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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936483/perspectives-of-immunotherapy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#1
N Büttner, N Schmidt, R Thimme
Immunotherapy is considered a new treatment option for many tumor entities, as decades of research into cancer immunotherapy have recently yielded promising results. Indeed, impressive clinical results of checkpoint blockade inhibitors in malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer indicate the therapeutic potential of tumor-specific immune restoration. Over the years, different immunotherapeutic approaches have been evaluated for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with some respectable results...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935057/crosstalk-among-uv-induced-inflammatory-mediators-dna-damage-and-epigenetic-regulators-facilitates-suppression-of-the-immune-system
#2
Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
The suppression of the immune system by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. Numerous changes occur in the skin on UVB exposure, including the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and migration and functional alterations in the antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Although each of these alterations can elicit a cascade of events that have the potential to modulate immune sensitivity alone, there is emerging evidence that there is considerable crosstalk between these cascades...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934794/angiotensin-receptor-blockers-endothelial-dysfunction-possible-correlation-therapeutic-implications
#3
REVIEW
Miroslav Radenkovic, Marko Stojanović, Ivana Milićević Nešić, Milica Prostran
The endothelium is one of the most important constituents of vascular homeostasis, which is achieved through continual and balanced production of different relaxing and contractile factors. When there is a pathological disturbance in release of these products, endothelial dysfunction (ED) will probably occur. ED is considered to be the initial step in the development of atherosclerosis. This pathological activation and inadequate functioning of endothelial cells was shown to be to some extent a reversible process, which all together resulted in increased interest in investigation of different beneficial treatment options...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933569/decision-making-in-clinical-practice-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-a-single-additional-stroke-risk-factor
#4
REVIEW
Tatjana S Potpara, Nikolaos Dagres, Nebojša Mujović, Dragan Vasić, Milika Ašanin, Milan Nedeljkovic, Francisco Marin, Laurent Fauchier, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Gregory Y H Lip
Approximately 1 in 3-4 patients presenting with an ischemic stroke will also have atrial fibrillation (AF), and AF-related strokes can be effectively prevented using oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), either with well-controlled vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). In addition, OAC use (both VKAs and NOACs) is associated with a 26% reduction in all-cause mortality (VKAs) or an additional 10% mortality reduction with NOACs relative to VKAs. The decision to use OAC in individual AF patient is based on the estimated balance of the benefit from ischemic stroke reduction against the risk of major OAC-related bleeding [essentially intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)]...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933012/degrees-of-freedom-in-planning-running-analyzing-and-reporting-psychological-studies-a-checklist-to-avoid-p-hacking
#5
REVIEW
Jelte M Wicherts, Coosje L S Veldkamp, Hilde E M Augusteijn, Marjan Bakker, Robbie C M van Aert, Marcel A L M van Assen
The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932948/rna-editing-systemic-relevance-and-clue-to-disease-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Jochen C Meier, Svenja Kankowski, Heinz Krestel, Florian Hetsch
Recent advances in sequencing technologies led to the identification of a plethora of different genes and several hundreds of amino acid recoding edited positions. Changes in editing rates of some of these positions were associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, myopathy, epilepsy, major depression disorder, schizophrenia and other mental disorders as well as cancer and brain tumors. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on that front and presents glycine receptor C-to-U RNA editing as a first example of disease-associated increased RNA editing that includes assessment of disease mechanisms of the corresponding gene product in an animal model...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930893/severe-snakebite-envenoming-in-intensive-care
#7
REVIEW
Jiří Valenta, Zdeněk Stach, Pavel Michálek
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930730/effects-of-recreation-on-animals-revealed-as-widespread-through-a-global-systematic-review
#8
Courtney L Larson, Sarah E Reed, Adina M Merenlender, Kevin R Crooks
Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering negative effects of recreation on animals. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and analyzed 274 articles on the effects of non-consumptive recreation on animals, across all geographic areas, taxonomic groups, and recreation activities. We quantified trends in publication rates and outlets, identified knowledge gaps, and assessed evidence for effects of recreation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930444/a-mysterious-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-levels-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-meta-analysis-of-clinical-studies
#9
Jing Wu, Jie Zhou, Lu Dong, Wenjing Fan, Jinyu Zhang, Caiqin Wu
OBJECTIVE: There are contradicting claims that patients with Ménière's disease (MD) have elevated levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP). The results of published studies regarding the difference of AVP level between MD patients and non-MD control subjects are inconsistent. We propose that the discrepancy of AVP levels during different MD phases may be a potential reason. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the precise estimate of this hypothesis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases from the earliest publication, up until September 2016; references from meta-analyses and related review articles...
December 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928728/clinical-perspectives-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficiency
#10
REVIEW
Krupali Bulsari, Henrik Falhammar
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is caused by reduced or absent activity of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) enzyme and the resultant defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. The most common clinical features of 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency are ambiguous genitalia, accelerated skeletal maturation and resultant short stature, peripheral precocious puberty and hyporeninemic hypokalemic hypertension. The biochemical diagnosis is based on raised serum 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone levels together with increased adrenal androgens...
December 7, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928524/review-of-medicinal-remedies-on-hand-eczema-based-on-iranian-traditional-medicine-a-narrative-review-article
#11
REVIEW
Parvin Mansouri, Aleme Khademi, Daryoush Pahlevan, Zahra Memariani, Jale Aliasl, Laila Shirbeigii
BACKGROUND: Hand Eczema (HE) is a dermatological disorder with frequent relapses and multiple causes such as atopic, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The management is complex because of the wide range of different pathogenesis. Efficacy of some of available treatments is not well established and it can affect patients' quality of life significantly. METHODS: Reports on HE such as diagnosis, pathophysiology, pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy that described in medieval Iranian medicine, were gathered and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM)...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928522/breastfeeding-education-where-are-we-going-a-systematic-review-article
#12
REVIEW
Maria Adriana Burgio, Antonio Simone Laganà, Angela Sicilia, Romana Prosperi Porta, Maria Grazia Porpora, Helena Ban Frangež, Giovanni DI Venti, Onofrio Triolo
BACKGROUND: UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) and WHO estimate that if all babies were breastfed for at least the first six months of their lives, the rate of morbidity and malnutrition would significantly decrease all over the world. In this view, these two organizations promoted a worldwide campaign for breastfeeding, creating the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) that encourages good practices for the promotion of breastfeeding in hospitals. The aim of our study was to review the available evidence regarding the positive effects of breastfeeding, in order to suggest to most appropriate strategy to support it...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928102/cytotoxicity-and-biocompatibility-of-resin-free-and-resin-modified-direct-pulp-capping-materials-a-state-of-the-art-review
#13
Liang Chen, Byoung In Suh
Direct pulp capping is the placement of a dental material directly over exposed pulp to prevent dental pulp from dying and avoid the need for root canal treatments. Calcium hydroxide and calcium silicates/mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) have been commonly used for direct pulp capping with great success clinically. In recent years, resin-modified calcium hydroxide and calcium silicates have been developed with the advantages of precise placement, command set, and superior physical strength. As pulp capping materials would be in direct contact with the pulp, the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility is of particular importance in order to avoid pulp irritation and maintain pulp vitality...
December 6, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928097/intestinal-immunity-and-gut-microbiota-in-atherogenesis
#14
Tomoya Yamashita
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Interventions targeting the inflammatory process could provide new strategies for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previously, we have reported that oral administration of anti-CD3 antibodies, or active vitamin D3, reduced atherosclerosis in mice via recruiting regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. From this, it is reasonable to propose that the intestine could be a novel therapeutic target for prevention of atherosclerotic CVD...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926789/characterization-of-the-oropharynx-anatomy-histology-immunology-squamous-cell-carcinoma-surgical-resection
#15
REVIEW
Croix C Fossum, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, L Price, Joaquin J Garcia
Understanding the structure and function of the oropharynx is paramount to providing excellent patient care. In clinical oncology, the oropharynx is generally divided into four distinct components: (1) base of tongue, (2) soft palate, (3) palatine tonsillar fossa, and (4) pharyngeal wall. Oropharyngeal mucosa is distinct from other mucosal surfaces in the body since it is comprised of a reticulated epithelium with a discontinuous basement membrane, also known as lymphoepithelium. This review article describes the anatomy, histology, immunology and surgical resection of the oropharynx as it relates to oncologic care...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925335/the-relationship-between-self-blame-for-the-onset-of-a-chronic-physical-health-condition-and-emotional-distress-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Leah Callebaut, Philip Molyneux, Tim Alexander
OBJECTIVE: Past literature presents contrasting perspectives regarding the potential influence of self-blame on adjustment to illness. This systematic literature review aimed to summarize findings from all investigations to date that have explored the relationship between self-blame for the onset of a chronic physical health condition and emotional distress. METHOD: Between November 2014 and February 2015, electronic databases were searched for relevant literature...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925121/review-of-deaths-correction-methods-and-quality-dimensions-of-the-underlying-cause-for-accidents-and-violence-in-brazil
#17
Adauto Martins Soares, Juan José Cortez-Escalante, Elisabeth França
This review article aims to perform analysis and critical discussion about the literature on methods correcting mortality from accidents and violence reported to the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We consulted Medline and SciELO databases, as well as the Global Burden of Disease site, using time filter for the 1996-2015 interval. Of the 77 studies identified, we selected 29, and 14 met the corrections production criteria for cases of underreporting: underreporting of deaths in the Mortality Information System, deaths declared as ill-defined causes or deaths from external causes declared with nonspecific codes...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924434/prophylactic-antibiotics-for-percutaneous-endovascular-procedures
#18
REVIEW
N S Greaves, E Katsogridakis, B Faris, D Murray
Percutaneous endovascular techniques are used increasingly in the vascular armamentarium. Commonly performed as day case procedures under local anaesthetic, they are suited to the highly co-morbid vascular patient population. Furthermore, technological advances have resulted in ever improving outcomes for aneurysmal and occlusive disease. Endovascular procedures such as endovascular aneurysm repair or iliac artery stenting are traditionally associated with reduced infectious complications compared to equivalent open techniques...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922909/research-on-experiences-related-to-the-possibility-of-consciousness-beyond-the-brain-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-global-scientific-output
#19
Jorge Cecílio Daher, Rodolfo Furlan Damiano, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Giancarlo Lucchetti
This study aims to conduct a search of publications investigating experiences commonly associated with the possibility of the existence of a consciousness independent of the brain held on the main scientific databases (Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Scopus). Of the 9065 articles retrieved, 1954 were included (598 near-death experiences, 223 out-of-body experiences, 56 end-of-life experiences, 224 possession, 244 memories suggestive of past lives, 565 mediumship, 44 others). Over the decades, there was an evident increase in the number of articles on all the areas of the field, with the exception of studies on mediumship that showed a decline during the late 20th century and subsequent rise in the early 21st century...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#20
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
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