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François Robert
Despite expressing high levels of Polycomb group proteins, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are refractory to H3K27 trimethylation, notably at super-enhancers regulating key pluripotency genes. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Wang et al. (2017) report that the histone chaperone Spt6 prevents H3K27 trimethylation of key ESC super-enhancers.
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
Shuo Zhang, Hao Sheng, Da Yang, Jun Zhang, Zhang Xiong
Since a light field camera is able to capture more information than a traditional camera, a lot of methods, such as depth estimation, image super-resolution and view synthesis, are explored for recovering scene information. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for scene recovery based on lensletbased light field camera images. Instead of using traditional matching terms, we design a new micro-lens based matching term to calculate structure information and recover several kinds of scene information simultaneously...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Sofia D'Abrantes, Sarah Gratton, Pamela Reynolds, Verena Kriechbaumer, Joseph McKenna, Stephen Barnard, Dave Clarke, Stanley W Botchway
Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is continuously being damaged by endogenous processes such as metabolism or by exogenous events such as radiation. The specific phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139, described as γ-H2AX, is an excellent indicator or marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The yield of γ-H2AX (foci) is shown to have some correlation with the dose of radiation or other DSB-causing agents. However, there is some discrepancy in the DNA DSB foci yield among imaging and other methods such as gel electrophoresis...
October 20, 2017: Radiation Research
Célia Baroux, Veit Schubert
In situ nucleus and chromatin analyses rely on microscopy imaging that benefits from versatile, efficient fluorescent probes and proteins for static or live imaging. Yet the broad choice in imaging instruments offered to the user poses orientation problems. Which imaging instrument should be used for which purpose? What are the main caveats and what are the considerations to best exploit each instrument's ability to obtain informative and high-quality images? How to infer quantitative information on chromatin or nuclear organization from microscopy images? In this review, we present an overview of common, fluorescence-based microscopy systems and discuss recently developed super-resolution microscopy systems, which are able to bridge the resolution gap between common fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qiuqiang Zhan, Haichun Liu, Baoju Wang, Qiusheng Wu, Rui Pu, Chao Zhou, Bingru Huang, Xingyun Peng, Hans Ågren, Sailing He
Stimulated emission depletion microscopy provides a powerful sub-diffraction imaging modality for life science studies. Conventionally, stimulated emission depletion requires a relatively high light intensity to obtain an adequate depletion efficiency through only light-matter interaction. Here we show efficient emission depletion for a class of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles with the assistance of interionic cross relaxation, which significantly lowers the laser intensity requirements of optical depletion...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Paola Tonino, Balazs Kiss, Josh Strom, Mei Methawasin, John E Smith, Justin Kolb, Siegfried Labeit, Henk Granzier
The contractile machinery of heart and skeletal muscles has as an essential component the thick filament, comprised of the molecular motor myosin. The thick filament is of a precisely controlled length, defining thereby the force level that muscles generate and how this force varies with muscle length. It has been speculated that the mechanism by which thick filament length is controlled involves the giant protein titin, but no conclusive support for this hypothesis exists. Here we show that in a mouse model in which we deleted two of titin's C-zone super-repeats, thick filament length is reduced in cardiac and skeletal muscles...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Ruizhi Cao, Tingting Yang, Yue Fang, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
In this paper we proposed a new method that combines random pattern illumination, the pattern-estimation algorithm, and the Fourier ptychography (FP) algorithm to recover a super-resolution image. We shifted one multispot pattern to different positions to capture images, and estimated these illumination patterns using a gradient descent algorithm that shares the same root with blind structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Based on the captured images and estimated patterns, the FP algorithm is then applied to recover a super-resolution image...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Ali Shayei, Zahra Kavehvash, Mahdi Shabany
A resolution-improved active millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging structure, based on the theory of structured illumination, is proposed in this paper. The structured illumination is a well-defined concept for surpassing the diffraction limit in optical microscopy, where imposing grating patterns on the targeted object could help in moving the object frequency spectrum along the desired direction in the spatial frequency domain. This frequency shift helps in passing different parts of the object's frequency spectrum through the diffraction filter...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Muhammad Haris, M Rahmat Widyanto, Hajime Nobuhara
An efficient network for super-resolution, which we refer to as inception learning super-resolution (ILSR), is proposed. We adopt the inception module from GoogLeNet to exploit multiple features from low-resolution images, yet maintain fast training steps. The proposed ILSR network demonstrates low computation time and fast convergence during the training process. It is divided into three parts: feature extraction, mapping, and reconstruction. In feature extraction, we apply the inception module followed by dimensional reduction...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Haolin Zhang, Hua Liu, Wenbin Xu, Angel Lizana, Xiaoduo Wang, Zhenwu Lu
Image quality is dramatically influenced by the stitching errors in a large-diameter stitching Fresnel lens. In this paper, we studied three kinds of errors that can cover all stitching errors in a Cornwell deployed Fresnel lens. In particular, a 300-mm-diameter, three-belt deployed Fresnel diffractive lens was simulated to investigate the stitching error. The star test and the resolution board test experiments were conducted, and the experimental results fit the simulation results. This means that our error analysis theory and simulation method are efficient and accurate and could be used to guide future super-large aperture stitching...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yunhua Cao, Yongzhi Du, Lu Bai, Zhensen Wu, Haiying Li, Yanhui Li
The laser radar cross section (LRCS) is a key parameter in the study of target scattering characteristics. In this paper, a practical method for calculating LRCSs of rotationally symmetric targets is presented. Monostatic LRCSs for four kinds of rotationally symmetric targets (cone, rotating ellipsoid, super ellipsoid, and blunt cone) are calculated, and the results verify the feasibility of the method. Compared with the results for the triangular patch method, the correctness of the method is verified, and several advantages of the method are highlighted...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yinghui Cao, Raj Mittra, Zhenyu Liu, Jie Zheng
In this work, we propose the design of a sharp bend in a two-dimensional optical waveguide which has super-ellipse curve boundaries and a gradient refractive index structure in its core. Numerical simulations are presented to show the efficient light propagation in the waveguide bend, as well as the efficient light coupling between the proposed waveguide bend and a straight waveguide, for TE0 and TM0 modes. The proposed design strategy is also useful for designing other compact optical and photonic components...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Ashish Kumar Agrahari, P Sneha, C George Priya Doss, R Siva, Hatem Zayed
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most commonly inherited congenital neurological disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 2500 in the US. About 80 genes were found to be in association with CMT. The phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) is an essential enzyme in the primary stage of de novo and salvage nucleotide synthesis. The mutations in the PRPS1 gene leads to X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 5 (CMTX5), PRS super activity, Arts syndrome, X-linked deafness-1, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer...
October 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kensuke Umehara, Junko Ota, Takayuki Ishida
In this study, the super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) scheme, which is the emerging deep-learning-based super-resolution method for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images, was applied and evaluated using the post-processing approach. For evaluation, 89 chest CT cases were sampled from The Cancer Imaging Archive. The 89 CT cases were divided randomly into 45 training cases and 44 external test cases. The SRCNN was trained using the training dataset. With the trained SRCNN, a high-resolution image was reconstructed from a low-resolution image, which was down-sampled from an original test image...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Eman A Ismail, Mohamed H Bakri, Sayed Kaoud Abd-Elshafy
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has a prophylactic effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and perioperative hydration is believed to play a role in PONV prophylaxis. This study was performed to examine the combined effects of pre-induction dexamethasone plus super-hydration on PONV and pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: A total of 100 female patients undergoing LC were enrolled and randomized equally into two groups. Group DF received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) plus 30 ml/kg Ringer's lactate (intraoperative) and group D received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) alone...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Hanieh Vaseghi, Asghar Mogheiseh, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mojtaba Kafi, Mohammad Hossein Nooranizadeh
This paper reports a case of super pregnancy in a BALB/c mouse pregnant with 30 pups following induction of superovulation using a PMSG-hCG protocol. Superovulation was induced in 10 mice by injecting 5 IU PMSG followed by 5 IU hCG 48 hours later. Immediately after injection of hCG, animals were placed with males at a ratio of 1 to 1 for 24 hours. On day 14 after mating, animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the uterus was examined for pregnancy and the number of fetuses. The mean (±SEM) number of fetuses observed in ten mice was 5...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
Heidi S Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Luisina De Tullio, Kyle Kaniecki, Youngho Kwon, J Brooks Crickard, Patrick Sung, Eric C Greene
Srs2 is a super-family 1 helicase that promotes genome stability by dismantling toxic DNA recombination intermediates. However, the mechanisms by which Srs2 remodels or resolves recombination intermediates remain poorly understood. Here, single-molecule imaging is used to visualize Srs2 in real time as it acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound by protein factors that function in recombination. We demonstrate that Srs2 is highly processive and translocates rapidly (∼170 nt per second) in the 3'→5' direction along ssDNA saturated with replication protein A (RPA)...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
Kathrin Ohla, Richard Höchenberger, Jessica Freiherr, Johan N Lundström
Our sensory experiences comprise a variety of different inputs at any given time. Some of these experiences are unmistakable, others are ambiguous and profit from additional sensory information. Here, we explored whether the presence of a congruent odor influences the neural processing and sensory interaction of audio-visual objects using degraded videos (V) and sounds (A) of dynamic objects in unimodal and bimodal (AV) combinations without or with a congruent odor (VO, AO, AVO). Analyses of EEG data revealed super- and subadditive interaction effects...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Senses
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