuki Watanabe, Toshinao Kawai, Masafumi Yamada, Tadashi Ariga, Masafumi Onodera
Clinical improvement in stem cell gene therapy (SCGT) for primary immunodeficiencies depends on the engraftment levels of genetically corrected cells, and tracing the transgene in each hematopoietic lineage is therefore extremely important in evaluating the efficacy of SCGT. We established a single cell-based droplet digital PCR (sc-ddPCR) method consisting of the encapsulation of a single cell into each droplet, followed by emulsion PCR with primers and probes specific for the transgene. A fluorescent signal in a droplet indicates the presence of a single cell carrying the target gene in its genome, and this system can clearly determine the ratio of transgene-positive cells in the entire population at the genomic level...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626366/current-developments-in-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-and-their-interaction-with-niches-in-bone-marrow
#12
REVIEW
Rudolf Richter, Wolfgang Forssmann, Reinhard Henschler
The clinical application of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has evolved from a highly experimental stage in the 1980s to a currently clinically established treatment for more than 20,000 patients annually who suffer from hematological malignancies and other severe diseases. Studies in numerous murine models have demonstrated that HSPCs reside in distinct niches within the bone marrow environment. Whereas transplanted HSPCs travel through the bloodstream and home to sites of hematopoiesis, HSPCs can be mobilized from these niches into the blood either physiologically or induced by pharmaceutical drugs...
June 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626156/a-method-to-establish-a-mouse-model-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment-injury
#13
Wenzhe Cheng, Quanhu Ge, Longfei Wan, Xiaoyi Wang, Xueling Chen, Xiangwei Wu
A normal bone marrow microenvironment plays a very important role in the normal functioning of hematopoietic stem cells. Once disturbed, this microenvironment can become favorable for the occurrence of blood disorders, cancers, and other diseases. Therefore, further studies on the bone marrow microenvironment should be performed to reveal regulatory and stem cell fate determination mechanisms and promote the development of bone marrow transplantation, tissue repair and regenerative medicine, and other fields...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#14
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625163/gamma-delta-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-lymphoma-another-case-unclassifiable-by-world-health-organization-classification-a-case-report
#15
Hemant Sindhu, Ruqin Chen, Hui Chen, Jonathan Wong, Rashid Chaudhry, Yin Xu, Jen C Wang
BACKGROUND: We present a case of gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma that does not fit the current World Health Organization classifications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old Caribbean-American woman presented with lymphocytosis, pruritus, and non-drenching night sweats. Bone marrow and peripheral blood analyses both confirmed the diagnosis of gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma. An axillary lymph node biopsy was negative for lymphoma. Clinically absent hepatosplenomegaly and skin lesions with biopsy-proven gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma suggest that she is unclassifiable within the current classification system...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624811/altered-erythropoiesis-and-decreased-number-of-erythrocytes-in-children-with-neuroblastoma
#16
Fabio Morandi, Sebastiano Barco, Sara Stigliani, Michela Croce, Luca Persico, Corrado Lagazio, Francesca Scuderi, Maria Luisa Belli, Mariapina Montera, Giuliana Cangemi, Sarah Pozzi, Valentina Rigo, Paola Scaruffi, Loredana Amoroso, Giovanni Erminio, Vito Pistoia, Silvano Ferrini, Maria Valeria Corrias
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor presenting at diagnosis either as localized or metastatic disease, which mainly involves the bone marrow (BM). The physical occupancy of BM space by metastatic NB cells has been held responsible for impairment of BM function. Here, we investigated whether localized or metastatic NB may alter hematopoietic lineages' maturation and release of mature cells in the periphery, through gene expression profiling, analysis of BM smears, cell blood count and flow cytometry analysis...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624051/persistent-injury-associated-anemia-the-role-of-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#17
Jessica K Millar, Kolenkode B Kannan, Tyler J Loftus, Ines G Alamo, Jessica Plazas, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: The regulation of erythropoiesis involves hematopoietic progenitor cells, bone marrow stroma, and the microenvironment. Following severe injury, a hypercatecholamine state develops that is associated with increased mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells to peripheral blood and decreased growth of bone marrow erythroid progenitor cells that manifests clinically as a persistent injury-associated anemia. Changes within the bone marrow microenvironment influence the development of erythroid progenitor cells...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623394/disease-specific-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#18
Qian Li, Changying Luo, Chengjuan Luo, Jianmin Wang, Benshang Li, Lixia Ding, Jing Chen
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using an optimized conditioning regimen is essential for the long-term survival of patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). We report HSCT in 24 children with Fanconi anemia (FA, n = 12), Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA, n = 7), and dyskeratosis congenita (DC, n = 5) from a single HSCT center. The graft source was peripheral blood stem cells (n = 19) or cord blood stem cells (n = 5). FA and DC patients received reduced-intensity conditioning, while DBA patients had myeloablative conditioning...
June 16, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622138/cellular-and-plasma-nitrite-levels-in-myeloid-leukemia-a-pathogenetic-decrease
#19
Mili Jain, Ashutosh Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Rashmi Kushwaha, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Nitric oxide (NO) has contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias.Thirty six newly diagnosed cases of myeloid leukemia (16 AML and 20 CML) were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil precursors from the marrow aspirate and peripheral blood were separated into cell bands using Percoll density gradient method of Borregard and Cowland...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622093/suppressive-effect-of-dengue-virus-envelope-protein-domain-iii-on-megakaryopoiesis
#20
Guan-Ling Lin, Hsin-Hou Chang, Te-Sheng Lien, Po-Kong Chen, Hao Chan, Mei-Tzu Su, Chi-Yuan Liao, Der-Shan Sun
Dengue virus (DENV) infection can cause severe, life-threatening events, and no specific treatments for DENV infection are currently approved. Although thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in dengue patients, its pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that DENV-induced thrombocytopenia occurs through viral-replication-mediated megakaryopoiesis inhibition in the bone marrow; however, the exact mechanism for megakaryopoiesis suppression remains elusive. In this study, a reductionist approach was applied, in which C57B/6J mice were inoculated with recombinant DENV-envelope protein domain III (DENV-EIII) instead of the full viral particle...
June 16, 2017: Virulence
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