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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915330/mechanism-of-sex-determination-in-humans-insights-from-disorders-of-sex-development
#1
Anu Bashamboo, Ken McElreavey
In this review we will consider the gene mutations responsible for the non-syndromic forms of disorders of sex development (DSD) and how recent genetic findings are providing insights into the mechanism of sex determination. High-throughput sequencing technologies are having a major impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of rare human disorders, including DSD. The study of human DSD is progressively revealing subtle differences in the genetics of the sex-determining system between the mouse and the human...
December 3, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914213/parental-support-for-human-papilloma-virus-vaccination-by-adolescents-in-ibadan-north-local-government-area-ibadan-nigeria
#2
Magbagbeola David Dairo, Moradeke Omoyemi Adeleke, Adetokunbo Taophic Salawu, Ayobami David Adewole
BACKGROUND: Despite changing sexual norms and mores generally perceived to be permissive of sexual expression, parents continue to serve as gateways to uptake of reproductive health services and commodities in our cultural settings. However, their support for adolescent uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine are not well explored and documented. This study aims to assess parental knowledge and awareness of HPV infection and cervical cancer and their support for HPV vaccination for their adolescent children...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913591/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-alpha-oscillations
#3
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: While working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks employed to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static", involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed: 1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant and 2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913189/construction-and-analysis-of-a-human-testis-sperm-enriched-interaction-network-unraveling-the-ppp1cc2-interactome
#4
Joana Vieira Silva, Sooyeon Yoon, Pieter-Jan De Bock, Alexander V Goltsev, Kris Gevaert, José Fernando F Mendes, Margarida Fardilha
BACKGROUND: Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1CC tissue-specific alternative splice restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa, is essential for spermatogenesis and spermatozoa motility. The key to understand PPP1CC2 regulation lies on the characterization of its interacting partners. METHODS: We construct a testis/sperm-enriched protein interaction network and analyzed the topological properties and biological context of the network...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#5
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912901/individualized-versus-conventional-ovarian-stimulation-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-assessor-blinded-phase-3-noninferiority-trial
#6
Anders Nyboe Andersen, Scott M Nelson, Bart C J M Fauser, Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Bjarke M Klein, Joan-Carles Arce
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of follitropin delta, a new human recombinant FSH with individualized dosing based on serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and body weight, with conventional follitropin alfa dosing for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. DESIGN: Randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, noninferiority trial (ESTHER-1). SETTING: Reproductive medicine clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,329 women (aged 18-40 years)...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911941/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-impact-several-toxicological-endpoints-and-cause-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Michael J Mashock, Tyler Zanon, Anthony D Kappell, Lisa N Petrella, Erik C Andersen, Krassimira R Hristova
Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#8
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910069/lkb1-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-uterine-cancer-mouse-models-and-translational-studies
#9
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#10
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908667/concentrations-of-polychlorinated-dibenzodioxins-polychlorodibenzofurans-and-polychlorobiphenyls-in-women-of-reproductive-age-in-italy-a-human-biomonitoring-study
#11
Anna Maria Ingelido, Vittorio Abate, Annalisa Abballe, Fulvia Lucia Albano, Tatiana Battista, Valter Carraro, Michele Conversano, Rosa Corvetti, Silvia De Luca, Silva Franchini, Anna Rita Fulgenzi, Laura Giambanco, Nicola Iacovella, Anna Laura Iamiceli, Antonio Maiorana, Francesco Maneschi, Valentina Marra, Flavia Pirola, Maria Grazia Porpora, Enrico Procopio, Nicola Suma, Silvia Valentini, Luisa Valsenti, Valerio Vecchiè, Elena De Felip
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that represent a major concern for women of reproductive age because of the neurodevelopmental effects associated to perinatal exposure. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at characterizing exposure of women of reproductive age to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs as a function of residence in different Italian Regions, in areas at presumable different environmental contamination and human exposure to these pollutants...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908603/patenting-medical-diagnosis-methods-in-europe-stanford-university-and-time-lapse-microscopy
#12
Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain, Guido Pennings
In 2013, a European Patent for the technique of time-lapse microscopy was granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) to Stanford University and was subsequently opposed by Unisense FertiliTech A/S and by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain and Guido Pennings. ESHRE et al.'s opposition was based on the argument that Stanford's patent was directed to a method of medical diagnosis, methods that are excluded from patentability by Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention...
November 18, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907265/conservation-hotspots-for-marine-turtle-nesting-in-the-united-states-based-on-coastal-development
#13
Mariana M P B Fuentes, Christian Gredzens, Brooke L Bateman, Ruth Boettcher, Simona A Ceriani, Matthew H Godfrey, David Helmers, Dianne K Ingram, Ruth L Kamrowski, Michelle Pate, Robert L Pressey, Volker C Radeloff
Coastal areas provide nesting habitat for marine turtles that is critical for the persistence of their populations. However, many coastal areas are highly affected by coastal development, which affects the reproductive success of marine turtles. Knowing the extent to which nesting areas are exposed to these threats is essential to guide management initiatives. This information is particularly important for coastal areas with both high nesting density and dense human development, a combination that is common in the United States...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#14
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904978/development-and-characterization-of-twelve-microsatellite-markers-for-porphyra-linearis-greville
#15
Elena Varela-Álvarez, Cristina Paulino, Ester A Serrão
The genus Porphyra (and its sister genus Pyropia) contains important red algal species that are cultivated and/or harvested for human consumption, sustaining a billion-dollar aquaculture industry. A vast amount of research has been focused on species of this genus, including studies on genetics and genomics among other areas. Twelve novel microsatellite markers were developed here for Porphyra linearis. Markers were characterized using 32 individuals collected from four natural populations of P. linearis with total heterozygosity varying from 0...
November 30, 2016: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904014/male-infertility-related-molecules-involved-in-sperm-oocyte-fusion
#16
Lisha Mou, Ni Xie
Male infertility has become a very serious problem in the human reproduction system, but the molecular mechanism of infertility remains largely unknown. Fertilization is the phenomenon in which a sperm and oocyte find each other, interact, and fuse. Sperm-oocyte fusion-related factors on the sperm side play crucial roles in male infertility. For example, IZUMO1 is well-known as a sperm protein essential for fusion of a sperm and oocyte, but its dysfunction or mutation can result in male infertility. Recent studies showed a novel sperm protein named Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which takes part in the sperm-oocyte fusion process...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903871/decline-and-recovery-of-a-large-carnivore-environmental-change-and-long-term-trends-in-an-endangered-brown-bear-population
#17
Isabel Martínez Cano, Fernando González Taboada, Javier Naves, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Thorsten Wiegand
Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903344/-a-control-study-of-artificial-oocyte-activation-in-the-same-period
#18
D Y Hao, R Zhang, X Zhang, C Y Shen, Y Yang, W B Wu, Y L Liu, J Liu, J R Zhang, X L Wang
Objective: To compare the fertility rate and embryo outcome between normal fertilization and the use of Calcium ionophore A23187 on the same period of the same cycle of human ovum for artificial activation. Methods: Patients who conducted the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle in vitro fertilization assisted reproductive from January 2015 to December in reproductive center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were enrolled.The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902736/provisioning-the-ritual-neolithic-site-of-kfar-hahoresh-israel-at-the-dawn-of-animal-management
#19
Jacqueline S Meier, A Nigel Goring-Morris, Natalie D Munro
It is widely agreed that a pivotal shift from wild animal hunting to herd animal management, at least of goats, began in the southern Levant by the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (10,000-9,500 cal. BP) when evidence of ritual activities flourished in the region. As our knowledge of this critical change grows, sites that represent different functions and multiple time periods are needed to refine the timing, pace and character of changing human-animal relationships within the geographically variable southern Levant...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901500/spatial-variation-in-the-parasitic-isopod-load-of-the-japanese-halfbeak-in-western-japan
#20
R Kawanishi, A Sogabe, R Nishimoto, H Hata
Cymothoid isopods (family Cymothoidae) are commonly found parasitizing diverse fishes, including commercial species. However, the effects of these parasites on host body condition are still poorly known. Here we investigated the spatial variation of the effects of parasite infection on host body condition, using the parasitic load of the cymothoid Mothocya parvostis on the Japanese halfbeak Hyporhamphus sajori at 4 sampling sites in western Japan. M. parvostis prevalence at each site (41.6-74.4%) was higher than that known for other fish host-cymothoid systems (usually less than 30%)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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