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Angiotensin AND RAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733880/effect-of-asiatic-acid-on-the-ang-ii-at1r-nadph-oxidase-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats
#1
Putcharawipa Maneesai, Sarawoot Bunbupha, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Parichat Prachaney, Poungrat Pakdeechote
Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid compound derived from Centella asiatica, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid on hemodynamic alterations, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and inflammation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with vehicle, asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day), or captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. We observed that 2K-1C hypertensive rats exhibited hemodynamic alterations such as high blood pressure, heart rate, hindlimb vascular resistance, and low hindlimb blood flow...
July 21, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720877/role-of-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertension-via-inhibition-of-hdac1-angiotensin-ii-axis
#2
J Choi, S Y Park, T K Kwon, S-I Sohn, K M Park, J I Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known as an epidemic worldwide because of consumption of westernized high-fat diets and one of the major risk factors of hypertension. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control gene expression by regulating histone/non-histone protein deacetylation. HDAC inhibitors exert anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and play a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we tested the effect of an FDA-approved pan-HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension in mice...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713987/angiotensin%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-7-attenuates-caerulein%C3%A2-induced-pancreatic-acinar-cell-apoptosis
#3
Lijian Cui, Ruixia Liu, Chunyun Li, Xiaozheng Yu, Xiaoya Liu, Fei Hou, Cheng Chi, Chenghong Yin, Chao Wang
Extensive apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells frequently occurs in acute pancreatitis (AP), and has been identified to be closely associated with the decrease of pancreatic parenchymal cells and pancreatic damage. The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of angiotensin (Ang)‑(1‑7) on caerulein (CAE)‑induced pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis. Mouse pancreatic acinar cancer cells (MPC‑83) were divided into 4 groups: Control group; CAE group; CAE + Ang‑(1‑7) group; and CAE + Ang‑(1‑7) antagonist (A779) group...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711402/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-brain-disorders
#4
REVIEW
J M Saavedra
A canonical brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), like the canonical peripheral RAS, has long been proposed as a major regulator of brain function. Because of methodological limitations, however, this system is in urgent need of critical revision. The Angiotensin II AT1 receptors have been confirmed as key factors in the regulation of brain function, and AT1 receptor over activity has been established as a major and early injury factor in the development of many brain diseases. Consequently, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), compounds widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, are excellent candidates for repurposing for the treatment of brain disorders...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710070/tnf-%C3%AE-receptor-1-knockdown-in-subfornical-organ-ameliorates-sympathetic-excitation-and-cardiac-hemodynamics-in-heart-failure-rats
#5
Yang Yu, Shun-Guang Wei, Robert M Weiss, Robert B Felder
In systolic heart failure (HF), circulating proinflammatory cytokines upregulate inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in cardiovascular regions of the brain, contributing to sympathetic excitation and cardiac dysfunction. Important among these is the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks an effective blood-brain barrier and senses circulating humors. We hypothesized that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 (TNFR1) in the SFO contributes to sympathetic excitation and cardiac dysfunction in HF rats...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702858/effect-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-on-mortality-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-cohort-and-randomized-controlled-studies
#6
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Fukuta, Toshihiko Goto, Kazuaki Wakami, Nobuyuki Ohte
Despite the high mortality rate, there is no therapy to improve survival in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not show clear mortality benefit of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers) in HFpEF. However, because of the strict enrollment criteria, the patients who participated in these trials might represent a selected group of patients that is poorly representative of patients treated in routine clinical practice...
July 12, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702260/renin-angiotensin-system-modifying-therapies-are-associated-with-improved-pulmonary-health
#7
Maira Soto, Soo I Bang, Jeff McCombs, Kathleen E Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diseases are often complicated and have diverse etiologies. One common factor is the lack of therapeutics available for these diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)-modifying medications on incidence and time to pulmonary complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using claims data from a US commercial insurance company (2007-2013). The study consisted of patients with an emerging hypertension (HTN) diagnosis...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699813/prolylcarboxypeptidase-prcp-inhibitors-and-the-therapeutic-uses-thereof-a-patent-review
#8
Thomas H Graham
Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) is a serine protease that produces or degrades signaling proteins in several important pathways including the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. PrCP has the potential to be a therapeutic target for cardiovascular, inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Numerous classes of PrCP inhibitors have been developed by rational drug design and from high-throughput screening hits. These inhibitors have been tested in mouse models to assess their potential as new therapeutics...
July 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694144/at2-receptors-in-cardiovascular-and-renal-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Elena Kaschina, Pawel Namsolleck, Thomas Unger
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. These actions mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) are well established and led to development of selective AT1R blockers (ARBs). In contrast, there is scientific evidence that AT2 receptor (AT2R) mediates effects different from and often opposing those of the AT1R. Meagrely expressed in healthy tissue the AT2R is upregulated in injuries providing an endogenous protection to inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes...
July 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691415/association-of-ace-vegf-and-ccl2-gene-polymorphisms-with-henoch-schonlein-purpura-and-evaluating-the-possible-interaction-effects-of-these-loci-in-hsp-patients
#10
Tahereh Mohammadian, Mortaza Bonyadi, Elahe Nabat, Mandana Rafeey
BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a multisystem, small vessel, leucocytoclastic vasculitis. It is predominantly a childhood vasculitis, rarely reported in adults. Studies have shown that several different genetic factors such as genes involved in inflammatory system and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are important in the pathogenesis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of three gene polymorphisms including CCL2-2518 C/T, VEGF-634G/C and ACE(I/D) with HSP disease and their possible joint interactions in developing the disease...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687340/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Gianna Huber, Franziska Schuster, Walter Raasch
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the main causes of death globally and in this context hypertension represents one of the key risk factors for developing a CVD. It is well established that the peripheral renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure (BP). All components of the classic RAS can also be found in the brain but, in contrast to the peripheral RAS, how the endogenous RAS is involved in modulating cardiovascular effects in the brain is not fully understood yet...
July 5, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681939/vaccarin-administration-ameliorates-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-remodeling-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats
#12
Xuexue Zhu, Zhou Zhou, Qingfeng Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Yuetao Zhou, Haijian Sun, Liying Qiu
Sympathetic overdrive, activation of renin angiotensin systems (RAS) and oxidative stress are vitally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling. We recently identified that vaccarin protected endothelial cell function from oxidative stress or high glucose. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether vaccarin attenuated hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model rats were used, and low dose of vaccarin (10 mg/kg), high dose of vaccarin (30 mg/kg), captopril (30 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administrated...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679623/high-but-not-low-exercise-volume-shifts-the-balance-of-renin-angiotensin-system-towards-ace2-mas-receptor-axis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-rats
#13
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Isabele Gomes Giori, Marcus Vinícius Machado, D'Angelo Carlo Magliano, Fernanda Marques Freitas, Mariana Sodré Boêta Andrade, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Antonio Claudio Lucas Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia, where the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low versus high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow diet (SC) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 32 weeks...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672944/effective-prediction-of-preeclampsia-by-measuring-serum-angiotensin-ii-urinary-angiotensinogen-and-urinary-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#14
Lihong Zhang, Yunjiao Zhou, Qing Wu, Weifeng Fan, Jun Ye, Yaping Chen, Yun Wu, Jianying Niu, Yong Gu
The aim of the current study was to analyze serum angiotensin II (Ang II), urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and urinary transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) levels in relation to the clinical manifestation of preeclampsia, and to explore the effects of circulating and renal renin angiotensin system (RAS) in preeclampsia patients. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate serum Ang II, urinary AGT and urinary TGFβ1 in preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and normotensive pregnancy patients...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665931/foxd1-is-an-upstream-regulator-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-during-metanephric-kidney-development
#15
Renfang Song, Maria Luisa S Sequeira Lopez, Ihor V Yosypiv
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that Foxd1, a transcription factor essential for normal kidney development, is an upstream regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during ureteric bud (UB) branching morphogenesis. METHODS: UB branching, RAS gene and protein expression was determined in embryonic mouse kidneys. RAS mRNA expression was studied in mesenchymal MK4 cells. RESULTS: The number of UB tips was reduced in Foxd1(-/-) compared to Foxd1(+/+) metanephroi on embryonic day E12...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664839/effects-of-paricalcitol-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Manca Oblak, Gregor Mlinšek, Aljoša Kandus, Jadranka Buturović-Ponikvar, Miha Arnol
AIMS: Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D activator, decreases proteinuria and may reduce graft failure risk in kidney transplant recipients. In this study, we evaluated the effect of paricalcitol on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plasma concentrations as biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis. METHODS: This placebo-controlled, double-blind trial enrolled a national cohort of kidney transplant recipients with urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) ≥ 20 mg/mmol despite optimization of the RAS blockade...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661206/protective-regulation-of-the-ace2-ace-gene-expression-by-estrogen-in-human-atrial-tissue-from-elderly-men
#17
A Bukowska, L Spiller, C Wolke, U Lendeckel, S Weinert, J Hoffmann, P Bornfleth, I Kutschka, A Gardemann, B Isermann, A Goette
Data from animal experiments and clinical investigations suggest that components of the renin-angiotensin system are markedly affected by sex hormones. However, whether estrogen affects human atrial myocardium has not been investigated yet. In this study, we determined the effects of estrogen on key components of atrial renin-angiotensin system: angiotensin-converting enzyme, responsible for generation of angiotensin II and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, counteracting majority of AngII effects, and different renin-angiotensin system receptors, AT1R, AT2R, and MAS...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660748/angiotensin-ii-subtype-1a-receptor-signaling-in-resident-hepatic-macrophages-induces-liver-metastasis-formation
#18
Yuki Shimizu, Hideki Amano, Yoshiya Ito, Tomohiro Betto, Sakiko Yamane, Tomoyoshi Inoue, Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Yoshio Matsui, Mariko Kamata, Masaki Nakamura, Hidero Kitasato, Wasaburo Koizumi, Masataka Majima
Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a clinically significant problem. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the tumor growth and metastases. This study was designed to evaluate the role of angiotensin II subtype receptor 1a (AT1a) in the formation of liver metastasis in CRC. A model of liver metastasis was made by intra-splenic injection of mouse colon cancer (CMT-93) into AT1a knockout mice (AT1aKO) and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice (WT). As compared with WT, the liver weight and liver metastatic rate were significantly lower in AT1aKO...
June 29, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641720/fenofibrate-attenuates-hypertension-in-goldblatt-hypertensive-rats-role-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-in-the-nonclipped-kidney
#19
Alexandra Sporková, Věra Čertíková Chábová, Šárka Doleželová, Šárka Jíchová, Libor Kopkan, Zdeňka Vaňourková, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Janusz Sadowski, Hana Maxová, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: There is vast evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is not the sole determinant of blood pressure (BP) elevation in human renovascular hypertension or the relevant experimental models. This study tested the hypothesis that kidney deficiency of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, is important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension...
June 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641333/validation-of-brain-angiotensin-system-blockade-as-a-novel-drug-target-in-pharmacological-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Dominik Wincewicz, Jan J Braszko
Retreat in psychiatric drug development results in innovative medication decline that might be at least partially overcome by adjunct therapy. New evidence from clinical studies has shown a possible role for brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in both affective and psychotic disorders. Simultaneously, rapidly accumulating data from basic studies indicate effectiveness of central RAS blockade in much broader range of neuropsychiatric disease. Recent findings implicate brain RAS, especially Angiotensin II (Ang II), in neural pathophysiology of mental disorders through neuroendocrine modulation and effects on neurotransmitter release, mostly noradrenaline, acetylcholine and dopamine...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
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