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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431573/a-highly-pathogenic-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-effectively-produces-infectious-virions-compared-with-a-less-pathogenic-virus-in-cell-culture
#1
Shoya Iwanami, Yusuke Kakizoe, Satoru Morita, Tomoyuki Miura, Shinji Nakaoka, Shingo Iwami
BACKGROUND: The host range of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite narrow. Therefore, analyzing HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo has been limited owing to lack of appropriate animal model systems. To overcome this, chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that encode HIV-1 Env and are infectious to macaques have been developed and used to investigate the pathogenicity of HIV-1 in vivo. So far, we have many SHIV strains that show different pathogenesis in macaque experiments...
April 21, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#2
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430679/cervicovaginal-levels-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-2-3-and-4-of-reproductive-aged-women-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#3
Nathália Mayumi Noda-Nicolau, Larissa Brito Bastos, Aline Nascimento Bolpetti, Gabriel Vitor Silva Pinto, Larissa Doddi Marcolino, Camila Marconi, Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Jossimara Polettini, Eliane Passarelli Vieira, Márcia Guimarães da Silva
OBJECTIVE: This study included women attending primary health care units in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, to assess the cervicovaginal levels of human β-defensin (hBD) 1, 2, 3, and 4 during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervicovaginal samples were collected for Pap testing and assessing the presence of infection by C. trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal smears were taken to evaluate local microbiota...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429281/impact-of-thyroid-disease-on-testicular-function
#5
REVIEW
Sandro La Vignera, Roberto Vita, Rosita A Condorelli, Laura M Mongioì, Silvia Presti, Salvatore Benvenga, Aldo E Calogero
INTRODUCTION: Testis was considered unresponsive to thyroid hormone for a long time. However, like in animals, the presence of thyroid hormone receptors in different testicular cell types was demonstrated also in humans. Accordingly, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism have remarkable effects on testicular function and more extensively on fertility. REVIEW: Thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism are associated with changes affecting the endocrine, sexual, or reproductive functions...
April 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428841/reproductive-traits-associated-with-species-turnover-of-amphibians-in-amazonia-and-its-andean-slopes
#6
Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Juan M Guayasamin, Santiago R Ron, Ignacio De la Riva
Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428391/the-interaction-of-human-population-food-production-and-biodiversity-protection
#7
REVIEW
Eileen Crist, Camilo Mora, Robert Engelman
Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424471/human-luteinizing-hormone-and-chorionic-gonadotropin-display-biased-agonism-at-the-lh-and-lh-cg-receptors
#8
Laura Riccetti, Romain Yvinec, Danièle Klett, Nathalie Gallay, Yves Combarnous, Eric Reiter, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini, Mohammed Akli Ayoub
Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been considered biologically equivalent because of their structural similarities and their binding to the same receptor; the LH/CGR. However, accumulating evidence suggest that LH/CGR differentially responds to the two hormones triggering differential intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis. The mechanistic basis of such differential responses remains mostly unknown. Here, we compared the abilities of recombinant rhLH and rhCG to elicit cAMP, β-arrestin 2 activation, and steroidogenesis in HEK293 cells and mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423240/biochemical-cellular-physiological-and-pathological-consequences-of-human-loss-of-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid
#9
Jonathan Okerblom, Ajit Varki
About 2-3 million years ago, Alu-mediated deletion of a critical exon in the CMAH gene became fixed in the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, possibly through a stepwise process of selection by pathogen targeting of the CMAH product (the sialic acid Neu5Gc), followed by reproductive isolation via female anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. Loss of CMAH has occurred independently in some other lineages, but is functionally intact in Old World primates, including our closest relatives, the chimpanzees. While the biophysical and biochemical ramifications of losing tens of millions of Neu5Gc hydroxyl groups at most cell surfaces remains poorly understood, there are multi-scale effects functionally relevant to both sides of the host-pathogen interface...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422159/spastic-paraplegia-linked-phospholipase-papla1-is-necessary-for-development-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism-in-drosophila
#10
Martina Gáliková, Peter Klepsatel, Judith Münch, Ronald P Kühnlein
The human PAPLA1 phospholipase family is associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Taking advantage of a new Drosophila PAPLA1 mutant, we describe here novel functions of this phospholipase family in fly development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. Loss of Drosophila PAPLA1 reduces egg hatchability, pre-adult viability, developmental speed, and impairs reproductive functions of both males and females...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421509/appendix-e-rapid-i-tm-closed-vitrification-device-by-vitrolife
#11
Mark G Larman
Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos is a growing technique in numerous reproductive fields including human-assisted reproduction. With improved understanding of embryo physiology and optimized culture conditions, there are now more embryos than ever to vitrify for potential use in subsequent cycles. Many gametes and embryos have been cryopreserved in open systems, but there are concerns with regard to contamination from the liquid nitrogen and also cross-contamination between patients' germplasm. The development of the Rapid-i™, a closed vitrification device that does not use direct contact with liquid nitrogen during vitrification or subsequent storage, will be discussed as well as clinical protocols for human oocytes and embryos...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421497/chapter-13-human-ovarian-tissue-vitrification
#12
Sherman Silber
Ovarian freezing and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a potential way of preserving fertility in cancer patients as well as for women who just wish to delay childbearing. This chapter spells out our techniques of ovarian cortex vitrification and results for frozen compared to fresh ovarian cortex transplantation (in one single series from one center for the sake of consistency), as well as potentially provides insight into the mechanism behind ovarian follicle recruitment. This represents an effort to simplify and popularize an approach that has yielded favorable results (all cases recovered ovulation and 75% had successful spontaneous pregnancy) in one single, disciplined study...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421494/chapter-10-human-oocyte-vitrification
#13
Laura Rienzi, Ana Cobo, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
Discovery and widespread application of successful cryopreservation methods for MII-phase oocytes was one of the greatest successes in human reproduction during the past decade. Although considerable improvements in traditional slow-rate freezing were also achieved, the real breakthrough was the result of introduction of vitrification. Here we describe the method that is most commonly applied for this purpose, provides consistent survival and in vitro developmental rates, results in pregnancy and birth rates comparable to those achievable with fresh oocytes, and does not result in higher incidence of gynecological or postnatal complications...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421493/chapter-9-slow-freezing-and-thawing-of-human-cleavage-stage-embryos
#14
David H Edgar, Janell Archer, Debra A Gook
The ability to store human embryos in a viable state at very low temperatures has been critical to the evolution of responsible practice in clinical Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). It has encouraged a reduction in the frequency of simultaneous multiple embryo transfer and thereby reduced the risks associated with multiple pregnancy while maintaining high cumulative pregnancy rates from single oocyte collection cycles. In this chapter, we describe a simple slow freezing procedure for human early cleavage stage embryos that results in a high proportion of post-thaw embryos surviving and retaining their implantation potential...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421492/chapter-8-human-oocytes-slow-rate-freezing-methodology
#15
C Zacà, A Borini
Cryopreservation of human oocytes is an important technique for the treatment of human infertility, as it deals successfully with legal, ethical, and moral issues related to embryo cryopreservation (Coticchio et al., Human Fertil (Camb) 4:152-157, 2001; Tucker et al., Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 113: 524-527, 2004) and maintains reproductive potential in women with diseases or conditions that may compromise reproductive capacity. Here, we describe an oocyte cryopreservation technique involving slow freezing-rapid thawing with differential sucrose concentration (0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421489/chapter-5-slow-freezing-of-human-sperm
#16
Ashok Agarwal, Eva Tvrda
Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa is a highly efficient procedure for managing male fertility, and much of its successful application seems to have a crucial impact on the reproductive outcome of assisted reproduction technologies. Here, we present, explain, and describe the slow freezing method for preserving human spermatozoa, which is currently the most commonly used freezing technique in most clinical andrology laboratories.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420996/chronic-water-pipe-smoke-exposure-induces-injurious-effects-to-reproductive-system-in-male-mice
#17
Badreldin H Ali, Khalid A Al Balushi, Mohammed Ashique, Asem Shalaby, Mohammed A Al Kindi, Sirin A Adham, Turan Karaca, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Abderrahim Nemmar
There is a global increase in the popularity of water-pipe tobacco smoking including in Europe and North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the male reproductive effects of water-pipe smoke (WPS), especially after long-term exposure. Here, we assessed effects of WPS exposure (30 min/day) in male mice for 6 months. Control mice were exposed to air-only for the same period of time. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, testicular histopathology, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and the tyrosine-protein kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) were assessed in testicular homogenates...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420859/ultrastructural-and-physico-chemical-characterization-of-saliva-during-menstrual-cycle-in-perspective-of-ovulation-in-human
#18
Ganesan Saibaba, Mahalingam Srinivasan, Archunan Priya Aarthy, Velliyangiri Silambarasan, Govindaraju Archunan
Human saliva is a potential diagnostic fluid and any alteration in body might be reflected in saliva so that saliva is considered as "mirror of the body". Variations in salivary hormone level, ultra structure, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and electrolytes level are found during menstrual cycle in regard to ovulation. Thirty healthy volunteers were used for the assessment of physico-chemical changes in saliva. Reproductive cycle was categorized as pre-ovulation phase (5 to 12 days), ovulation phase (13 or 14 days) and post-ovulation phase (15 to 25 days) according to salivary arborization test and hormonal analysis...
April 14, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420494/molecular-regulation-and-role-of-angiogenesis-in-reproduction
#19
REVIEW
Momchil Rizov, Petya Andreeva, Ivanka Dimova
Angiogenesis is an essential process for proper functioning of the female reproductive system and for successful pregnancy realization. The multitude of factors required for physiological angiogenesis and the complexity of regulation of their temporal-spatial activities contribute to aberrations in human fertilization and pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we reviewed the current knowledge of the temporal expression patterns, functions, and regulatory mechanisms of angiogenic factors during foliculogenesis, early implantation/placentation and embryo development, as well as recurrent spontaneous abortions...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419839/near-infrared-laser-irradiation-improves-the-development-of-mouse-pre-implantation-embryos
#20
Masaki Yokoo, Miho Mori
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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