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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228321/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-mechanism-of-action-of-community-health-workers-services-the-centrality-of-social-support
#1
Beck Taylor, Jonathan Mathers, Jayne Parry
Objective: To propose an empirically derived and theoretically-informed mechanism to explain how Community Health Workers (CHWs) bring about health gain in clients in England. Methods: We undertook in-depth interviews (n = 43) with CHWs and service staff working in four case studies selected using maximum variation sampling. Interviewees were encouraged to talk about the service, how they had become involved with the service, the CHW role and relationship with clients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227820/the-ultimate-picture-the-combination-of-live-cell-superresolution-microscopy-and-single-molecule-tracking-yields-highest-spatio-temporal-resolution
#2
REVIEW
Simon Dersch, Peter L Graumann
We are witnessing a breathtaking development in light (fluorescence) microscopy, where structures can be resolved down to the size of a ribosome within cells. This has already yielded surprising insight into the subcellular structure of cells, including the smallest cells, bacteria. Moreover, it has become possible to visualize and track single fluorescent protein fusions in real time, and quantify molecule numbers within individual cells. Combined, super resolution and single molecule tracking are pushing the limits of our understanding of the spatio-temporal organization even of the smallest cells to an unprecedented depth...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227618/tackling-the-challenges-of-dynamic-experiments-using-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#3
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#4
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226668/specific-dopamine-sensing-based-on-short-term-plasticity-behavior-of-a-whole-organic-artificial-synapse
#5
Martina Giordani, Marcello Berto, Michele Di Lauro, Carlo Augusto Bortolotti, Michele Zoli, Fabio Biscarini
In this work, we demonstrate the ultra-sensitive and selec-tive detection of dopamine by means of a neuro-inspired device platform without the need of a specific recognition moiety. The sensor is a whole organic device featuring two electrodes made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate - PEDOT:PSS - patterned on a polydymethylsiloxane - PDMS - flexible substrate. One electrode is pulsed with a train of voltage square waves, to mimic the pre-synaptic neuron behavior, while the other is used to record the displacement current, mimicking the post-synaptic neuron...
December 11, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226316/interpersonal-predictors-of-stress-generation-is%C3%A2-there-a-super-factor
#6
Josephine H Shih, Matthew G Barstead, Nicole Dianno
Hammen's (1991, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555-561) seminal paper on stress generation highlighted the reciprocal relationship between stress and depression. Not only does stress predict depression, but women with a diagnosis of depression also experienced subsequent increased levels of stress. In the ensuing years, depression researchers have moved beyond clinical predictors and examined whether depression vulnerability factors also contribute to stress generation. This interest has led to a growing focus on interpersonal vulnerability factors that contribute to stress generation...
December 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225567/the-nanoworld-of-the-tripartite-synapse-insights-from-super-resolution-microscopy
#7
Janosch P Heller, Dmitri A Rusakov
Synaptic connections between individual nerve cells are fundamental to the process of information transfer and storage in the brain. Over the past decades a third key partner of the synaptic machinery has been unveiled: ultrathin processes of electrically passive astroglia which often surround pre- and postsynaptic structures. The recent advent of super-resolution (SR) microscopy has begun to uncover the dynamic nanoworld of synapses and their astroglial environment. Here we overview and discuss the current progress in our understanding of the synaptic nanoenvironment, as gleaned from the imaging methods that go beyond the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225334/a-change-of-view-homologous-recombination-at-single-molecule-resolution
#8
REVIEW
Kyle Kaniecki, Luisina De Tullio, Eric C Greene
Genetic recombination occurs in all organisms and is vital for genome stability. Indeed, in humans, aberrant recombination can lead to diseases such as cancer. Our understanding of homologous recombination is built upon more than a century of scientific inquiry, but achieving a more complete picture using ensemble biochemical and genetic approaches is hampered by population heterogeneity and transient recombination intermediates. Recent advances in single-molecule and super-resolution microscopy methods help to overcome these limitations and have led to new and refined insights into recombination mechanisms, including a detailed understanding of DNA helicase function and synaptonemal complex structure...
December 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224658/management-of-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#9
Ethan J Speir, R Mitchell Ermentrout, Jonathan G Martin
Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), defined as hemorrhage into the gastrointestinal tract distal to the ligament of Treitz, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adults. Overall, mortality rates are estimated between 2.4% and 3.9%. The most common etiology for LGIB is diverticulosis, implicated in approximately 30% of cases, with other causes including hemorrhoids, ischemic colitis, and postpolypectomy bleeding. Transcatheter visceral angiography has begun to play an increasingly important role in both the diagnosis and treatment of LGIB...
December 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223826/modulation-effect-of-double-strand-dna-on-the-self-assembly-of-n-terminal-domain-of-euplotes-octocarinatus-centrin
#10
Wenlong Zhang, Enxian Shi, Yaqin Zhao, Binsheng Yang
Centrin is a member of the EF-hand super family of calcium-binding proteins, which can behave as a part of damage detector initiated the initiation of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Its self-assembly plays a causative role in fiber contraction associated with the cell division cycle and ciliogenesis. To explore the possible role of DNA in the process of centrin self-assembly, the aggregation properties of N-terminal domain of Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (N-EoCen) in the presence of DNA with or without metal ions are investigated...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223614/host-susceptibility-to-mers-cov-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-2015-korean-mers-outbreak
#11
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Ga Eun Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Ji Yong Lee, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
To evaluate host susceptibility factors to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, we conducted a retrospective cohort study from the single largest exposure event of the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak. A total of 175 patients were closely exposed to a super-spreader, 26 of which were infected (14.9%). In a multivariate analysis, history of autologous stem cell transplantation (HR, 31.151; 95% CI, 5.447-178.145; P < 0.001) and tachypnea at ED (HR, 4.392; 95% CI, 1.402-13.761; P = 0...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223566/progress-in-proton-detected-solid-state-nmr-ssnmr-super-fast-2d-ssnmr-collection-for-nano-mole-scale-proteins
#12
Yoshitaka Ishii, Ayesha Wickramasinghe, Isamu Matsuda, Yuki Endo, Yuji Ishii, Yusuke Nishiyama, Takahiro Nemoto, Takayuki Kamihara
Proton-detected solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has attracted much attention due to its excellent sensitivity and effectiveness in the analysis of trace amounts of amyloid proteins and other important biological systems. In this perspective article, we present the recent sensitivity limit of 1H-detected SSNMR using "ultra-fast" magic-angle spinning (MAS) at a spinning rate (νR) of 80-100 kHz. It was demonstrated that the high sensitivity of 1H-detected SSNMR at νR of 100 kHz and fast recycling using the paramagnetic-assisted condensed data collection (PACC) approach permitted "super-fast" collection of 1H-detected 2D protein SSNMR...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222467/elemental-preference-and-atomic-scale-site-recognition-in-a-co-al-w-base-superalloy
#13
Yanhui Chen, Fei Xue, Shengcheng Mao, Haibo Long, Bin Zhang, Qingsong Deng, Bin Chen, Yinong Liu, Pierce Maguire, Hongzhou Zhang, Xiaodong Han, Qiang Feng
Using state-of-the-art atomic scale super energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field imaging this study reveals the elemental partitioning preference between the γ' and γ phases in a Co-Al-W-Ti-Ta superalloy and the site preference of its alloying elements in the ordered L12 γ' phase. A semi-quantitative analysis of atomic column compositions in the ordered L12 γ' structure is provided. Co atoms were found to occupy the {1/2, 1/2, 0} face-center positions whereas Al, W, Ti and Ta atoms prefer to occupy the {0, 0, 0} cube corner positions in the L12 γ phase...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221956/global-burden-of-molar-incisor-hypomineralization
#14
REVIEW
Falk Schwendicke, Karim Elhennawy, Seif Reda, Katrin Bekes, David J Manton, Joachim Krois
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the global, super-regional, regional and national prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) and to determine the numbers of prevalent and incident cases on different spatial scales. The review was registered (PROSPERO CRD42017063842). SOURCES: Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, Google Scholar) were searched systematically. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies on the prevalence of MIH were included and the prevalence on different spatial scales (global, super-regional, regional, national) synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221906/presynaptic-active-zones-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions-nanoarchitecture-and-selective-impairments-in-aging
#15
REVIEW
Yomna Badawi, Hiroshi Nishimune
Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle-derived laminin β2 interacts with presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels to organize active zones. The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221488/divergent-susceptibilities-to-aav-sacas9-grna-vector-mediated-genome-editing-in-a-single-cell-derived-cell-population
#16
Salma G Morsy, Jason M Tonne, Yaxi Zhu, Brian Lu, Karol Budzik, James W Krempski, Sherine A Ali, Mohamed A El-Feky, Yasuhiro Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are characterized by their robust and safe transgene delivery. The CRISPR/Cas9 and guide RNA (gRNA) system present a promising genome-editing platform, and a recent development of a shorter Cas9 enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) allows generation of high titer single AAV vectors which carry both saCas9- and gRNA-expression cassettes. Here, we used two AAV-SaCas9 vectors with distinct GFP-targeted gRNA sequences and determined the impact of AAV-SaCas9-gRNA vector treatment in a single cell clone carrying a GFP-expression cassette...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221466/unusual-pathological-fracture-of-the-clavicle-revealing-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-case-report
#17
Yassir Benameur, Hasnae Guerrouj, Imad Ghfir, Nouzha Ben Rais Aouad
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by a pathological fracture is very uncommon; in the majority of cases the discovery of lytic bone lesions on imaging examinations evokes in the clinician first a neoplastic etiology and a metabolic origin is often omitted. This case report adds to the existing literature as it describes an unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 50-year-old Moroccan man, without any known tumor, who presented a fracture of his left clavicle with multiple osteolytic lesions on computed tomography suggesting bone metastases...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221453/the-extra-cost-of-comorbidity-multiple-illnesses-and-the-economic-burden-of-non-communicable-diseases
#18
Sébastien Cortaredona, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: The literature offers competing estimates of disease costs, with each study having its own data and methods. In 2007, the Dutch Center for Public Health Forecasting of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment provided guidelines that can be used to set up cost-of-illness (COI) studies, emphasising that most COI analyses have trouble accounting for comorbidity in their cost estimations. When a patient has more than one chronic condition, the conditions may interact such that the patient's healthcare costs are greater than the sum of the costs for the individual diseases...
December 8, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221073/beyond-born-rytov-limit-for-super-resolution-optical-diffraction-tomography
#19
JooWon Lim, Abdul Wahab, GwangSik Park, KyeoReh Lee, YongKeun Park, Jong Chul Ye
Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) using Born or Rytov approximation suffers from severe distortions in reconstructed refractive index (RI) tomograms when multiple scattering occurs or the scattering signals are strong. These effects are usually seen as a significant impediment to the application of ODT because multiple scattering is directly linked to an unknown object itself rather than a surrounding medium, and a strong scatter invalidates the underlying assumptions of the Born and Rytov approximations...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221059/metallic-fresnel-zone-plate-implemented-on-an-optical-fiber-facet-for-super-variable-focusing-of-light
#20
Hyuntai Kim, Jinseob Kim, Haechan An, Yohan Lee, Gun-Yeal Lee, Jeongkyun Na, Kyoungyoon Park, Seungjong Lee, Seung-Yeol Lee, Byoungho Lee, Yoonchan Jeong
We propose and investigate a metallic Fresnel zone plate (FZP/MFZP) implemented on a silver-coated optical fiber facet for super-variable focusing of light, the focal point of which can be drastically relocated by varying the wavelength of the incident light. We numerically show that when its nominal focal length is set to 20 μm at 550 nm, its effective focal length can be tuned by ~13.7 μm for 300-nm change in the visible wavelength range. This tuning sensitivity is over 20 times higher than that of a conventional silica-based spherical lens...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
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