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Angiotensin AND RAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919108/the-renin-angiotensin-system-regulates-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-optic-neuritis
#1
Xiaoli Guo, Kazuhiko Namekata, Atsuko Kimura, Chikako Harada, Takayuki Harada
The major role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including that of angiotensin II (Ang II), the principal effector molecule, in the cardiovascular system is well known. Increasing evidence suggests that the RAS also plays a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Optic neuritis (ie, inflammation of the optic nerve, with retinal ganglion cell [RGC] loss) is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Herein, we investigated the effects of candesartan, an Ang II receptor antagonist, on optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915321/regulation-and-functions-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Mandana Pahlavani, Nishan S Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a major regulator of blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. RAS precursor angiotensinogen (Agt) is cleaved into angiotensin I (Ang I) and II (Ang II) by renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), respectively. Major effects of Ang II, the main bioactive peptide of this system, is mediated by G protein coupled receptors, Angiotensin Type 1 (AGTR1, AT1R) and Type 2 (AGTR2, AT2R) receptors. Further, the discovery of additional RAS peptides such as Ang 1-7 generated by the action of another enzyme ACE2 identified novel functions of this complex system...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912723/increased-hemodynamic-load-in-early-embryonic-stages-alters-myofibril-and-mitochondrial-organization-in-the-myocardium
#3
Madeline Midgett, Claudia S López, Larry David, Alina Maloyan, Sandra Rugonyi
Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac malformation and defects remain unclear. Heart development is a finely orchestrated process with rapid transformations that occur at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. Myocardial cells play an essential role in cardiac tissue maturation by aligning in the direction of stretch and increasing the number of contractile units as hemodynamic load increases throughout development...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903918/-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-albumin-induced-cellular-responses-role-of-site-1-protease-derived-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#4
Hui Fang, Chuanming Xu, Aihua Lu, Chang-Jiang Zou, Shiying Xie, Yanting Chen, Li Zhou, Mi Liu, Lei Wang, Weidong Wang, Tianxin Yang
Proteinuria is a characteristic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and also a causative factor that promotes the disease progression in part via activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). (Pro) renin receptor (PRR), a newly discovered component of the RAS, binds renin and (pro) renin to promote angiotensin I generation. The present study was performed to test the role of soluble PRR (sPRR) in albumin overload-induced responses in cultured human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2 cells. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) treatment for 24 h at 20 mg/ml induced renin activity and inflammation, both of which were attenuated by a PRR decoy inhibitor PRO20...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901725/alamandine-reverses-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-vascular-dysfunction-via-pka-dependent-mechanisms
#5
Tawar Qaradakhi, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Martin Caprnda, Kvetoslava Rimarova, Milan Sepsi, Dietrich Büsselberg, Peter Kruzliak, John Matsoukas, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs nitric oxide endothelium-dependent vasodilation, consequently leading to atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Novel treatments for HHcy are necessary. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that alamandine, a vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), could reverse HHcy-induced vascular dysfunction through the MrgD receptor, and that this is mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893641/high-intensity-interval-training-has-beneficial-effects-on-cardiac-remodeling-through-local-renin-angiotensin-system-modulation-in-mice-fed-high-fat-or-high-fructose-diets
#6
Guilherme de Oliveira Sá, Vívian Dos Santos Neves, Shyrlei R de Oliveira Fraga, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva
AIMS: HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effects on cardiac remodeling and local RAS (renin-angiotensin system) in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets still need to be fully addressed. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male C57BL/6 mice (12weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, control (C), High-fat (HF), or High-fructose diet (HRU) and were monitored for eight weeks before being submitted to the HIIT...
September 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890045/the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-brain-new-developments
#7
REVIEW
Ehab Farag, Daniel I Sessler, Zeyd Ebrahim, Andrea Kurz, Joseph Morgan, Sanchit Ahuja, Kamal Maheshwari, D John Doyle
The traditional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is indispensable system in adjusting sodium homeostasis, body fluid volume, and controlling arterial blood pressure. The key elements are renin splitting inactive angiotensinogen to yield angiotensin (Ang-I). Ang-1 is then changed by angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II (Ang-II). Using PubMed, Google Scholar, and other means, we searched the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2013 for articles on newly discovered findings related to the RAS, especially focusing on how the system influences the central nervous system (CNS)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888034/blunting-of-estrogen-modulation-of-cardiac-cellular-chymase-ras-activity-and-function-in-shr
#8
Sarfaraz Ahmad, Xuming Sun, Marina Lin, Jasmina Varagic, Gisele Zapata-Sudo, Carlos M Ferrario, Leanne Groban, Hao Wang
The relatively low efficacy of ACE-inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure in women after estrogen loss may be due to their inability to reach the intracellular sites at which angiotensin (Ang) II is generated and/or the existence of cell-specific mechanisms in which ACE is not the essential processing pathway for Ang II formation. We compared the metabolic pathway for Ang II formation in freshly isolated myocytes (CMs) and non-myocytes (NCMs) in cardiac membranes extracted from hearts of gonadal-intact and ovariectomized (OVX) adult WKY and SHR rats...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887229/mapk-activation-patterns-of-at1r-and-cb1r-in-shr-versus-wistar-astrocytes-evidence-of-cb1r-hypofunction-and-crosstalk-between-at1r-and-cb1r
#9
Dhanush Haspula, Michelle A Clark
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin (Ang) II and cannabinoids regulate physiologically relevant astroglial functions via receptor-mediated activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study, we investigated the consequences of astroglial Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) activation, alone and in combination, on MAPK activation in the presence and absence of hypertensive states. In addition, we also investigated a novel unidirectional crosstalk mechanism between AT1R and CB1R, that involves PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CB1R...
September 5, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884281/angiotensin-receptor-blockade-by-inhibiting-glial-activation-promotes-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-hypertension
#10
Shahnawaz Ali Bhat, Ruby Goel, Shubha Shukla, Rakesh Shukla, Kashif Hanif
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) disorders like stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, CNS diseases like AD have been associated with gliosis and impaired neurogenesis. Further, renin angiotensin system (RAS) is intricately associated with hypertension; however, the accumulating evidences suggest that over-activity of RAS may perpetuate the brain inflammation related with AD. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of hypertension and RAS on glial (astrocytes and microglia) activation and hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of chronic hypertension...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884084/crocin-prevents-acute-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-in-anesthetized-rats
#11
Mohammad Naser Shafei, Abdolali Faramarzi, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Akbar Anaeigoudari
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main product of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a well-known role in cardiovascular regulation. Over-production of Ang II is one of the important underlying mechanisms of hypertension. In this study, the effect of crocin on cardiovascular responses in rats with acute hypertension induced by Ang II was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups (n = 6): 1) Control: rats that received saline, 2) Ang II: rats that received Ang II (300 ng/kg) infused in two min, 3) Losartan (Los) + Ang II : rats that received Los (10 mg/kg, i...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882562/candesartan-prevents-resiniferatoxin-induced-sensory-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-mice-by-promoting-angiotensin-ii-mediated-at2-receptor-stimulation
#12
Flavien Bessaguet, Aurore Danigo, Laurent Magy, Franck Sturtz, Alexis Desmoulière, Claire Demiot
Sensory defects associated with small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) can lead to profound disabilities. The relationship between the sensory nervous system and modulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been described and focused on pain and neurodegeneration in several animal models. We have recently developed an experimental model of functional sensory neuropathy showing thermal hypoalgesia and neuropeptide depletion without nerve fiber degeneration. Here, we aimed to determine whether the modulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) activity could prevent sensory neuropathy induced by RTX...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880266/the-intracellular-angiotensin-system-buffers-deleterious-effects-of-the-extracellular-paracrine-system
#13
Begoña Villar-Cheda, Maria A Costa-Besada, Rita Valenzuela, Emma Perez-Costas, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The 'classical' renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a circulating system that controls blood pressure. Local/paracrine RAS, identified in a variety of tissues, including the brain, is involved in different functions and diseases, and RAS blockers are commonly used in clinical practice. A third type of RAS (intracellular/intracrine RAS) has been observed in some types of cells, including neurons. However, its role is still unknown. The present results indicate that in brain cells the intracellular RAS counteracts the intracellular superoxide/H2O2 and oxidative stress induced by the extracellular/paracrine angiotensin II acting on plasma membrane receptors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877748/a-pilot-clinical-trial-of-recombinant-human-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Akram Khan, Cody Benthin, Brian Zeno, Timothy E Albertson, John Boyd, Jason D Christie, Richard Hall, Germain Poirier, Juan J Ronco, Mark Tidswell, Kelly Hardes, William M Powley, Tracey J Wright, Sarah K Siederer, David A Fairman, David A Lipson, Andrew I Bayliffe, Aili L Lazaar
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We postulated that repleting ACE2 using GSK2586881, a recombinant form of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2), could attenuate acute lung injury. METHODS: We conducted a two-part phase II trial comprising an open-label intrapatient dose escalation and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase in ten intensive care units in North America...
September 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877239/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-newly-diagnosed-hyperkalemia-after-hospital-discharge-in-non-dialysis-dependent-ckd-patients-treated-with-ras-inhibitors
#15
Yuki Saito, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hideki Nakajima, Osamu Takahashi, Yasuhiro Komatsu
INTRODUCTION: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have been increasingly prescribed due to their beneficial effects on end-organ protection. Iatrogenic hyperkalemia is a well-known life-threatening complication of RAS inhibitor use in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We hypothesized that CKD patients treated with RAS inhibitors frequently develop hyperkalemia after hospital discharge even if they were normokalemic during their hospitalization because their lifestyles change substantially after discharge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874461/selective-deletion-of-renin-b-in-the-brain-alters-drinking-and-metabolism
#16
Keisuke Shinohara, Pablo Nakagawa, Javier Gomez, Donald A Morgan, Nicole K Littlejohn, Matthew D Folchert, Benjamin J Weidemann, Xuebo Liu, Susan A Walsh, Laura L Ponto, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe, Curt D Sigmund
The brain-specific isoform of renin (Ren-b) has been proposed as a negative regulator of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We analyzed mice with a selective deletion of Ren-b which preserved expression of the classical renin (Ren-a) isoform. We reported that Ren-b(Null) mice exhibited central RAS activation and hypertension through increased expression of Ren-a, but the dipsogenic and metabolic effects in Ren-b(Null) mice are unknown. Fluid intake was similar in control and Ren-b(Null) mice at baseline and both exhibited an equivalent dipsogenic response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871467/epigallocatechin-gallate-protects-against-homocysteine-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation
#17
Xiao Li Zhan, Xiu Hong Yang, Yan Hong Gu, Li Li Guo, Hui Min Jin
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a bioactive ingredient of green tea, plays a protective role in the cardiovascular system. Homocysteine (Hcy) is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the role of EGCG in Hcy-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its underlying mechanism. We also explored the roles of rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in this process...
September 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864001/associations-between-the-levels-of-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-in-maternal-and-umbilical-cord-blood-and-hypertensive-disorder-of-pregnancy
#18
Yukiko Mikami, Yasushi Takai, Tatsuya Narita, Sumiko Era, Yoshihisa Ono, Masahiro Saitoh, Kazunori Baba, Kikumi Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Seki
INTRODUCTION: The prorenin (PR) receptor [(P)RR] contributes to the regulation of the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and Wnt signaling, which is involved in embryogenesis and the pathological progression of malignant tumors and diabetes mellitus. Placental (P)RR is significantly upregulated in placental tissues from preeclamptic women. However, because it cannot be examined during pregnancy, the chronological relationship between the acceleration of tissue RAS and the disease state of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) has not been reported...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#19
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858845/bidirectional-asymmetry-in-the-neurovisceral-communication-for-the-cardiovascular-control-new-insights
#20
I Prieto, A B Segarra, M Martinez-Canamero, M De Gasparo, S Zorad, M Ramirez-Sanchez
The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS...
July 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
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