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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777415/preparation-of-biologically-active-monomeric-recombinant-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-recombinant-growth-hormones
#1
Ewa Ocłoń, Gili Solomon, Zvi Hayouka, Arieh Gertler
Fish growth hormones (GHs) play an important role in regulating growth, metabolism, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immunity and have thus garnered attention for their application in aquaculture. Zebrafish GH (zGH) cDNA or rainbow trout GH (rtGH) cDNA was cloned into the pMon3401 vector, expressed in MON105-competent Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Their biological activity was evidenced by their ability to interact with ovine GH receptor extracellular domain and stimulate GH receptor-mediated proliferation in FDC-P1-3B9 cells stably transfected with rabbit GH receptor...
May 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774963/glucocorticoid-signaling-regulates-cell-invasion-and-migration-in-the-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cell-line-sw-71
#2
Edwina P Kisanga, Zhonghua Tang, Seth Guller, Shannon Whirledge
PROBLEM: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Using microarray analysis, we identified the glucocorticoid-regulated transcriptional profile in the immortalized first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line Swan...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#3
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774260/can-the-uk-s-birth-registration-system-better-serve-the-interests-of-those-born-following-collaborative-assisted-reproduction
#4
Marilyn A Crawshaw, Eric D Blyth, Julia Feast
Current birth registration systems fail to serve adequately the interests of those born as a result of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy. In the UK, changes to the birth registration system have been piecemeal, reactive and situation-specific and no information is recorded about gamete donors. Birth registration has thereby become a statement of legal parentage and citizenship only, without debate as to whether it should serve any wider functions. This sits uneasily with the increasingly accepted human right to know one's genetic and gestational as well as legal parents, and the duty of the State to facilitate that right...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773834/embryonic-pou5f1-is-required-for-expanded-bovine-blastocyst-formation
#5
Bradford W Daigneault, Sandeep Rajput, George W Smith, Pablo J Ross
POU5F1 is a transcription factor and master regulator of cell pluripotency with indispensable roles in early embryo development and cell lineage specification. The role of embryonic POU5F1 in blastocyst formation and cell lineage specification differs between mammalian species but remains completely unknown in cattle. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was utilized for targeted disruption of the POU5F1 gene by direct injection into zygotes. Disruption of the bovine POU5F1 locus prevented blastocyst formation and was associated with embryonic arrest at the morula stage...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773482/a-model-for-leptospire-dynamics-and-control-in-the-norway-rat-rattus-norvegicus-the-reservoir-host-in-urban-slum-environments
#6
Amanda Minter, Peter J Diggle, Federico Costa, James Childs, Albert I Ko, Mike Begon
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that humans can contract via contact with animal reservoirs directly or with water contaminated with their urine. The primary reservoir of pathogenic leptospires within urban slum environments is the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). Motivated by the annual outbreaks of human leptospirosis in slum urban settings, the within population infection dynamics of the Norway rat were investigated in Pau da Lima, an community in Salvador, Brazil. A mechanistic model of the dynamics of leptospire infection was informed by extensive field and laboratory data was developed and explored analytically...
May 5, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772210/in-silico-analysis-seasonal-variation-and-gonadotropic-regulation-of-jag1-and-its-receptor-notch1-in-testis-of-spotted-snakehead-channa-punctatus
#7
Alivia Roy, Reetuparna Basak, Umesh Rai
The present study in seasonally breeding spotted snakehead Channa punctatus, for the first time in nonmammalian vertebrates, demonstrated correlation between reproductive phase-dependent testicular expression of ligand Jag1/receptor Notch1 and spermatogenic events. Testicular transcriptome sequencing data from our earlier study in C. punctatus was used in the present study to select the best transcript for jag1 (cpjag1) and notch1 (cpnotch1). The transcripts cpjag1 and cpnotch1 encoded full-length putative proteins of 1215 (cpJag1) and 2475 (cpNotch1) amino acids, respectively...
May 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#8
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771194/preconception-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-risk-of-subsequent-early-pregnancy-loss
#9
K J Gibbins, S L Mumford, L A Sjaarda, D W Branch, N J Perkins, A Ye, E F Schisterman, R M Silver
Objectives To prospectively estimate the association of preconception antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) with subsequent pregnancy loss using a cohort design. aPL have been associated with recurrent early pregnancy loss (EPL) prior to 10 weeks in previous case-control studies. Prospective ascertainment of pregnancy loss is challenging, as most women do not seek care prior to EPL. Methods Secondary analysis of the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial of preconception low-dose aspirin. Preconception anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (a-β2-I) were assessed in 1208 women with one or two prior pregnancy losses and no more than two prior live births...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768442/genetic-variation-in-the-clock-gene-is-associated-with-idiopathic-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#10
Alenka Hodžić, Polona Lavtar, Momčilo Ristanović, Ivana Novaković, Jelena Dotlić, Borut Peterlin
Physiological studies in animals and human support an important role of circadian system in reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association of CLOCK gene polymorphisms with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA). We performed a case-control study. The study group consisted of 268 women with a history of three or more idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortions and 284 women with at least two live births and no history of pathologic pregnancies all from Slovenia and Serbia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768248/bisphenol-a-decreases-the-spontaneous-contractions-of-rat-uterus-in-vitro-through-a-nitrergic-mechanism
#11
Hemlata Gupta, Shripad B Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics, has toxic effects on various systems of the human body including the reproductive system. BPA possesses estrogenic activity and is implicated in altering oogenesis, ovulation, and fertility. In addition to ovulatory changes, uterine contractility is an important factor for fertility. However, the effects of BPA on myometrial contractions are not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of BPA on rat uterine contractions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767714/comparing-postnatal-development-of-gonadal-hormones-and-associated-social-behaviors-in-rats-mice-and-humans
#12
Margaret R Bell
Postnatal development includes dramatic changes in gonadal hormones and the many social behaviors they help regulate, both in rodents and humans. Parental care-seeking is the most salient social interaction in neonates and infants, play and pro-social behaviors are commonly studied in juveniles, and the development of aggression and sexual behavior begins in peripubertal stages but continues through late adolescence into adulthood. While parental behaviors are shown after reproductive success in adulthood, alloparenting behaviors are actually high in juveniles as well...
May 14, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766147/the-non-preventive-effects-of-human-menopausal-gonadotropins-on-ovarian-tissues-in-nandrolone-decanoate-treated-female-rats-a-histochemical-and-ultra-structural-study
#13
Fakhroddin Mesbah, Hossein Bordbar, Tahereh Talaei Khozani, Farzaneh Dehghani, Hossein Mirkhani
Background: The follicular growth and development may be affected by abused drugs. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an anabolic androgenic steroid can damage the morphological and functional features of the ovary and may lead to reproductive failure. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of synchronized and non-synchronized administration of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG) with ND on ovarian tissue and level of sex hormones in the adult female rat...
March 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765255/distribution-of-pomalidomide-into-semen-of-healthy-male-subjects-after-multiple-doses
#14
Yan Li, Xiaomin Wang, Liangang Liu, Josephine Reyes, Maria Palmisano, Simon Zhou
Objective: To assess whether pomalidomide can distribute into human semen and its duration in human semen. Method: A phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (CC-4047-CP-006) was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of pomalidomide (CC-4047) following multiple daily doses in healthy male subjects. Semen samples were collected on Day -1 and 4 hours after dosing on Day 4 to quantify the pomalidomide concentrations in ejaculate after multiple oral doses of pomalidomide...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765171/risks-and-protective-factors-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-with-a-focus-on-micronutrients-and-infections
#15
Dagmar Horakova, Katerina Bouchalova, Karel Cwiertka, Ladislav Stepanek, Jana Vlckova, Helena Kollarova
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer (BC) with a poor prognosis. Second, patients cannot benefit from targeted therapy, except for those with BRCA1/2 mutations, for whom poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition therapy using olaparib has recently been approved. As global priorities continue to be epidemiological analysis of BC risk factors and early diagnosis, this review focuses on the risks and protective factors associated with TNBC. A PubMed keyword search for new knowledge on the risks and protective factors for TNBC was carried out...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765033/an-epizootic-of-chlamydia-psittaci-equine-reproductive-loss-associated-with-suspected-spillover-from-native-australian-parrots
#16
Cheryl Jenkins, Martina Jelocnik, Melinda L Micallef, Francesca Galea, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Daniel R Bogema, Michael Liu, Brendon O'Rourke, Catherine Chicken, Joan Carrick, Adam Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen capable of spill-over infections to humans. A parrot C. psittaci strain was recently detected in an equine reproductive loss case associated with a subsequent cluster of human C. psittaci infections. In this study, we screened for C. psittaci in cases of equine reproductive loss reported in regional New South Wales, Australia during the 2016 foaling season. C. psittaci specific-PCR screening of foetal and placental tissue samples from cases of equine abortion (n = 161) and foals with compromised health status (n = 38) revealed C...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764960/a-genomic-region-containing-rec8-and-rnf212b-is-associated-with-individual-recombination-rate-variation-in-a-wild-population-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#17
Susan E Johnston, Jisca Huisman, Josephine M Pemberton
Recombination is a fundamental feature of sexual reproduction, ensuring proper disjunction, preventing mutation accumulation and generating new allelic combinations upon which selection can act. However it is also mutagenic, and breaks up favourable allelic combinations previously built up by selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of recombination rate variation is a key step in understanding the causes and consequences of this variation, how loci associated with recombination are evolving and how they affect the potential of a population to respond to selection...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764437/caring-for-parents-an-evolutionary-rationale
#19
J Garay, S Számadó, Z Varga, E Szathmáry
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary roots of human moral behavior are a key precondition to understanding human nature. Investigations usually start with a social dilemma and end up with a norm that can provide some insight into the origin of morality. We take the opposite direction by investigating whether the cultural norm that promotes helping parents and which is respected in different variants across cultures and is codified in several religions can spread through Darwinian competition...
May 15, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764399/the-reachability-of-contagion-in-temporal-contact-networks-how-disease-latency-can-exploit-the-rhythm-of-human-behavior
#20
Ewan Colman, Kristen Spies, Shweta Bansal
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of many infectious diseases influence their host to withdraw from social activity limiting their potential to spread. Successful transmission therefore requires the onset of infectiousness to coincide with a time when the host is socially active. Since social activity and infectiousness are both temporal phenomena, we hypothesize that diseases are most pervasive when these two processes are synchronized. METHODS: We consider disease dynamics that incorporate behavioral responses that effectively shorten the infectious period of the pathogen...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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