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Angiotensin AND RAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149676/high-salt-diet-decreases-reproductive-performance-in-rams-and-down-regulates-gene-expression-of-some-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-testis
#1
Yi Fang, Rongzhen Zhong, Xuezhao Sun, Daowei Zhou
Although salt-tolerant plants can be used to combat dryland salinity, these plants contain high concentrations of salt (NaCl), which may have deleterious effects if fed to livestock. Twenty-four Merino rams (9 mo of age) with similar body weight were equally allocated to two groups and fed a normal- or high-salt diet (0.5 and 12% NaCl, respectively) for 3 mo. Rams fed the high-salt diet had lower live weight gains, higher water intake, smaller testes (466 ± 48.4 vs 604 ± 51.1 g) and reductions (P <0...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142984/the-combination-of-beta-blockers-and-renin-angiotensin-system-blockers-improves-survival-in-incident-hemodialysis-patients-a-propensity-matched-study
#2
José Luño, Javier Varas, Rosa Ramos, Ignacio Merello, Pedro Aljama, Alejandro MartinMalo, Julio Pascual, Manuel Praga
Introduction: Although several studies suggest that the prognosis of hypertensive dialysis patients can be improved by using antihypertensive drug therapy, it is unknown whether the prescription of a particular class or combination of antihypertensive drugs is beneficial during hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a propensity score matching study to compare the effectiveness of various classes of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular (CV) mortality in 2518 incident hemodialysis patients in Spain...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140957/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-cd34-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#3
Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Carl J Pepine, Michael J Katovich, Maria B Grant, Mohan K Raizada, Sugata Hazra
The dysfunctional nature of CD34 cells from heart failure (HF) patients makes them unsuitable for autologous stem cell therapy. In view of evidence that the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves CD34 cell functions, we hypothesized that CD34 cells from HF patients will be dysfunctional and that Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] would improve their function. Peripheral blood was collected from NYHA class II-IV HF patients (n=31) and reference subjects (n=16). CD34 cell numbers from HF patients were reduced by 47% (p<0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138270/low-and-high-renin-heart-failure-phenotypes-with-clinical-implications
#4
Noemi Pavo, Georg Goliasch, Raphael Wurm, Johannes Novak, Guido Strunk, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Marko Poglitsch, Marcus D Säemann, Martin Hülsmann
BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents a main strategy in the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but the role of active renin concentration (ARC) for guiding therapy in the presence of an RAS blockade remains to be established. This study assessed angiotensin profiles of HFrEF patients with distinct RAS activations as reflected by ARC. METHODS: Two cohorts of stable chronic HFrEF patients on optimal medical treatment (OMT) were enrolled...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132351/therapeutic-efficacy-of-pentoxifylline-on-proteinuria-and-renal-progression-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Yung-Ming Chen, Wen-Chih Chiang, Shuei-Liong Lin, Tun-Jun Tsai
Blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has remained the gold standard for treating patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to date. Nevertheless, RAS blockade slows but does not halt the progression of kidney disease, thus highlighting the need to search for additional therapeutic approaches. The nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) is an old drug that exhibits prominent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic activities both in vitro and in vivo...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127873/local-angiotensin-ii-promotes-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-tissue-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-type-2-angiotensin-receptor
#6
Veronika Y Sysoeva, Liudmila V Ageeva, Pyotr A Tyurin-Kuzmin, George V Sharonov, Daniyar T Dyikanov, Natalia I Kalinina, Vsevolod A Tkachuk
Obesity is often associated with high systemic and local activity of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue are the main source of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to clarify how local RAS could control adipose differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). We examined the distribution of angiotensin receptor expressing cells in human adipose tissue and found that type 1 and type 2 receptors are co-expressed in its stromal compartment, which is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122755/renin-angiotensin-system-regulates-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Yun Xia Zhang, Ji Feng Li, Yuan Hua Yang, Zhen Guo Zhai, Song Gu, Yan Liu, Ran Miao, Ping Ping Zhong, Ying Wang, Xiao Xi Huang, Chen Wang
Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) migration plays a key role in vascular remodeling which occurs during development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to vascular remodeling observed in many diseases including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the role of RAS imbalance in CTEPH has not been characterized. Here, we hypothesize that RAS imbalance regulates vascular remodeling by promoting PASMC migration in CTEPH...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115494/elemene-inhibits-osteosarcoma-growth-by-suppressing-the-renin%C3%A2-angiotensin-system-signaling-pathway
#8
Lixiang Ding, Genai Zhang, Yu Hou, Jiao Chen, Yukun Yin
Osteosarcoma remains the most prevalent primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults globally. Therefore, novel and highly effective antitumor agents are urgently required. Elemene is a natural plant compound extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb, Rhizomazedoariae, which has been employed as an antitumor agent for the treatment of a number of tumors, including osteosarcoma. However, the mechanisms underlying its antitumor effect are currently unclear. The human osteosarcoma cell lines, MG‑63 and U2OS, were employed in the present study...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105550/adherence-to-guidelines-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-in-primary-health-care
#9
Maaike Giezeman, Mats Arne, Kersti Theander
OBJECTIVE: To describe adherence to international guidelines for chronic heart failure (CHF) management concerning diagnostics, pharmacological treatment and self-care behaviour in primary health care. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with CHF, using data obtained from medical records and a postal questionnaire. SETTING: Three primary health care centres in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Patients with a CHF diagnosis registered in their medical record...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098020/renin-angiotensin-system-deregulation-as-renal-cancer-risk-factor
#10
Paweł Sobczuk, Cezary Szczylik, Camillo Porta, Anna M Czarnecka
For numerous years, the non-cardiovascular role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was underestimated, but recent studies have advanced the understanding of its function in various processes, including carcinogenesis. Numerous evidence comes from preclinical and clinical studies on the use of antihypertensive agents targeting the RAS, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers. It has been demonstrated that the use of ACEIs can alter the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and may have a positive effect by prolonging patient survival...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097746/quality-of-medical-therapy-in-heart-failure-patients-undergoing-elective-revascularisation-a-protective-effect-of-disease-modifying-therapy-at-discharge
#11
Raphael Wurm, Martin Huelsmann, Marius Hienert, Veronika Seidl, Dominik Wiedemann, Guenther Laufer, Alfred Kocher, Christopher Adlbrecht, Martin Andreas
The STICH(-ES) trial showed that coronary artery bypass grafting was superior to medical therapy alone in treating ischemic heart failure. However, dosages of disease modifying drugs were not reported. We included 128 (84% male, mean age 66 ± 11 years) consecutive patients with ischemic heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% undergoing isolated elective coronary artery bypass grafting. We defined optimal medical therapy (OMT) as prescription of ≥50% dosages of guideline recommended medications (i...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079009/long-term-mortality-benefit-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-in-patients-with-chronic-limb-threatening-ischemia-undergoing-vascular-intervention
#12
Thomas C F Bodewes, Jeremy D Darling, Thomas F X O'Donnell, Sarah E Deery, Katie E Shean, Murray A Mittleman, Frans L Moll, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors has been well-established in patients with cardiovascular disease; however, their effectiveness in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI), a selected disease-burdened population, is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of RAS inhibitor use in patients with CLTI undergoing a vascular intervention. METHODS: For this study, all patients with CLTI undergoing a first-time revascularization (bypass or endovascular) were analyzed at our institution between 2005 and 2014...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078982/topical-reformulation-of-valsartan-for-treatment-of-chronic-diabetic-wounds
#13
Peter Abadir, Sayed Hosseini, Mahya Faghih, Amir Ansari, Frank Lay, Barbara Smith, Aleksandra Beselman, Diep Vuong, Alan Berger, Jing Tian, David Rini, Kevin Keenahan, Joshua Budman, Tadashi Inagami, Neal Fedarko, Guy Marti, John Harmon, Jeremy Walston
Chronic wounds are among the most devastating and difficult to treat consequences of diabetes. Dysregulation of the skin renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in abnormal wound healing in diabetic and older adults. Given this, we sought to determine the effects of topical reformulations of the angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) losartan and valsartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril on wound healing in diabetic and aged mice with further validation in older diabetic pigs...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072501/early-short-term-treatment-with-exogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-postpones-the-transition-from-prehypertension-to-hypertension-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#14
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu, Pei-Chen Lu
ABSTACT Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in hypertension. We examined whether early treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an exogenous H2S donor, can regulate H2S-generating pathway, NO pathway, and the RAS, to prevent the transition from prehypertension to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four-week-old SHRs and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were assigned into three groups: WKY, SHRs, and SHR + NaHS; SHRs were injected intraperitoneally with sodium hydrosulfide (14 μmol/kg/day) for 4 weeks...
October 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069238/urinary-cytokine-profiles-according-to-the-site-of-blockade-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-nephrectomized-rats
#15
Nilo César do Vale Baracho, Kátia Daniela da Silveira, Natália Pessoa Rocha, Thiago Macedo Cordeiro, Victor Feracin, Regina Maria Pereira, Marconi Augusto Aguiar Dos Reis, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
INTRODUCTION: It is still unknown how the pharmacological inhibition of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) impacts the levels of inflammation and fibrosis biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the effect of enalapril, candesartan and aliskiren on urinary levels of cytokines in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical removal of ¾ of renal parenchyma to induce CKD (¾ nephrectomy), or subjected to sham surgery (control)...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067923/effect-of-vitamin-d-therapy-on-urinary-albumin-excretion-renal-functions-and-plasma-renin-among-patients-with-diabetic-nephropathy-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#16
Plgc Liyanage, S Lekamwasam, T P Weerarathna, C Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Despite different management strategies, progression of proteinuria occurs in a sizable category of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Increase in serum renin levels induced by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to this. Vitamin D therapy is found to have an inhibitory effect on the RAS. We aimed to study the effects of Vitamin D therapy on renal functions of patients with DN. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067015/serum-metabolic-alterations-upon-zika-infection
#17
Carlos Fernando O R Melo, Jeany Delafiori, Diogo N de Oliveira, Tatiane M Guerreiro, Cibele Z Esteves, Estela de O Lima, Victoria Pando-Robles, Rodrigo R Catharino
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has recently emerged as a major concern worldwide due to its strong association with nervous system malformation (microcephaly) of fetuses in pregnant women infected by the virus. Signs and symptoms of ZIKV infection are often mistaken with other common viral infections. Since transmission may occur through biological fluids exchange and coitus, in addition to mosquito bite, this condition is an important infectious disease. Thus, understanding the mechanism of viral infection has become an important research focus, as well as providing potential targets for assertive clinical diagnosis and quality screening for hemoderivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056916/inhibition-of-pro-renin-receptor-contributes-to-renoprotective-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
Lin Zhang, Xiao-Fei An, Xin Ruan, Dong-Dong Huang, Li Zhou, Hong Xue, Li-Min Lu, Ming He
Aims: Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade elevates (pro)renin, which may bind to (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and exert receptor-mediated, angiotensin-independent profibrotic effects. We therefore investigated whether PRR activation leads to the limited anti-fibrotic effects of AT1R blockade on DN, and whether PRR inhibition might ameliorate progression of DN. Methods: To address the issue, the expression of RAS components was tested in different stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (6, 12, and 24 weeks) and 6-week AT1R blockade (losartan) treated diabetic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054855/h-ras-deletion-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-arterial-hypertension-and-cardiac-remodeling-through-protein-kinase-g-i%C3%AE-pathway-activation
#19
Paloma Martín-Sánchez, Alicia Luengo, Mercedes Griera, María Jesús Orea, Marina López-Olañeta, Antonio Chiloeches, Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Sergio de Frutos, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Laura Calleros, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol
Ras proteins regulate cell survival, growth, differentiation, blood pressure, and fibrosis in some organs. We have demonstrated that H-ras gene deletion produces mice hypotension via a soluble guanylate cyclase-protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of H-ras deletion on cardiac remodeling induced by continuous angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the molecular mechanisms implied. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness and mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were similar between AngII-treated H-Ras knockout (H-ras(-/-) ) and control wild-type (H-ras(+/+) ) mice, as were extracellular matrix protein expression...
October 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054562/exercise-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-hypertension-through-an-improvement-of-baroreflex-activity-independently-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#20
Paula B Constantino, Thiago J Dionísio, Francine Duchatsch, Naiara A Herrera, Josiane O Duarte, Carlos F Santos, Carlos C Crestani, Sandra L Amaral
Dexamethasone-induced hypertension may be caused by baroreflex alterations or renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exacerbation. Aerobic training has been recommended for hypertension treatment, but the mechanisms responsible for reduction of arterial pressure (AP) in dexamethasone (DEX) treated rats are still inconclusive.This study evaluated whether mechanisms responsible for training-induced attenuation of hypertension involve changes in autonomic nervous system and in RAS components. Rats underwent aerobic training protocol on treadmill or were kept sedentary for 8 weeks...
October 18, 2017: Steroids
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