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Angiotensin AND RAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335584/atrap-expression-in-brown-adipose-tissue-does-not-influence-the-development-of-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#1
Kohji Ohki, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Miyuki Matsuda, Masato Ohsawa, Akinobu Maeda, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akio Yamashita, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions as an endogenous inhibitor to prevent excessive activation of tissue RAS. In the present study, we newly generated ATRAP/Agtrap-floxed (ATRAP(fl/fl)) mice and adipose tissue-specific ATRAP downregulated (ATRAP(adipoq)) mice by the Cre/loxP system using Adipoq-Cre...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330766/water-metabolism-dysfunction-via-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-caused-by-liver-damage-in-mice-treated-with-microcystin-rr
#2
Qing Zhong, Feng Sun, Weiguang Wang, Wenqing Xiao, Xiaoni Zhao, Kangding Gu
Microcystins (MCs) are a group of monocyclic heptapeptide toxins that have been shown to act as potent hepatotoxins. However, the observed symptoms of water metabolism disruption induced by microcystin-RR (MC-RR) or MCs have rarely been reported, and a relatively clear mechanism has not been identified. In the present study, male mice were divided into 4 groups (A: 140μg/kg, B: 70μg/kg,C: 35μg/kg, and D: 0μg/kg) and administered MC-RR daily for a month. On day 8 of treatment, an increase in water intake and urine output was observed in the high-dose group compared with the control, and the symptoms worsened with the repeated administration of the toxin until day 30...
March 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322341/angiotensin-ii-induces-kidney-inflammatory-injury-and-fibrosis-through-binding-to-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-md2
#3
Zheng Xu, Weixin Li, Jibo Han, Chunpeng Zou, Weijian Huang, Weihui Yu, Xiaoou Shan, Hazel Lum, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang
Growing evidence indicates that angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent biologically active product of RAS, is a key regulator of renal inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II induces renal inflammatory injury and fibrosis through interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), the accessory protein of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the immune system. Results indicated that in MD2(-/-) mice, the Ang II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation and kidney dysfunction were significantly reduced compared to control Ang II-infused wild-type mice...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320765/effect-of-uric-acid-lowering-on-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-and-ambulatory-bp-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Ciaran J McMullan, Lea Borgi, Naomi Fisher, Gary Curhan, John Forman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Higher serum uric acid levels, even within the reference range, are strongly associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and risk of incident hypertension. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on RAS activity in humans is unknown, although the data that lowering serum uric acid can reduce BP are conflicting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2015, we randomly assigned 149 overweight or obese adults with serum uric acid ≥5...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320744/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-are-associated-with-improved-outcome-but-do-not-prevent-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Gorav Batra, Lars Lindhagen, Pontus Andell, David Erlinge, Stefan James, Jonas Spaak, Jonas Oldgren
BACKGROUND: Treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors might restrain the structural/electrical remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Limited evidence exists regarding the potential benefits of RAS inhibition post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with AF. This study sought to assess the association between RAS inhibition and all-cause mortality and new-onset AF in patients with/without congestive heart failure (CHF) post-AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients hospitalized for AMI between 2006 and 2012 were identified in Swedish registries...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318555/regulation-of-the-prorenin-angiotensin-system-by-oxygen-and-mirnas-parallels-between-placentation-and-tumour-development
#6
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Kirsty G Pringle
Tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) are involved in tissue growth and development as they are important regulators of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. The placental RAS is most highly expressed in early gestation, at a time when the oxygen tension within the conceptus is reduced, and plays a key role in placental growth and development. Similar to the placenta, tumour development relies on proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion in order to grow and metastasize. The RAS is known to be upregulated in a variety of solid tumours, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical, breast and prostate...
March 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315847/effects-of-peripherally-and-centrally-applied-ghrelin-on-the-oxidative-stress-induced-by-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-rat-model-of-renovascular-hypertension
#7
Vivian Boshra, Amr M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a result of renal artery stenosis, which is commonly due to astherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to clarify the central and peripheral effects of ghrelin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in a rat model of RVH. METHODS: RVH was induced in rats by partial subdiaphragmatic aortic constriction. Experiment A was designed to assess the central effect of ghrelin via the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin (5 μg/kg) or losartan (0...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#8
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302554/structure-based-analysis-of-single-nucleotide-variants-in-the-renin-angiotensinogen-complex
#9
REVIEW
David K Brown, Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Özlem Tastan Bishop
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and controlling sodium levels in the blood. Hyperactivity of this system has been linked to numerous conditions including hypertension, kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. As such, various classes of drugs have been developed to inhibit this system. These drugs are aimed at preventing angiotensin II from performing its function by inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298457/distinct-regulatory-effects-of-myeloid-cell-and-endothelial-cell-nox2-on-blood-pressure
#10
Can Martin Sag, Moritz Schnelle, Juqian Zhang, Colin E Murdoch, Sabine Kossmann, Andrea Protti, Celio X C Santos, Greta J Sawyer, Xiaohong Zhang, Heloise Mongue-Din, Daniel A Richards, Alison C Brewer, Oleksandra Prysyazhna, Lars S Maier, Philip Wenzel, Philip J Eaton, Ajay M Shah
Background -Hypertension due to increased renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies implicate NADPH oxidase (Nox) proteins as important ROS sources during RAS activation, with different Nox isoforms being potentially involved. Among these, Nox2 is expressed in multiple cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, immune cells and microglia. Blood pressure (BP) is regulated at central nervous system, renal and vascular levels but the cell-specific role of Nox2 in BP regulation is unknown...
March 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288872/local-renin-angiotensin-system-regulates-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells-through-angiotensin-type-2-receptor
#11
Nermin Abdel-Hamid Sadik, Nadia Said Metwally, Olfat Gamil Shaker, Mahmoud Sanad Soliman, Ahmed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Mai Mohamed Abdelmoaty
Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) suitable for therapeutic transplantation offers a desperately needed approach for the diabetic patients. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms during the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs assists the successful production of IPCs and provides an important insight into the improvement of the role of MSCs as a therapeutic tool for diabetes mellitus. The present study aimed to investigate the role of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on MSCs differentiation into IPCs by measuring the expression of local RAS in MSCs during the differentiation into IPCs and assessing the effect of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) blocker on the differentiation process...
March 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287881/renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-alone-or-combined-with-eta-receptor-blockade-effects-on-the-course-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-5-6-nephrectomized-ren-2-transgenic-hypertensive-rats
#12
Lenka Sedláková, Věra Čertíková Chábová, Šárka Doleželová, Petra Škaroupková, Libor Kopkan, Zuzana Husková, Lenka Červenková, Soňa Kikerlová, Ivana Vaněčková, Janusz Sadowski, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Petr Kujal, Herbert J Kramer, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: Early addition of endothelin (ET) type A (ETA) receptor blockade to complex renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has previously been shown to provide better renoprotection against progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). In this study, we examined if additional protection is provided when ETA blockade is applied in rats with already developed CKD. METHODS: For complex RAS inhibition, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor along with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker was used...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283551/a-novel-role-for-mir-133a-in-centrally-mediated-activation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-congestive-heart-failure
#13
Neeru M Sharma, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Hong Zheng, Paras K Mishra, Kaushik P Patel
Activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) within the central nervous system has been implicated in sympathoexcitation during various disease conditions including congestive heart failure (CHF). In particular, activation of RAS in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has been recognized to augment sympathoexcitation in CHF. We observed a 2.6-fold increase in angiotensinogen (AGT) in the PVN of CHF. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for increased expression of AGT, we performed in silico analysis of 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of AGT and found potential binding site for microRNA-133a(miR-133a)...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276504/pathologic-roles-of-receptor-associated-prorenin-system-in-idiopathic-epiretinal-membrane
#14
Yoko Dong, Atsuhiro Kanda, Kousuke Noda, Wataru Saito, Susumu Ishida
Receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin binding to (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] dually activates tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent signaling via (P)RR. The aim of this study is to determine the association of RAPS with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM). Reverse transcription-PCR indicated the expression of RAPS components, including (P)RR and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), in iERM tissues and human Müller glial cell line. Double-labeling analyses demonstrated that (P)RR and AT1R were detected in cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for glial cells, and co-localized with prorenin and angiotensinogen, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274938/sex-specific-differences-in-age-dependent-progression-of-aortic-dysfunction-and-related-cardiac-remodeling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Suzan Al-Gburi, Andreas Johannes Deussen, Roberta Galli, Michael H Muders, Birgit Zatschler, Anja Neisser, Bianca Müller, Irakli Kopaliani
Sex-specific differences in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and arterial pressure have been evidenced in many mammals including spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although SHRs have been used extensively as a leading experimental model of hypertension, effects of sex-specific differences in RAS on aortic function and related cardiac remodeling during aging and hypertension have not been documented in detail. We examined structural and functional changes in aorta and heart of female and male SHRs at ages of 5, 14, 29 and 36-weeks...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274926/%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-at1r-stimulation-promotes-extracellular-matrix-synthe-sis-in-renal-fibrosis
#16
Yandao Wang, Jieli Huang, Xi Liu, Yangyang Niu, Liqin Zhao, Ying Yu, Li Zhou, Limin Lu, Chen Yu
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the progression of renal fibrosis. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) belongs to the B family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) family. β-arrestins are known as negative regula-tors of GPCRs. Recently, β-arrestins have been found to regulate multiple intracellu-lar signaling pathways independent of G proteins. In this study we investigated the role of β-arrestins in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in renal fibrosis...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274044/increased-advanced-oxidation-protein-products-generation-by-cyclosporine-a-and-angiotensin-ii-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts-ex-vivo-study
#17
Suresh Ranga Rao, Rajasekaran Subbarayan, Supraja Ajitkumar, Dinesh Murugan Girija
INTRODUCTION: Cyclosporin-A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, induces renal fibrosis and Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is known to play a major role. CsA has the potential to increase the oxidative stress; specifically through the Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) which could possibly stimulate fibrosis. A similar type of pathology occurs even in the gingiva known as CsA Induced Gingival Overgrowth (CIGO). AIM: This study was undertaken to estimate the AOPP generation by Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGF) under the influence of CsA and Angiotensin II (Ang II)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273875/characterization-of-ace-and-ace2-expression-within-different-organs-of-the-nod-mouse
#18
Heleia Roca-Ho, Marta Riera, Vanesa Palau, Julio Pascual, Maria Jose Soler
Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270898/current-metabolic-status-affects-urinary-liver-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-in-normoalbuminuric-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Hiroyuki Ito, Hitomi Yamashita, Mina Nakashima, Akifusa Takaki, Chiduko Yukawa, Suzuko Matsumoto, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mariko Abe, Shinichi Antoku, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko Togane
BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. METHODS: Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263184/angiotensin-at1a-receptors-on-leptin-receptor-expressing-cells-control-resting-metabolism
#20
Kristin E Claflin, Jeremy A Sandgren, Allyn M Lambertz, Benjamin J Weidemann, Nicole K Littlejohn, Colin M L Burnett, Nicole A Pearson, Donald A Morgan, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe
Leptin contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP) through its actions in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin AT1 receptors within the brain are also involved in the control of RMR and BP, but whether this regulation overlaps with leptin's actions is unclear. Here, we have demonstrated the selective requirement of the AT1A receptor in leptin-mediated control of RMR. We observed that AT1A receptors colocalized with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the ARC...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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