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"Review article"

Samane Zare, Mehdi Nemati, Yuqing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. METHOD: A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type...
2018: PloS One
Vanessa Lin Lin Lee, Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Yin-Sir Chung, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Metabolic epilepsy is a metabolic abnormality which is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy development in affected individuals. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs are typically ineffective against metabolic epilepsy as they do not address its root cause. Presently, there is no review available which summarizes all the treatment options for metabolic epilepsy. Thus, we systematically reviewed literature which reported on the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy from four databases, namely PubMed, Springer, Scopus and ScienceDirect...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mitko Kocarev, Fouzia Khalid, Fatima Khatoon, Roshan Fernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuraxial labor analgesia remains the most effective and one of the most commonly utilized methods for pain relief during labor. This narrative review article is a summary of the literature published in 2017 on neuraxial analgesia for labor. RECENT FINDINGS: From a total of 41 identified articles, 13 were included in the review. The topics have been structured into three categories: initiation of neuraxial analgesia, maintenance of neuraxial analgesia, and neuraxial analgesia and obstetric outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Matthias Vojta
This review article is devoted to the interplay between frustrated magnetism and quantum critical phenomena, covering both theoretical concepts and ideas as well as recent experimental developments in correlated-electron materials. The first part deals with local-moment magnetism in Mott insulators and the second part with frustration in metallic systems. In both cases, frustration can either induce exotic phases accompanied by exotic quantum critical points or lead to conventional ordering with unconventional crossover phenomena...
March 15, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Jian Yin, Xudong Deng, Jie Zhang, Jun Lin
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) remains as a obstacle for effective cancer therapy. Nanoparticles (NPs)-based delivery systems are promising to overcome MDR, but only a few of them have been accepted for clinical treatment, due to characteristics such as insufficient transportation and potential toxicity. In this respect, mounting attention has been attracted towards interactions between NPs and ABC transporters, which hold a key role in the treatment of multidrug-resistant cancer and NP toxicity...
March 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
A Lang, G Wirth, H Gasse
The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Debra A Field, Roslyn W Livingstone
AIM: To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Haifeng Xu, Oliver G Schmidt
Micro- and nano-motors are emerging as novel drug delivery platforms, offering advantages such as rapid drug transport, high tissue penetration and motion controllability. They can be propelled and/or guided by endogenous (i.e., chemotaxis) or exogenous stimuli (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic fields, light) toward the area of interest. Moreover, such stimuli can be used to trigger the release of a therapeutic payload when the motor reaches certain location in order to improve the drug targeting. In this review article, we highlight medically oriented micro-/nano-motors, in particular the ones created for targeted drug delivery, and discuss their current limitations and possibilities toward in vivo applications...
March 1, 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
Gul H Dadlani, Thomas C Edwards, Steven Fishberger, Amos Epelman, Nicholas Erbrich
Electrocardiograms may be used to screen for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children. Many forms of CVD that predispose to sudden cardiac death are associated with T-wave abnormalities in childhood. The T-wave is generated during ventricular repolarization. T-waves on an electrocardiogram typically undergo maturational changes throughout childhood and adolescence. A pediatric practitioner's ability to understand these changes is required to understand abnormal T-waves and recognize potentially life-threatening types of CVD...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Hector M Mora-Montes, Yu Zhang, Gustavo Nino-Vega, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Sybren de Hoog
The description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Priscila H A Oliveira, Beatriz S Souza, Eimi N Pacheco, Michele S Menegazzo, Ivan S Corrêa, Paulo R G Zen, Rafael F M Rosa, Claudia C Cesa, Lucia C Pellanda, Manuel A P Vilela
BACKGROUND: Numerous genetic syndromes associated with heart disease and ocular manifestations have been described. However, a compilation and a summarization of these syndromes for better consultation and comparison have not been performed yet. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to systematize available evidence in the literature on different syndromes that may cause congenital heart diseases associated with ocular changes, focusing on the types of anatomical and functional changes...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Qing-Long Wang, Juan-Hua Chen, Ning-Yu He, Fang-Qing Guo
Increases in ambient temperatures have been a severe threat to crop production in many countries around the world under climate change. Chloroplasts serve as metabolic centers and play a key role in physiological adaptive processes to heat stress. In addition to expressing heat shock proteins that protect proteins from heat-induced damage, metabolic reprogramming occurs during adaptive physiological processes in chloroplasts. Heat stress leads to inhibition of plant photosynthetic activity by damaging key components functioning in a variety of metabolic processes, with concomitant reductions in biomass production and crop yield...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roshan Noor Mohamed, Sakeenabi Basha, Yousef Al-Thomali
The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of platelet concentrates in pulpotomy of human teeth. Our systematic search included Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, key journals, and review articles; the date of the last search was July 30, 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Four randomized controlled trails were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 28 to 50, with a mean of 45...
March 14, 2018: Platelets
James F Leckman, Pia Rebello Britto
This special issue of New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development features four review articles from authoritative leaders in the field. These articles highlight how far our field has come over the past five decades, as well as how much further effort is needed to refine, adapt, and implement - in a sustainable fashion - responsive parenting and nurturing care programs of proven value across the globe.
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Naoki Nakano, Chetan Gohal, Andrew Duong, Olufemi R Ayeni, Vikas Khanduja
OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the options of treatment and their related outcomes for chondral injuries in the hip based on the available evidence whilst highlighting new and innovative techniques. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature from PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, Google Scholar, British Nursing Index (BNI), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) was undertaken from their inception to March 2017 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
March 13, 2018: International Orthopaedics
P Riedel, M N Smolka, M Bauer
More than half of the patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a subgroup of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder show impairment in neurocognitive and social cognitive performance. The degree of impairment varies from person to person. An improvement of cognitive impairment results in increased subjective quality of life and increased psychosocial functioning, to a much greater extent than successful treatment of other symptoms. Therefore, it is reasonable to not only recognize and bear decreased cognitive functioning in mind but also to offer specific treatment of impairments...
March 13, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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