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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475052/energy-transfer-and-distribution-in-photosystem-super-megacomplexes-of-plants
#1
REVIEW
Makio Yokono, Seiji Akimoto
Traditionally, two types of photosystem reaction centers (PSI and PSII) are thought to be spatially dispersed in the plant thylakoid membrane. In this model, PSI and PSII independently accept excitation energy from their own peripheral light-harvesting complexes, LHCI and LHCII, respectively, and form supercomplexes (PSI-LHCI and PSII-LHCII). However, recent studies using a combination of mild detergent treatment and spectroscopic analysis have revealed the existence of various megacomplexes such as a PSI-PSII megacomplex and a PSII megacomplex...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474910/super-resolution-imaging-of-the-extracellular-space-in-living-brain-tissue
#2
Jan Tønnesen, V V G Krishna Inavalli, U Valentin Nägerl
The extracellular space (ECS) of the brain has an extremely complex spatial organization, which has defied conventional light microscopy. Consequently, despite a marked interest in the physiological roles of brain ECS, its structure and dynamics remain largely inaccessible for experimenters. We combined 3D-STED microscopy and fluorescent labeling of the extracellular fluid to develop super-resolution shadow imaging (SUSHI) of brain ECS in living organotypic brain slices. SUSHI enables quantitative analysis of ECS structure and reveals dynamics on multiple scales in response to a variety of physiological stimuli...
February 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474883/newly-observed-anterior-thalamocortical-fiber-of-the-thalamus-with-7-0t-super-resolution-magnetic-resonance-tractogarphy-and-its-implication-for-the-classical-papez-circuit
#3
Sang-Han Choi, Young-Bo Kim, Zang-Hee Cho
Here, we have employed recently developed super-resolution tractography using 7.0T-MRI to analyze the fine structures involved in thalamocortical connections, something that has proved difficult using conventional techniques. We detail a newly observed thalamocortical pathway connecting the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and the cingulate cortex not via the internal capsule but via the septal area. The observed pathway is believed to be a classical pathway of the Papez circuit but had not been previously identified...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474862/patterns-and-effects-of-gc3-heterogeneity-and-parsimony-informative-sites-on-the-phylogenetic-tree-of-genes
#4
Shuai Ma, Qi Wu, Yibo Hu, Fuwen Wei
The explosive growth in genomic data has provided novel insights into the conflicting signals hidden in phylogenetic trees. Although some studies have explored the effects of the GC content and parsimony informative sites (PIS) on the phylogenetic tree, the effect of the heterogeneity of the GC content at the first/second/third codon position on parsimony informative sites (GC1/2/3PIS ) among different species and the effect of PIS on phylogenetic tree construction remain largely unexplored. Here, we used two different mammal genomic datasets to explore the patterns of GC1/2/3PIS heterogeneity and the effect of PIS on the phylogenetic tree of genes: (i) all GC1/2/3PIS have obvious heterogeneity between different mammals, and the levels of heterogeneity are GC3PIS  > GC2PIS  > GC1PIS ; (ii) the number of PIS is positively correlated with the metrics of "good" gene tree topologies, and excluding the third codon position (C3) decreases the quality of gene trees by removing too many PIS...
February 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473542/facile-preparation-of-tio2-quantum-dots-qds-graphitic-carbon-nitride-g-c3n4-heterojunction-with-highly-efficient-photocatalytic-activity
#5
Xing Wang, Subin Jiang, Xuejian Huo, Rui Xia, Elisée Muhire, Meizhen Gao
In this article, mechanical grinding - an effortless and super effective synthetic strategy is used to successfully synthesis TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure. The XPS results together with TEM reveal the formation of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction. Because of the advantage of this characteristic, the prepared heterostructures exhibit excellent property for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. Noticeably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructures is nearly 3...
February 23, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473074/balancing-silicon-aluminum-oxide-junctions-for-super-plasmonic-emission-enhancement-of-quantum-dots-via-plasmonic-metafilms
#6
Seyed M Sadeghi, Waylin J Wing, Rithvik R Gutha, Jamie S Wilt, Judy Z Wu
We study the impact of structural features of Si/Al oxide junctions on metal-oxide plasmonic metafilms formed via placing such junctions in close vicinity of an Au/Si Schottky barrier. The emission intensity and dynamics of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots deposited on such metafilms are investigated, while the surface morphology and structural compositions of the Si/Al oxide junction are controlled. The results show the conditions wherein the Si/Al oxide junction can reshape the impact of plasmonic effects, allowing it to increase the lifetimes of excitons...
February 23, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472414/laminin-521-protein-therapy-for-glomerular-basement-membrane-and-podocyte-abnormalities-in-a-model-of-pierson-syndrome
#7
Meei-Hua Lin, Joseph B Miller, Yamato Kikkawa, Hani Y Suleiman, Karl Tryggvason, Bradley L Hodges, Jeffrey H Miner
Background Laminin α 5 β 2 γ 1 (LM-521) is a major component of the GBM. Mutations in LAMB2 that prevent LM-521 synthesis and/or secretion cause Pierson syndrome, a rare congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and ocular and neurologic defects. Because the GBM is uniquely accessible to plasma, which permeates endothelial cell fenestrae, we hypothesized that intravenous delivery of LM-521 could replace the missing LM-521 in the GBM of Lamb2 mutant mice and restore glomerular permselectivity...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471852/cdk9-inhibitors-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Boffo, Angela Damato, Luigi Alfano, Antonio Giordano
Current treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is less than optimal, but increased understanding of disease pathobiology and genomics has led to clinical investigation of novel targeted therapies and rational combinations. Targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) pathway, which is dysregulated in AML, is an attractive approach. Inhibition of CDK9 leads to downregulation of cell survival genes regulated by super enhancers such as MCL-1, MYC, and cyclin D1. As CDK9 inhibitors are nonselective, predictive biomarkers that may help identify patients most likely to respond to CDK9 inhibitors are now being utilized, with the goal of improving efficacy and safety...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471009/patterns-induced-by-super-cross-diffusion-in-a-predator-prey-system-with-michaelis-menten-type-harvesting
#9
Biao Liu, Ranchao Wu, Liping Chen
Turing instability and pattern formation in a super cross-diffusion predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type predator harvesting are investigated. Stability of equilibrium points is first explored with or without super cross-diffusion. It is found that cross-diffusion could induce instability of equilibria. To further derive the conditions of Turing instability, the linear stability analysis is carried out. From theoretical analysis, note that cross-diffusion is the key mechanism for the formation of spatial patterns...
February 19, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470448/the-spectrum-analysis-solution-sas-system-theoretical-analysis-hardware-design-and-implementation
#10
Ram M Narayanan, Richard K Pooler, Anthony F Martone, Kyle A Gallagher, Kelly D Sherbondy
This paper describes a multichannel super-heterodyne signal analyzer, called the Spectrum Analysis Solution (SAS), which performs multi-purpose spectrum sensing to support spectrally adaptive and cognitive radar applications. The SAS operates from ultrahigh frequency (UHF) to the S-band and features a wideband channel with eight narrowband channels. The wideband channel acts as a monitoring channel that can be used to tune the instantaneous band of the narrowband channels to areas of interest in the spectrum...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469845/inverse-design-of-optical-elements-based-on-arrays-of-dielectric-spheres
#11
Alan Zhan, Taylor K Fryett, Shane Colburn, Arka Majumdar
Arrays of wavelength scale scatterers are a promising platform for designing optical elements with a compact footprint. The large number of degrees of freedom in this system allows for unique and plentiful functionalities. However, the many variables also create a complex design problem. While intuitive forward design methods work for simple optical elements, they often fail to produce complicated elements, especially those involving multiple elements. We present an inverse design methodology for large arrays of wavelength scale spheres based on both adjoint optimization or sensitivity analysis and generalized multi-sphere Mie theory as a solution to the design problem...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469836/rapid-super-resolution-confocal-microscopy-through-virtual-structured-detection-based-on-serial-scanning-in-array
#12
Limin Zou, He Ni, Qingyuan Guo, Qing Yan, Xuemei Ding
To improve the imaging speed of a confocal microscope with virtual structured detection, we have designed an optical system with rigid coordination control of the CCD, galvanometer scanner, and laser diode. In this system, the width of the coherent transfer function expands, which enhances the lateral resolution by a factor of 1.4. Also, the temporal image sequence is transformed to a spatial one so that multiple images can be acquired during a single exposure period of the CCD. This method increases the system imaging speed 25-fold at least, and an even higher speed can be achieved by further increasing the number of spots recorded during a single exposure period...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469587/simulational-fluency-reduces-feelings-of-psychological-distance
#13
Kellen Mrkva, Mark Travers, Leaf Van Boven
Why do some events feel "like yesterday" whereas others feel "ages away"? Past research has identified cues that influence people's estimates of distance in units such as how many miles or days away events are from the self. However, what makes events feel psychologically close or distant? We examine the hypothesis that increased simulational fluency, the ease with which people mentally imagine events, makes events feel psychologically close. Simulational fluency was associated with feelings that multiple past and future holidays were psychologically close (Studies 1a and 1b)...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469551/don%C3%A2-t-try-this-at-home-the-fda%C3%A2-s-restrictive-regulation-of-home-testing-devices
#14
Shelby Baird
Over the past forty years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has successfully restricted consumers' access to home-testing applications based on the notion that it should protect individuals from their own reactions to test results. In the 1970s, the FDA briefly denied women access to home pregnancy tests that were identical to those used in laboratories. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, it relied on concerns about consumer responses to HIV status results to justify a categorical ban on applications for HIV home-testing technology...
November 2017: Duke Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468819/pt-pd-bimetal-popcorn-nanocrystals-enhancing-the-catalytic-performance-by-combination-effect-of-stable-multipetals-nanostructure-and-highly-accessible-active-sites
#15
Yanxia Ma, Lisi Yin, Guojian Cao, Qingli Huang, Maoshuai He, Wenxian Wei, Hong Zhao, Dongen Zhang, Mingyan Wang, Tao Yang
Exploration of highly efficient electrocatalysts is significantly urgent for the extensive adoption of the fuel cells. Because of their high activity and super stability, Pt-Pd bimetal nanocrystals have been widely recognized as one class of promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. This article presents the synthesis of popcorn-shaped Pt-Pd bimetal nanoparticles with a wide composition range through a facile hydrothermal strategy. The hollow-centered nanoparticles are surrounded by several petals and concave surfaces...
February 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468666/eicosanoids-prostacyclin-and-cyclooxygenase-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Jane A Mitchell, Nicholas S Kirkby
Eicosanoids represent a diverse family of lipid mediators with fundamental roles in controlling physiology and disease. Within the eicosanoid super family are prostanoids, which are specifically derived from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). COX has two isoforms; COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is the therapeutic target for the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class of pain medications. Of the prostanoids, prostacyclin, first discovered by Sir Professor John Vane in 1976, remains amongst the best studied and retains an impressive pedigree as one the bodies fundamental cardiovascular protective pathways...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467255/altered-translation-initiation-of-gja1-limits-gap-junction-formation-during-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Carissa C James, Michael J Zeitz, Patrick J Calhoun, Samy Lamouille, James W Smyth
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated during development, wound healing, and pathologies including fibrosis and cancer metastasis. Hallmarks of EMT are remodeling of intercellular junctions and adhesion proteins, including gap junctions. The GJA1 mRNA transcript encoding the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) has been demonstrated to undergo internal translation initiation, yielding truncated isoforms that modulate gap junctions. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is central to translation regulation and is activated during EMT, leading us to hypothesize that altered translation initiation would contribute to gap junction loss...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464841/super-chelators-for-advanced-protein-labeling-in-living-cells
#18
Karl Gatterdam, Eike F Joest, Marina S Dietz, Mike Heilemann, Robert Tampé
Live-cell labeling, super-resolution microscopy, single-molecule applications, protein localization or chemically induced assembly are emerging approaches, which require specific and very small interaction pairs. The minimal disturbance of protein function is essential to derive unbiased insights into cellular processes. Here, we define a new class of hexavalent N-nitrilotriacetic acid (hexaNTA) chelators, displaying the highest affinity and stability of all NTA-based small interaction pairs described so far...
February 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464671/an-exploratory-study-of-long-term-publicly-waitlisted-bariatric-surgery-patients-quality-of-life-before-and-1-year-after-bariatric-surgery-and-considerations-for-healthcare-planners
#19
Julie A Campbell, Martin Hensher, Amanda Neil, Alison Venn, Stephen Wilkinson, Andrew J Palmer
BACKGROUND: Long-term publicly waitlisted bariatric surgery patients typically experience debilitating physical/psychosocial obesity-related comorbidities that profoundly affect their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We sought to measure quality-of-life impacts in a study population of severely obese patients who had multiyear waitlist times and then underwent bariatric surgery. METHODS: Participants were recruited opportunistically following a government-funded initiative to provide bariatric surgery to morbidly obese long-term waitlisted patients...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464478/an-all-payer-risk-model-for-super-utilization-in-a-large-safety-net-system
#20
Jeremy Ziring, Spriha Gogia, Remle Newton-Dame, Jesse Singer, Dave A Chokshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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