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Zhe Sun, Zeng Yi, Xinxing Cui, Xiangyu Chen, Wen Su, Xiaoxiang Ren, Xudong Li
The development of safe and effective nano-drug delivery systems to deliver anticancer drugs to targeted cells and organs is crucial to enhance the therapeutic efficacy and overcome unwanted side effects of chemotherapy. Herein, we prepared CD44-targeted dual-stimuli responsive human hair keratin and hyaluronic acid nanogels (KHA-NGs) through a simple crosslinking method. KHA-NGs, which consisted of spheres 50 nm in diameter, were used as carriers to load the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhenhua Yan, Hongming Sun, Xiang Chen, Huanhuan Liu, Yaran Zhao, Haixia Li, Wei Xie, Fangyi Cheng, Jun Chen
Electrochemical deposition is a facile strategy to prepare functional materials but suffers from limitation in thin films and uncontrollable interface engineering. Here we report a universal electrosynthesis of metal hydroxides/oxides on varied substrates via reduction of oxyacid anions. On graphitic substrates, we find that the insertion of nitrate ion in graphene layers significantly enhances the electrodeposit-support interface, resulting in high mass loading and super hydrophilic/aerophobic properties. For the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, the nanocrystalline cerium dioxide and amorphous nickel hydroxide co-electrodeposited on graphite exhibits low overpotential (177 mV@10 mA cm-2 ) and sustains long-term durability (over 300 h) at a large current density of 1000 mA cm-2 ...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Qiuyan Yan, Yanting Lu, Lulu Zhou, Junling Chen, Haijiao Xu, Mingjun Cai, Yan Shi, Junguang Jiang, Wenyong Xiong, Jing Gao, Hongda Wang
The glucose transporter GLUT1, a plasma membrane protein that mediates glucose homeostasis in mammalian cells, is responsible for constitutive uptake of glucose into many tissues and organs. Many studies have focused on its vital physiological functions and close relationship with diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of its activation and transport are not clear, and its detailed distribution pattern on cell membranes also remains unknown. To address these, we first investigated the distribution and assembly of GLUT1 at a nanometer resolution by super-resolution imaging...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Beatriz Suay-García, María Teresa Pérez-Gracia
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Kim Min, Seung Cheol Jee, Jung-Suk Sung, Avinash A Kadam
Owing to the ubiquitous availability and simple biocatalysis, the anti-proliferative laccase holds enormous opportunities for anti-cancer applications. However, accessing efficient and specific (super-magnetically targetable) new delivery system for anti-proliferative laccase is vital step towards laccase based anti-cancer approach. Therefore, in this investigation, super-magnetized (Fe3 O4 ) and chitosan (CS) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) (termed as Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS) was facile synthesized. Further, laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS (termed as Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS-Lac)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bruck Taddese, Madeline Deniaud, Antoine Garnier, Asma Tiss, Hajer Guissouma, Hervé Abdi, Daniel Henrion, Marie Chabbert
Chemokines and their receptors (members of the GPCR super-family) are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes and diseases; thus, understanding the specificity of the chemokine receptor family could help develop new receptor specific drugs. Here, we explore the evolutionary mechanisms that led to the emergence of the chemokine receptors. Based on GPCR hierarchical classification, we analyzed nested GPCR sets with an eigen decomposition approach of the sequence covariation matrix and determined three key residues whose mutation was crucial for the emergence of the chemokine receptors and their subsequent divergence into homeostatic and inflammatory receptors...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Bram P Raphael, Christina Hazenkamp, Mihail Samnaliev, Al Ozonoff
BACKGROUND: While previous literature suggests home parenteral nutrition (HPN) dependent children experience frequent complications like community acquired central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), few studies have characterized the cost. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate institutional cost of community-acquired CLABSI in pediatric HPN patients. METHODS: This is a single center retrospective review of institutional costs for HPN patients with community-acquired CLABSI at a tertiary care children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Hannah Jh Ng, Guowei Kim, Claire Alexandra Z Chew, Moe Thu San, Jimmy By So, Asim Shabbir
INTRODUCTION: Outcomes of bariatric surgery for super obese Asians are not well reported. We aimed to compare short-term outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in Asian patients with body mass index (BMI) <47.5 kg/m2 to those with BMI •••••• ≥47.5 kg/m2 . MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 272 patients from Singapore university hospital who underwent LSG from 2008 to 2015 with a follow-up of at least 6 months were included in the study. Primary endpoint was weight loss at 1-year and 3-years...
May 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Yi-Fan Yang, Shachar Klaiman, Evgeniy V Gromov, Lorenz S Cederbaum
We report on high-level coupled-cluster calculations for the anion states of the smallest fullerene C20. Using the state-of-the-art EA-EOM-CCSD method we revealed that the C20- anion has five bound electronic states at the C20 neutral ground-state D3d equilibrium configuration. These are two pairs of 2Eu and 2A2u states and one 2A1g state. The binding energies vary from 2.05 eV for the most bound 2Eu state to <1 meV for the 2A1g state. An analysis in terms of radial and angular density distribution of the excess electron revealed that the two 2Eu/2A2u pairs are valence-like states while 2A1g corresponds to a super-atomic-like (SAMO) state...
June 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz, Zuzanna Rymarczyk, Wojciech Lisik, Katarzyna Kurnicka, Michał Ciurzyński, Maksymilian Bielecki, Maciej Kosieradzki, Piotr Pruszczyk
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic ECG criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy in obese patients are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current ECG diagnostic criteria of LVH, and to validate our previously proposed criteria in a group of patients with morbid obesity. METHODS: A group of consecutive 429 obese patients (MOP) with BMI of at least 35 kg/m2 (mean age 38.6 ± 8.9 years, BMI 48.7 ± 9.0 kg/m2 ; 323 females, 106 males) were included...
June 17, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Joanna I Giza, Jihye Kim, Heidi C Meyer, Agustin Anastasia, Iva Dincheva, Crystal I Zheng, Katherine Lopez, Henrietta Bains, Jianmin Yang, Clay Bracken, Conor Liston, Deqiang Jing, Barbara L Hempstead, Francis S Lee
A human variant in the BDNF gene (Val66Met; rs6265) is associated with impaired fear extinction. Using super-resolution imaging, we demonstrate that the BDNF Met prodomain disassembles dendritic spines and eliminates synapses in hippocampal neurons. In vivo, ventral CA1 (vCA1) hippocampal neurons undergo similar morphological changes dependent on their transient co-expression of a SorCS2/p75NTR receptor complex during peri-adolescence. BDNF Met prodomain infusion into the vCA1 during this developmental time frame reduces dendritic spine density and prelimbic (PL) projections, impairing cued fear extinction...
June 2, 2018: Neuron
Yixuan Shi, Abdeljalil Assoud, Siméon Ponou, Sven Lidin, Holger Kleinke
A new state-of-the-art thermoelectric material, Tl2 Ag12 Te7+δ , which possesses an extremely low thermal conductivity of about 0.25 W m-1 K-1 and a high figure-of-merit of up to 1.1 at 525 K, was obtained using a conventional solid-state reaction approach. Its sub cell is a variant of the Zr2 Fe12 P7 type, but ultimately its structure was refined as a composite structure of a Tl2 Ag12 Te6 framework and a linear Te atom chain running along the c axis. The super space group of the framework was determined to be P63 (00γ) s with a = b = 11...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Melissa S Standley, Samuel Million-Weaver, David L Alexander, Shuai Hu, Manel Camps
ColE1-like plasmid vectors are widely used for expression of recombinant genes in E. coli. For these vectors, segregation of individual plasmids into daughter cells during cell division appears to be random, making them susceptible to loss over time when no mechanisms ensuring their maintenance are present. Here we use the plasmid pGFPuv in a recA relA strain as a sensitized model to study factors affecting plasmid stability in the context of recombinant gene expression. We find that in this model, plasmid stability can be restored by two types of genetic modifications to the plasmid origin of replication (ori) sequence: point mutations and a novel 269 nt duplication at the 5' end of the plasmid ori, which we named DAS (duplicated anti-sense) ori...
June 16, 2018: Current Genetics
Luciana Gonçalves Langella, Heliodora Leão Casalechi, Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Douglas Scott Johnson, Regiane Albertini, Rodney Capp Pallotta, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
When conservative treatments fail, hip osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic degenerative disease characterized by cartilage wear, progressive joint deformity, and loss of function, can result in the need for a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Surgical procedures induced tissue trauma and incite an immune response. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMt) using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and/or light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has proven effective in tissue repair by modulating the inflammatory process and promoting pain relief...
June 16, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Fa-Hong Li, Na Han, Yong Wang, Qian Xu
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disease associated with vascular oxidative stress (OS). Besides, cell response to OS triggers growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha (Gadd45a). Herein, we investigated the effect of Gadd45a on OS in PE. METHODS: Umbilical cord tissues and peripheral blood samples were collected from PE patients and normal pregnant women. Immunohistochemistry was applied to identify Gadd45a level and extent of p38 phosphorylation...
May 2018: Placenta
Amretendu Mukhopadhyay, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Chandan Mondal, Sony Punnose, K Gopinath
The high temperature strength of directionally solidified Ni-base super alloy CM 247LC strongly depends on the morphology, volume fraction, size and size distribution of γ' precipitate (Ni3 Al) in the FCC γ matrix. The microstructure of the alloy is engineered to achieve the right combination of these parameters that provides the required high temperature strength and creep resistance. The alloy contains high volume fraction of coherent γ' precipitates having near cubic shape. High temperature exposure of gas turbine components made out of the alloy leads to coarsening of the γ' precipitates and broadening of the γ matrix channel...
May 16, 2018: Ultrasonics
Tanja Niedermair, Stephan Schirner, Raphael Seebröker, Rainer H Straub, Susanne Grässel
Clinical observations suggest neuronal control of bone remodeling. Sensory nerve fibers innervating bone, bone marrow and periosteum signal via neurotransmitters including substance P (SP). In previous studies we observed impaired biomechanical and structural bone parameters in tachykinin (Tac) 1-deficient mice lacking SP. Here, we aim to specify effects of SP on metabolic parameters of bone marrow macrophage (BMM)/osteoclast cultures and osteoblasts isolated from Tac1-deficient and wildtype (WT) mice. We demonstrated endogenous SP production and secretion in WT bone cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seungwoo Shin, Doyeon Kim, Kyoohyun Kim, YongKeun Park
We present a multimodal approach for measuring the three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI) and fluorescence distributions of live cells by combining optical diffraction tomography (ODT) and 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM). A digital micromirror device is utilized to generate structured illumination patterns for both ODT and SIM, which enables fast and stable measurements. To verify its feasibility and applicability, the proposed method is used to measure the 3D RI distribution and 3D fluorescence image of various samples, including a cluster of fluorescent beads, and the time-lapse 3D RI dynamics of fluorescent beads inside a HeLa cell, from which the trajectory of the beads in the HeLa cell is analyzed using spatiotemporal correlations...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Changsoon Choi, Kyung-Deok Song, Sungsam Kang, Jin-Sung Park, Wonshik Choi
High-resolution optical imaging within thick objects has been a challenging task due to the short working distance of conventional high numerical aperture (NA) objective lenses. Lenses with a large physical diameter and thus a large aperture, such as microscope condenser lenses, can feature both a large NA and a long working distance. However, such lenses suffer from strong aberrations. To overcome this problem, we present a method to correct the aberrations of a transmission-mode imaging system that is composed of two condensers...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joana M Santos, Fatima-Zohra Braikia, Chloé Oudinet, Dania Haddad, Caroline Conte, Audrey Dauba, Ahmed Amine Khamlichi
During an adaptive immune response, B cells can change their surface immunoglobulins from IgM to IgG, IgE or IgA through a process called class switch recombination (CSR). Switching is preceded by inducible non-coding germline transcription (GLT) of the selected constant gene(s), which is largely controlled by a super-enhancer called the 3' regulatory region (3'RR). Despite intense efforts, the precise mechanisms that regulate GLT are still elusive. In order to gain additional insights into these mechanisms, we analyzed GLT and CSR in mutant B cells carrying a duplication of the promoter of the α constant gene (Iα) downstream of 3'RR...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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