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Peritonitis NOT "spontaneous bacterial peritonitis"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887344/relative-adrenal-insufficiency-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-hepatoadrenal-syndrome
#1
Rajiv Ranjan Singh, Rama Walia, Naresh Sachdeva, Ashish Bhalla, Akash Singh, Virendra Singh
AIM: Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) has been reported in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. We evaluated the prevalence of RAI and its relationship to clinical course in non-septic cirrhosis patients with ascites. METHODS: The study included 66 consecutive non-septic cirrhosis patients with ascites. RAI was defined by a delta cortisol lower than 9 μg/dL and/or a peak cortisol lower than 18 μg/dL. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with cirrhosis and ascites were studied...
May 23, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851144/ascitic-fluid-regulates-the-local-innate-immune-response-of-patients-with-cirrhosis
#2
Juan C Nieto, Lídia Perea, Germán Soriano, Carlos Zamora, Elisabet Cantó, Aina Medina, Maria Poca, Elisabet Sanchez, Eva Roman, Germà Julià, Ferran Navarro, Cristina Gely, Edilmar A Alvarado, Carlos Guarner, Cándido Juarez, Sílvia Vidal
Ascitic neutrophils from cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) exhibit an impaired oxidative burst that could facilitate bacterial infection. However, the influence of the cell-free ascitic fluid of these patients on neutrophil function has not been investigated. To analyze this influence, we determined the ascitic levels of cytokines, resistin, and lactoferrin and their association with neutrophil function, disease severity score, and SBP resolution. We analyzed NETosis induction by microscopy and oxidative burst by the flow cytometry of healthy neutrophils cultured in ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients with sterile ascites (SA) and with SBP before and after antibiotic treatment...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842975/prevalence-and-predictors-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-due-to-ceftriaxone-resistant-organisms-at-a-large-tertiary-center-in-the-united-states
#3
Amelia K Sofjan, Rachel J Musgrove, Nicholas D Beyda, Hannah P Russo, Todd M Lasco, Raymond Yau, Alejandro Restrepo, Kevin W Garey
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to ceftriaxone-resistant organisms has not been well studied in the United States (US). The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of ceftriaxone-resistant SBP at a large tertiary center in the US. METHODS: This 1:1:4 case-case-control study included 141 adults with liver cirrhosis admitted from 11/2011 to 03/2016. Case group 1 were patients with SBP with a ceftriaxone-resistant organism (n=21)...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746564/multiple-bacterial-infections-increase-the-risk-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#4
Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Kee Chuah, Shih-Cheng Yang, Chih-Ming Liang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Wei-Chen Tai, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Seng-Howe Nguang, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Ming-Kun Ku, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chien-Ning Hsu
OBJECTIVE: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at increased risk for bacterial infections. It is not fully understood how exposure to infections induces further development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study estimated risks of infection associated with HE among patients with LC. METHODS: A nested case-control study of 14,428 adult patients with LC was performed using the population-based Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. Cases were cirrhotic patients who developed HE during follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743922/xuebijing-injection-combined-with-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-liver-cirrhosis-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Dan Han, Ran Wang, Yang Yu, Mingyu Sun, Rolf Teschke, Fernando Gomes Romeiro, Andrea Mancuso, Tingxue Song, Zhong Peng, Bing Han, Xinmiao Zhou, Wenchun Bao, Qianqian Li, Kexin Zheng, Yingying Li, Zhaohui Bai, Xiaozhong Guo, Xingshun Qi
Background and Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most common complications of liver cirrhosis. Antibiotics are the main treatment regimen of SBP. Traditional Chinese medicine Xuebijing injection has been used in such patients. Our study aimed to overview the efficacy of Xuebijing injection combined with antibiotics for the treatment of SBP. Method: We searched the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wanfang databases...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731084/impact-of-pretransplant-infections-on-clinical-course-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#6
Y J Kim, J H Yoon, S I Kim, H J Choi, J Y Choi, S K Yoon, Y-K You, D-G Kim
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled infections are known to be an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation; however, the posttransplant prognosis of recipients treated for pretransplant infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze pretransplant infections among liver transplant recipients and to determine their impact on posttransplant clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 357 subjects who had undergone living-donor liver transplantation between January 2008 and May 2014...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725793/nonselective-beta-blockers-do-not-affect-survival-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites
#7
REVIEW
Antonio Facciorusso, Sunil Roy, Sarantis Livadas, Adwalia Fevrier-Paul, Clara Wekesa, Ismail Dogu Kilic, Amit Kumar Chaurasia, Mina Sadeq, Nicola Muscatiello
BACKGROUND: The role of nonselective beta-blockers in cirrhotic patients with ascites has been recently questioned; however, definitive evidence in this regard is still lacking. AIMS: To analyze published data on the influence of nonselective beta-blockers as compared to control group on survival of cirrhotic patients with ascites. METHODS: Computerized bibliographic search on the main databases was performed. Hazard ratios from Kaplan-Meier curves were extracted in order to perform an unbiased comparison of survival estimates...
May 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721399/emergency-management-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-clinical-review
#8
REVIEW
Tracy MacIntosh
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) has a high mortality rate; early antimicrobial therapy is essential for improving patient outcomes. Given that cirrhotic patients are often coagulopathic, the perceived risk of bleeding may prevent providers from performing a paracentesis and ruling out this potentially deadly disease. We examine the pathophysiology and risk factors for SBP, and current guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment. We then review the time-sensitive nature of performing a paracentesis, and the current controversies and contraindications for performing this procedure in patients at risk for SBP...
March 1, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686909/spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-due-to-lactobacillus-paracasei-in-cirrhosis
#9
Emily Harding-Theobald, Bharat Maraj
Lactobacillus species colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and are rarely pathogenic. We present a case involving a cirrhotic patient who presented with sepsis and was found to have peritoneal cultures demonstrating Lactobacillus as the sole pathogen concerning for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Treatment was achieved with high-dose penicillin and clindamycin but the patient developed hepatorenal syndrome and died from acute renal failure. Intra-abdominal Lactobacillus infections are typically seen in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis or who have recently had bowel perforation...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528017/budd-chiari-syndrome-diagnosed-in-a-patient-listed-for-liver-transplant-and-considered-to-be-contraindicated-for-the-operation
#10
Kakharman Yesmembetov, Zhansaya Muratova, Sergey Borovskiy, Irina Ten, Kulpash Kaliaskarova
We report the clinical case of 23-year-old patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown genesis, significant resistant ascites, and 2 episodes of bleeding from esophageal varices. Evaluation did not find any cause of liver disease, and the patient was placed on the transplant wait list due to subcompensated liver function (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, Child-Pugh class B) and poorly controlled severe portal hypertension. After treatment with diuretics, largevolume paracentesis, antibiotics, and vasoconstrictors, hepatorenal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis resolved and liver function improved significantly...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505476/homocysteine-a-new-diagnostic-marker-in-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#11
Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Waleed Eldars, Rania Elhelaly, Ahmed A Eldeeb, Mostafa Abdelsalam, Niveen El-Wakeel, Alsaid Aboulmagd
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) depends primarily on a polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell count more than 250/mm. This method is invasive, and not diagnostic in all variants of SBP; we aimed to assess serum homocysteine as a precise indicative marker for the diagnosis of all variants of SBP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total 323 consecutive ascitic patients were registered in this prospective work. Serum and ascitic fluid of homocysteine were evaluated utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503228/early-linezolid-associated-lactic-acidosis-in-a-patient-with-child-s-class-c-liver-cirrhosis-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Chih-Ning Cheng, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, does not required dose adjustment in patients with Child's class A and B liver cirrhosis. The dose adjustment data for Child's class C liver cirrhosis is inadequate. We reported a case of Child's class C liver cirrhosis, in which lactic acidosis, an adverse effect related to prolonged use, occurred only after two weeks of linezolid treatment. A 63-year old male had underlying diseases, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and Child's class C liver cirrhosis, and was admitted for hepatic encephalopathy management and liver transplantation evaluation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502362/clinical-impact-of-healthcare-associated-acquisition-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-community-onset-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#13
Jungok Kim, Cheol-In Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Background/Aims: Healthcare-associated (HCA) infection is a recently suggested new category of community-onset infections. The implications of HCA infections in terms of diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are not well understood. We sought to delineate the differences between community-acquired (CA) SBP and HCA SBP with specific interest in the antimicrobial resistance of causative microorganisms and outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all SBP episodes with positive ascitic culture and/or blood culture from June 2000 to August 2011...
March 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399286/toll-like-receptor-4-polymorphisms-and-bacterial-infections-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-ascites
#14
Edilmar Alvarado-Tapias, Carlos Guarner-Argente, Elida Oblitas, Elisabet Sánchez, Silvia Vidal, Eva Román, Mar Concepción, Maria Poca, Cristina Gely, Oana Pavel, Juan Camilo Nieto, Cándido Juárez, Carlos Guarner, Germán Soriano
AIM: To assess the relationship between the presence of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms and bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with ascites. METHODS: We prospectively included consecutive patients with cirrhosis and ascites hospitalized during a 6-year period. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or any other immunodeficiency, patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (beyond Milan's criteria) or any other condition determining poor short-term prognosis, and patients with a permanent urinary catheter were excluded...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384797/clarifying-the-role-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-predictor-in-decompensated-cirrhosis
#15
David N Perdigoto, Pedro N Figueiredo, Luís F Tomé
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections are frequent in cirrhosis and may induce other deleterious complications. Ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), like other acute-phase proteins, is often considered useful in predicting bacterial infection in decompensated cirrhosis. However, US-CRP's reliability remains inconclusive, as inflammation in cirrhosis causes US-CRP synthesis independently of infection. The aim of this study was to clarify US-CRP's role as an infection predictor in decompensated cirrhosis...
June 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377193/von-willebrand-factor-indicates-bacterial-translocation-inflammation-and-procoagulant-imbalance-and-predicts-complications-independently-of-portal-hypertension-severity
#16
M Mandorfer, P Schwabl, R Paternostro, K Pomej, D Bauer, J Thaler, C Ay, P Quehenberger, M Fritzer-Szekeres, M Peck-Radosavljevic, M Trauner, T Reiberger, A Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF) has been shown to indicate the presence of clinically significant portal hypertension, and thus, predicts the development of clinical events in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To investigate the impact of bacterial translocation and inflammation on vWF, as well as the association between vWF and procoagulant imbalance. Moreover, we assessed whether vWF predicts complications of cirrhosis, independent of the severity of portal hypertension...
April 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303884/the-first-episode-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-is-a-threat-event-in-children-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#17
Sandra M G Vieira, Fernando P Schwengber, Melina Melere, Marília R Ceza, Melina Souza, Carlos O Kieling
OBJECTIVE: Studies on native liver survival (NLS) after the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are rare. Our objective was to evaluate NLS in children up to 1 year after SBP. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 18 children followed after the first episode of SBP was conducted. NLS, in-hospital mortality, causes of death, and rate of multidrug-resistant organisms were reported. RESULTS: Biliary atresia was the most prevalent diagnosis (72...
March 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303883/are-third-generation-cephalosporins-still-the-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-of-community-acquired-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Marco Fiore, Ivan Gentile, Alberto E Maraolo, Sebastiano Leone, Vittorio Simeon, Paolo Chiodini, Maria C Pace, Thierry Gustot, Fabio S Taccone
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication among cirrhotic patients. Guidelines recommend third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) as empiric antibiotic therapy (EAT) of SBP. Recently, a broad-spectrum EAT was shown to be more effective than cephalosporins in the treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (N-SBP); however, the prevalence of 3GCs-resistant bacteria is high in the nosocomial setting and broad-spectrum EAT cannot be used in all cases of SBP...
March 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290909/influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#19
Suelen A S Miozzo, Jorge A John, Marcelo C Appel-da-Silva, Isabella A Dossin, Cristiane V Tovo, Angelo A Mattos
AIM: To investigate whether the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: An historical cohort study was carried out in cirrhotic outpatients with ascites followed in a specialized clinic at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patient charts were reviewed to collect information on the variables of interest as the use of PPIs. Primary outcome was defined as development of SBP during the study period...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235260/functional-polymorphisms-of-innate-immunity-receptors-are-not-risk-factors-for-the-non-sbp-type-bacterial-infections-in-cirrhosis
#20
Tamas Dinya, Tamas Tornai, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, Boglárka Balogh, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Andrea Sumegi, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Andras Bors, Attila Tordai, Maria Papp
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have a key role in the innate host defense. Functional polymorphisms of various PRRs have been established to contribute to an increased susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Their role in the development of cirrhosis-associated bacterial infections (BI), beyond SBP or progressive disease course related to pathological bacterial translocation (BT) remains unknown. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-nine patients with cirrhosis were genotyped for common NOD2 (R702W, G908R and L1007PfsinsC), TLR2 (-16934T>A), and TLR4 (D299G) variants...
December 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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