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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821878/shock-formation-and-structure-in-magnetic-reconnection-with-a-streaming-flow
#1
Liangneng Wu, Zhiwei Ma, Haowei Zhang
The features of magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow have been investigated on the basis of compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The super-Alfvenic streaming flow largely enhances magnetic reconnection. The maximum reconnection rate is almost four times larger with super-Alfvenic streaming flow than sub-Alfvénic streaming flow. In the nonlinear stage, it is found that there is a pair of shocks observed in the inflow region, which are manifested to be slow shocks for sub-Alfvénic streaming flow, and fast shocks for super-Alfvénic streaming flow...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821642/super-optimal-perceptual-integration-suggests-a-place-based-representation-of-pitch-at-high-frequencies
#2
Bonnie K Lau, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
Pitch, the perceptual correlate of sound repetition rate or frequency, plays an important role in speech perception, music perception, and listening in complex acoustic environments. Despite its perceptual importance, the neural mechanisms underlying pitch remain poorly understood. Although cortical regions responsive to pitch have been identified, little is known about how pitch information is extracted from the inner ear itself. The two primary theories of peripheral pitch coding involve stimulus-driven spike timing, or phase locking, in the auditory nerve (time code), and the spatial distribution of responses along the length of the cochlear partition (place code)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820941/a-photoactivatable-probe-for-super-resolution-imaging-of-enzymatic-activity-in-live-cells
#3
Elias A Halabi, Zacharias Thiel, Nils Trapp, Dorothea Pinotsi, Pablo Rivera-Fuentes
A dual-activatable, fluorogenic probe was developed to sense esterase activity with single-molecule resolution. Without enzymatic pre-activation, the diazoindanone-based probe has an electron poor core and, upon irradiation, undergoes Wolff rearrangement to give a ring-expanded xanthene core that is non-emissive. If the probe is pre-activated by carboxylesterases, the tricyclic core becomes electron-rich and the photoinduced Wolff rearrangement produces a highly emissive rhodol dye. Live-cell and solution studies confirmed the selectivity of the probe and revealed that the photoactivated dye does not diffuse away from the original location of activation because the intermediate ketene forms a covalent bond with surrounding macromolecules...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820834/super-thin-scip-flap-for-reconstruction-of-subungual-melanoma-aesthetic-functional-surgery
#4
Kyeong-Tae Lee, Bo Young Park, Eun-Ji Kim, Jung-Han Kim, Kee-Taek Jang, Sang-Hee Choi, Dong-Youn Lee, Goo-Hyun Mun
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to use a super-thin, free superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap in the functional surgery for treating subungual melanoma and to evaluate its outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients with primary subungual melanoma of ≤ 2-mm thickness who were treated with functional surgery were prospectively enrolled. Following oncologic resection, a thin SCIP flap was harvested along the trans-superficial fat layer and transferred to the defect with further thinning by primary defatting...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819880/theoretical-analysis-of-c-f-bond-cleavage-mediated-by-cob-i-alamin-based-structures
#5
D Cortés-Arriagada, A Toro-Labbe, J R Mora, L Rincón, R Mereau, F J Torres
In the present work, C-F bond cleavage mediated by the super-reduced form of cobalamin (i.e., Co(I)Cbl) was theoretically studied at the ONIOM(BP86/6-311++G(d,p):PM6) + SMD level of theory. Dispersion effects were introduced by employing Grimme's empirical dispersion at the ONIOM(BP86-D/6-311++G(d,p):PM6) + SMD level. In the first stage of the study, cobalamin was characterized in terms of the coordination number of the central cobalt atom. The ONIOM(BP86/6-311++G(d,p):PM6) results showed that the base-off form of the system is slightly more stable than its base-on counterpart (ΔE = E base-off - E base-on ~ -2 kcal/mol)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819645/3d-imaging-of-optically-cleared-tissue-using-a-simplified-clarity-method-and-on-chip-microscopy
#6
Yibo Zhang, Yoonjung Shin, Kevin Sung, Sam Yang, Harrison Chen, Hongda Wang, Da Teng, Yair Rivenson, Rajan P Kulkarni, Aydogan Ozcan
High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819294/seismic-waveform-tomography-with-shot-encoding-using-a-restarted-l-bfgs-algorithm
#7
Ying Rao, Yanghua Wang
In seismic waveform tomography, or full-waveform inversion (FWI), one effective strategy used to reduce the computational cost is shot-encoding, which encodes all shots randomly and sums them into one super shot to significantly reduce the number of wavefield simulations in the inversion. However, this process will induce instability in the iterative inversion regardless of whether it uses a robust limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS) algorithm. The restarted L-BFGS algorithm proposed here is both stable and efficient...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819224/the-role-of-rho-gtpases-and-actin-polymerization-during-macrophage-tunneling-nanotube-biogenesis
#8
Samer J Hanna, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Veronika Miskolci, Peng Guo, Michael Cammer, Louis Hodgson, Dianne Cox
Macrophage interactions with other cells, either locally or at distances, are imperative in both normal and pathological conditions. While soluble means of communication can transmit signals between different cells, it does not account for all long distance macrophage interactions. Recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are membranous channels that connect cells together and allow for transfer of signals, vesicles, and organelles. However, very little is known about the mechanism by which these structures are formed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817635/contractile-actomyosin-arcs-promote-the-activation-of-primary-mouse-t-cells-in-a-ligand-dependent-manner
#9
Jinsung Hong, Sricharan Murugesan, Eric Betzig, John A Hammer
Mechano-transduction is an emerging but still poorly understood component of T cell activation. Here we investigated the ligand-dependent contribution made by contractile actomyosin arcs populating the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC) region of the immunological synapse (IS) to T cell receptor (TCR) microcluster transport and proximal signaling in primary mouse T cells. Using super resolution microscopy, OT1-CD8+ mouse T cells, and two ovalbumin (OVA) peptides with different affinities for the TCR, we show that the generation of organized actomyosin arcs depends on ligand potency and the ability of myosin 2 to contract actin filaments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816558/effect-of-feedback-from-a-socially-interactive-humanoid-robot-on-reaching-kinematics-in-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy-a-pilot-study
#10
Yuping Chen, Sergio Garcia-Vergara, Ayanna M Howard
PURPOSE: To examine whether children with or without cerebral palsy (CP) would follow a humanoid robot's (i.e., Darwin) feedback to move their arm faster when playing virtual reality (VR) games. METHODS: Seven children with mild CP and 10 able-bodied children participated. Real-time reaching was evaluated by playing the Super Pop VR(TM) system, including 2-game baseline, 3-game acquisition, and another 2-game extinction. During acquisition, Darwin provided verbal feedback to direct the child to reach a kinematically defined target goal (i...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814796/crispr-cas9-mediated-labelling-allows-for-single-molecule-imaging-and-resolution
#11
Abdullah O Khan, Victoria A Simms, Jeremy A Pike, Steven G Thomas, Neil V Morgan
Single molecule imaging approaches like dSTORM and PALM resolve structures at 10-20 nm, and allow for unique insights into protein stoichiometry and spatial relationships. However, key obstacles remain in developing highly accurate quantitative single molecule approaches. The genomic tagging of PALM fluorophores through CRISPR-Cas9 offers an excellent opportunity for generating stable cell lines expressing a defined single molecule probe at endogenous levels, without the biological disruption and variability inherent to transfection...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#12
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813441/cross-over-endocytosis-of-claudins-is-mediated-by-interactions-via-their-extracellular-loops
#13
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812808/history-structure-and-agency-in-global-health-governance-comment-on-global-health-governance-challenges-2016-are-we-ready
#14
Stephen Gill, Solomon R Benatar
Ilona Kickbusch's thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812540/quantifying-transmission
#15
Mark Woolhouse
Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811692/experimental-validation-of-antidiabetic-and-antioxidant-potential-of-cassia-tora-l-an-indigenous-medicinal-plant
#16
Vishnu Kumar, Ranjana Singh, Farzana Mahdi, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Raj Kumar Singh
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cassia tora (C. tora) seeds extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes. Ethanolic extract of C. tora seeds extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) prepared in aqueous gum acacia (2 %, w/v) suspension and fed orally to streptozotocin induced male adult diabetic rats of Charles Foster strain for 15 days. Biochemical parameters in normal, diabetic control, standard (600 μg/kg bw p...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811500/human-microcephaly-protein-rttn-interacts-with-stil-and-is-required-to-build-full-length-centrioles
#17
Hsin-Yi Chen, Chien-Ting Wu, Chieh-Ju C Tang, Yi-Nan Lin, Won-Jing Wang, Tang K Tang
Mutations in many centriolar protein-encoding genes cause primary microcephaly. Using super-resolution and electron microscopy, we find that the human microcephaly protein, RTTN, is recruited to the proximal end of the procentriole at early S phase, and is located at the inner luminal walls of centrioles. Further studies demonstrate that RTTN directly interacts with STIL and acts downstream of STIL-mediated centriole assembly. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated RTTN gene knockout in p53-deficient cells induce amplification of primitive procentriole bodies that lack the distal-half centriolar proteins, POC5 and POC1B...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811077/the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-a-fuel-to-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Uzma Shahab, Mohd Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Mohd Waseem, Binish Arif, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) was first illustrated in the year 1992. RAGE is a single-transmembrane and multi-ligand component of the immunoglobulin protein super family. The engagement of RAGE turns out to an establishment of numerous intracellular signalling mechanisms resulting in the progression and perpetuation of many types of cancer including, the pancreatic cancer. The present review primarily focuses on the multi-ligand activation of RAGEs leading to the downstream signalling cascade activation...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809909/axial-sub-fourier-focusing-of-an-optical-beam
#19
Thomas Zacharias, Barak Hadad, Alon Bahabad, Yaniv Eliezer
We demonstrate experimentally the generation of an optical beam having an axial focusing that is narrower than the Fourier limit. The beam is constructed from a superposition of Bessel beams with different longitudinal wave vectors, realizing a super-oscillatory axial intensity distribution. Such beams can be useful for microscopy and for optical particle manipulation.
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809757/flexible-zno-nanorod-based-piezoelectric-nanogenerators-on-carbon-papers
#20
G M Hasan Ul Banna, Ii-Kyu Park
We report on the fabrication of ZnO nanorod (NR)-based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) on carbon paper (CP). Structural investigations indicate that the ZnO NRs grew well along the porous CP surface. Optical investigation shows that the crystal quality of the ZnO NRs on the CP was comparable to that of NRs grown on Si substrate. As the molar concentration increased from 10 to 70 mM, and the output voltage and current increased consistently from 3.6 to 6.8 V and 0.79 to 1.45 μA, respectively. The enhancements of the voltage and current were attributed to the enhanced accumulation of the potentials generated by the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs in the PENG devices...
August 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
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