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Angiotensin AND RAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445944/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-overexpression-protects-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-rats
#1
Hui Ma, Jing Kong, Yu-Lin Wang, Jun-Long Li, Nai-Hao Hei, Xin-Ran Cao, Jing-Jing Yang, Wen-Jiang Yan, Wen-Jing Liang, Hong-Yan Dai, Bo Dong
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is considered a potential therapeutic target of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of ACE2 overexpression on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Rats were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 6 doses of doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) within a period of two weeks. Two weeks after the initial injection of doxorubicin, these rats were randomly divided into Mock, Ad-EGFP, Ad-ACE2, and Cilazapril groups...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442323/the-ace-2-ang1-7-mas-cascade-enhances-bone-structure-and-metabolism-following-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#2
Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed, Dina Sabry, Mahmoud M Khattab, Salim S Al-Rejaie
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) regulates numerous systemic functions and is expressed locally in skeletal tissues. Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) is a beneficial member of the RAS, and the therapeutic effects of a large number of angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) are mediated by an Ang1-7-dependent cascade. This study examines whether the reported osteo-preservative effects of losartan are mediated through the angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE-2)/Ang1-7/Mas pathway in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sham and OVX animals received losartan (10mg/kg/d p...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423630/insufficient-hypothalamic-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-is-associated-with-hypertension-in-shr-rats
#3
Kun Wang, Yuanyuan Xu, Weiwei Yang, Yuanshu Zhang
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the expression of ACE2 in the hypothalamus and pituitary tissues and its relationship to hypertension by comparing them in male WKY and SHR rats. We observed that the plasma levels of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and aldosterone (ALD) were all lower in SHR than WKY rats (P<0...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419972/neprilysin-inhibitors-a-new-hope-to-halt-the-diabetic-cardiovascular-and-renal-complications
#4
REVIEW
Vajir Malek, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
Diabetes is an enormous and ever-growing calamity and a global public health threat of the 21st century. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs, blockage of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) denotes a key pharmacotherapy for the management of cardiovascular (CVD) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are the leading causes of disability and death among diabetic patients. Neprilysin (NEP) inhibition, auxiliary to RAS blockage increases the bioavailability of natriuretic peptides and benefits the cardio-renal system...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416734/the-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-losartan-inhibits-mammary-tumor-development-and-progression-to-invasive-carcinoma
#5
Rhiannon Coulson, Seng H Liew, Angela A Connelly, Nicholas S Yee, Siddhartha Deb, Beena Kumar, Ana C Vargas, Sandra A O'Toole, Adam C Parslow, Ashleigh Poh, Tracy Putoczki, Riley J Morrow, Mariah Alorro, Kyren A Lazarus, Evie F W Yeap, Kelly L Walton, Craig A Harrison, Natalie J Hannan, Amee J George, Colin D Clyne, Matthias Ernst, Andrew M Allen, Ashwini L Chand
Drugs that target the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) have recently come into focus for their potential utility as cancer treatments. The use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (ACEIs) to manage hypertension in cancer patients is correlated with improved survival outcomes for renal, prostate, breast and small cell lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrate that the Angiotensin Receptor Type I (AT1R) is linked to breast cancer pathogenesis, with unbiased analysis of gene-expression studies identifying significant up-regulation of AGTR1, the gene encoding AT1R in ER+ve/HER2-ve tumors correlating with poor prognosis...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406186/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitor-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-ensuing-chronic-kidney-disease-after-functional-recovery-from-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Yu-Hsiang Chou, Tao-Min Huang, Szu-Yu Pan, Chin-Hao Chang, Chun-Fu Lai, Vin-Cent Wu, Ming-Shiou Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Shuei-Liong Lin
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for ensuing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor can reduce ensuing CKD after functional recovery from AKI. Here we study the association between ensuing CKD and use of RAS inhibitor including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker starting after renal functional recovery in our prospectively collected observational AKI cohort. Adult patients who had cardiac surgery-associated AKI (CSA-AKI) are studied...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403787/role-of-tissue-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-chymase-angiotensin-1-12-axis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Abdullah S Alhomida, Carlos M Ferrario, Sarfaraz Ahmad
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major diabetes complication and the leading cause for vision loss and blindness in the adult human population. Diabetes, being an endocrinological disorder dysregulate a number of hormonal systems including the renin angiotensin system (RAS), which thereby may damage both vascular and neuronal cells in the retina. Angiotensin II (Ang II), an active component of the RAS is increased in diabetic retina, and may play a significant role in neurovascular damage leading to the progression of DR...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395333/ovine-uterine-space-restriction-causes-dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fetal-kidneys%C3%A2
#8
Rachel A Kranch-Shorthouse, Adam S Bauer, Ronald R Magness, Gladys E Lopez, Jeffrey L Segar, Sharon E Blohowiak, Pamela J Kling
In ovine pregnancy, uterine space restriction (USR) resulting from decreased space for placental attachment caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired nephrogenesis. The fetal kidney renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in nephrogenesis, fluid balance, and iron deposition. Angiotensin II exerts its effects via multiple receptors: angiotensin II 1-8 receptor type 1 (AT 1 R) and type 2 (AT 2 R), and angiotensin II 1-7 Mas receptor (MASR). Objective: : To test the hypothesis that ovine USR is associated with dysregulation of the fetal renal RAS...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389995/cardiovascular-effect-of-inflammation-and-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-renin-angiotensin-system-in-experimental-arthritis
#9
Waheed Asghar, Ali Aghazadeh-Habashi, Fakhreddin Jamali
A co-morbidity of inflammatory conditions is increased cardio-renal risks. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are used to treat pain and inflammation are also associated with increase in such risks. We hypothesized that inflammation and NSAIDs impose the cardio-renal risk through the activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), a regulating pathway of the renal and cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the effect of adjuvant arthritis and NSAIDs on the RAS. Western blotting and ELISA were used to measure the RAS components...
April 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387895/effects-of-losartan-on-left-ventricular-mass-a-three-year-follow-up-in-elderly-hypertensives-with-myocardial-hypertrophy-despite-successful-conventional-antihypertensive-treatment
#10
C Moroni, S Tolone, F Lopreiato, A R Scrofani, A Bossini, C Affricano, R Cassone, C Gaudio
OBJECTIVE: Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients appears to be a desirable goal to the reduction cardiac risk. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) seems to play a major role in the establishment and maintenance of LVH through the activated systemic RAS and the Intracardiac Angiotensin System (IAS). We focused on the effects of a three-year treatment with losartan supplement in hypertensive patients with LVH not responding to eight years of an effective previous antihypertensive pharmacological treatment...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387670/angiotensin-iii-is-increased-in-alzheimer-s-disease-in-association-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-pathology
#11
Patrick Gavin Kehoe, Elliott Hibbs, Laura E Palmer, J Scott Miners
Hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) believed to be mediated by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) activation of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). We previously showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) activity, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of Ang-II, is increased in human postmortem brain tissue in AD. Angiotensin-III (Ang-III) activates the AT1R and angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R), but its potential role in the pathophysiology of AD remains unexplored...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385651/intranasal-telmisartan-ameliorates-brain-pathology-in-five-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#12
Nofar Torika, Keren Asraf, Hagit Cohen, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major circulative system engaged in homeostasis modulation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as its main effector hormone upon binding to its primary receptor, Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R). It is well established that an intrinsic independent brain RAS exists. Abnormal AT1R activation both in the periphery and in the brain probably contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology that is characterized, among others, by brain inflammation. Moreover, treatment with drugs that block AT1R (AT1R blockers, ARBs) ameliorates most of the clinical risk factors leading to AD...
April 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384411/kallikrein-kinin-system-as-the-dominant-mechanism-to-counteract%C3%A2-hyperactive-renin-angiotensin-system
#13
Domenico Regoli, Fernand Gobeil
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) generates, maintains and makes worse hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through its biologically active component Angiotensin II (Ang II), that causes vasoconstriction, sodium retention and structural alterations of the heart and the arteries. A few endogenous vasodilators, kinins, natriuretic peptides and possibly angiotensin (1-7), exert opposite actions and may provide useful therapeutic agents. As endothelial autacoids, the kinins are potent vasodilators, active natriuretics and protectors of the endothelium...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378551/changes-in-urinary-angiotensinogen-associated-with-deterioration-of-kidney-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Min Jin Lee, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Sang Heon Song, Eun Heui Kim, Ji Yeong Seo, Jong Ho Kim, Sungsu Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Bo Hyun Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) is potentially a specific biomarker for the status of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored whether changes in urinary AGT excretion levels were associated with the deterioration of kidney function in type 2 diabetes patients with preserved kidney function. Urinary baseline AGT levels were measured in 118 type 2 diabetic patients who were not taking RAS blockers and who had estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) ≥ 60 mL/min/1...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373410/bradykinin-b2-receptor-activation-regulates-renin-in-m-1-cells-via-protein-kinase-c-and-nitric-oxide
#15
Lucienne S Lara, Camille R T Bourgeois, Samir S El-Dahr, Minolfa C Prieto
In the collecting duct (CD), the interactions of renin angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) modulate Na(+) reabsorption, volume homeostasis, and blood pressure. In this study, we used a mouse kidney cortical CD cell line (M-1 cells) to test the hypothesis that in the CD, the activation of bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) increases renin synthesis and release. Physiological concentrations of bradykinin (BK) treatment of M-1 cells increased renin mRNA and prorenin and renin protein contents in a dose-dependent manner and increased threefold renin content in the cell culture media...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367520/therapeutic-targets-of-renin-angiotensin-system-in-ocular-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Rajesh Choudhary, Mandeep Singh Kapoor, Amrita Singh, Surendra H Bodakhe
PURPOSE: To review current literature on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-mediated pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic targets in ocular diseases. METHODS: A comprehensive literature survey was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases published from 1977 to 2016. The search terms were a RAS, angiotensin, angiotensin receptor, prorenin, pro (renin) receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker associated with ocular disorders like cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular degeneration, and uveitis...
March 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364692/the-effect-of-three-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-on-kynurenic-acid-production-in-rat-kidney-in-vitro
#17
Izabela Zakrocka, Tomasz Kocki, Waldemar A Turski
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is commonly known to regulate blood pressure, water and electrolyte homeostasis, however it also exerts paracrine and autocrine actions on the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), alongside their hypotensive properties, have been shown to decrease kidney function decline in animal models of nephropathy. Glutamate (GLU) is the main stimulatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, however its importance in the periphery should also be considered...
January 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363480/targeted-release-budesonide-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-iga-nephropathy-nefigan-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#18
Bengt C Fellström, Jonathan Barratt, Heather Cook, Rosanna Coppo, John Feehally, Johan W de Fijter, Jürgen Floege, Gerd Hetzel, Alan G Jardine, Francesco Locatelli, Bart D Maes, Alex Mercer, Fernanda Ortiz, Manuel Praga, Søren S Sørensen, Vladimir Tesar, Lucia Del Vecchio
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is thought to be associated with mucosal immune system dysfunction, which manifests as renal IgA deposition that leads to impairment and end-stage renal disease in 20-40% of patients within 10-20 years. In this trial (NEFIGAN) we aimed to assess safety and efficacy of a novel targeted-release formulation of budesonide (TRF-budesonide), designed to deliver the drug to the distal ileum in patients with IgA nephropathy. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial, comprised of 6-month run-in, 9-month treatment, and 3-month follow-up phases at 62 nephrology clinics across ten European countries...
March 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362327/the-salutary-influence-of-forest-bathing-on-elderly-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#19
Genxiang Mao, Yongbao Cao, Bozhong Wang, Sanying Wang, Zhuomei Chen, Jirong Wang, Wenmin Xing, Xiaoxu Ren, Xiaoling Lv, Jianhua Dong, Shasha Chen, Xiuyuan Chen, Guofu Wang, Jing Yan
The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that forest bathing would be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) as an adjunctive therapy. Two groups of participants with CHF were simultaneously sent to the forest or an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively. Subjects exposed to the forest site showed a significant reduction of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in comparison to that of the city group and their own baseline levels. The values for the cardiovascular disease related pathological factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), and constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including renin, angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II (ANGII), and ANGII receptor type 1 or 2 (AT1 or AT2) in subjects exposed to the forest environment were lower than those in the urban control group...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358246/effects-of-direct-renin-inhibition-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-angiotensin-profiles-in-non-diabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Marlies Antlanger, Sebastian Bernhofer, Johannes J Kovarik, Chantal Kopecky, Christopher C Kaltenecker, Oliver Domenig, Marko Poglitsch, Marcus D Säemann
BACKGROUND: Direct renin inhibition (DRI) is clinically inferior to other blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Thus far, the underlying molecular causes of this finding remain unknown. METHODS: 24 patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III-IV and albuminuria were randomized to DRI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Employing a novel mass-spectrometry method, the concentrations of renin, aldosterone and plasma angiotensin peptides [Ang I, Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-5), Ang-(2-8), Ang-(3-8)] were quantified before and after an 8-week treatment...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Medicine
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