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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742854/risk-of-exposure-to-potential-vector-mosquitoes-for-rural-workers-in-northern-lao-pdr
#1
Julie-Anne A Tangena, Phoutmany Thammavong, Steve W Lindsay, Paul T Brey
BACKGROUND: One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages...
July 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742271/genetic-genealogy-approach-reveals-low-rate-of-extrapair-paternity-in-historical-dutch-populations
#2
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte
OBJECTIVE: Evolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741494/evolutionary-ecology-of-organs-a-missing-link-in-cancer-development
#3
REVIEW
Frédéric Thomas, Randolph M Nesse, Robert Gatenby, Cindy Gidoin, François Renaud, Benjamin Roche, Beata Ujvari
There is striking variation in the incidence of cancer in human organs. Malignant tumors are common in the colon and breast but rare in the heart and small bowel. The uterus frequently develops benign fibroid tumors but uterine cancers are relatively rare. The organ-specific difference in cancer prevalence has been explained primarily by the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. In this opinion article, we propose also considering organs as distinct but connected ecosystems whose different vulnerabilities to malignant transformation may be partially explained by how essential each organ is for survival through the age of reproduction...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741105/transmission-fitness-in-co-colonization-and-the-persistence-of-bacterial-pathogens
#4
Maria Gaivão, Francisco Dionisio, Erida Gjini
Humans are often colonized by polymorphic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. Two co-colonizing pathogen clones may interact with each other upon host entry and during within-host dynamics, ranging from competition to facilitation. Here we examine the significance of these exploitation strategies for bacterial spread and persistence in host populations. We model SIS epidemiological dynamics to capture the global behavior of such multi-strain systems, focusing on different parameters of single and dual colonization...
July 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741010/perception-of-a-single-session-pre-in-vitro-fertilisation-counselling-service-and-attitudes-towards-support-group-a-survey-of-patients-in-singapore
#5
Gaik Suan Lim, Reshmi Karayan Kayanoth, Birit Fp Broekman, Cornelia Yi Chee
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate patients' evaluation of a compulsory pre-in vitro fertilisation (IVF) counselling session in Singapore and determine their attitudes towards attending a support group during IVF treatment. METHODS: 464 patients due to undergo their first IVF treatment were recruited at the Clinic for Human Reproduction, National University Hospital, Singapore. All patients attended a counselling session conducted by a clinical psychologist trained in infertility counselling prior to IVF treatment...
July 25, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739172/emergence-and-maintenance-of-menopause-in-humans-a-game-theory-model
#6
Valentin Thouzeau, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in women well before the end of their expected life span. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to solve this evolutionary puzzle, each based on a possible fitness benefit derived from an early reproductive senescence, but no consensus has emerged. The construction of a game theory model allowed us to jointly study the main adaptive hypotheses in emergence and maintenance of menopause. Four classical hypotheses on the benefits of menopause were considered (decreased maternal mortality, increased grandmothering, decreased conflict over reproductive resources between older and younger females, and changes in their relatedness) plus a fifth one derived from a possible pleiotropic trade-off...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739117/update-on-fertility-preservation-from-the-barcelona-international-society-for-fertility-preservation-eshre-asrm-2015-expert-meeting-indications-results-and-future-perspectives
#7
Francisca Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FP is a fundamental issue for both males and females whose future fertility may be compromised. Reproductive capacity may be seriously affected by age, different medical conditions and also by treatments, especially those with gonadal toxicity...
July 20, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738530/prenatal-low-level-phenol-exposures-and-birth-outcomes-in-china
#8
Guodong Ding, Caifeng Wang, Angela Vinturache, Shasha Zhao, Rui Pan, Wenchao Han, Limei Chen, Weiye Wang, Tao Yuan, Yu Gao, Ying Tian
Phenolic compounds are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily life products. Studies in laboratory animals showed reproductive and developmental effects. In spite of widespread exposure to phenols, only few studies examined their effects on human development. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between antenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes in a Chinese obstetric population. Four hundred ninety-six mother-infant pairs recruited from the Laizhou Wan prospective birth cohort in northern China between 2010 and 2013 were included in the study...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736964/exceptionalism-is-not-exceptional-in-relation-to-sexual-and-reproduction-mechanisms-contrasts-of-human-and-animal-sexuality
#9
REVIEW
Roy J Levin
Speculation that the release of oxytocin by orgasm in the human female during coitus facilitates fertility by enhancing uterine sperm transport has been criticised as having no unequivocal empirical human evidence. However, a counter claim that this supports human 'exceptionalism' as some form of uterine sperm transport occurs in other species. This is a misconception as it ignores that human uterine peristalsis, powered by contractions of the smooth muscle of the archimyometrium, facilitates sperm transport even without any systemic oxytocin involvement...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736946/fast-and-reproducible-in-vivo-t1-mapping-of-the-human-cervical-spinal-cord
#10
Marco Battiston, Torben Schneider, Ferran Prados, Francesco Grussu, Marios C Yiannakas, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Rebecca S Samson
PURPOSE: To develop a fast and robust method for measuring T1 in the whole cervical spinal cord in vivo, and to assess its reproducibility. METHODS: A spatially nonselective adiabatic inversion pulse is combined with zonally oblique-magnified multislice echo-planar imaging to produce a reduced field-of-view inversion-recovery echo-planar imaging protocol. Multi- inversion time data are obtained by cycling slice order throughout sequence repetitions. Measurement of T1 is performed using 12 inversion times for a total protocol duration of 7 min...
July 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736855/-lnc-ing-wnt-in-female-reproductive-cancers-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-wnt-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Mei S Ong, Wanpei Cai, Yi Yuan, Hin C Leong, Tuan Z Tan, Asad Mohammad, Ming L You, Frank Arfuso, Boon C Goh, Sudha Warrier, Gautam Sethi, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Peter E Lobie, Celestial T Yap, Shing C Hooi, Ruby Y Huang, Alan P Kumar
Recent discoveries in the non-coding genome have challenged the original central dogma of molecular biology; non-coding RNAs and related processes have been found to be important in regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are amongst some that have gained attention recently in human diseases, including cancer, with the involvement of many more ncRNAs waiting to be discovered. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a group of ribonucleic acids transcribed from regions of the human genome, which do not become translated into proteins, despite having essential roles in cellular physiology...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736591/immune-modulation-and-treatment-of-human-papilloma-virus-related-warts-with-energetics-of-living-systems-acupuncture
#12
Rom Brustin, Martine Toledano, Tal Geffen, Raia Goona, Malka Hochberg, Bilha Kreisberg, Sari Murad, Jacob Pitcovski
Background: Cutaneous warts are small skin lesions formed as a result of infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV). In the lesion, viral manipulation creates a microenvironment that favors virus survival and reproduction. Most lesions eventually regress, probably as a result of a Th1-mediated immune response. However, some warts fail to regress and become persistent. Objective: The efficacy of treatment of persistent HPV-caused warts with Energetics of Living Systems acupuncture and monitored immune system involvement was tested...
June 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736302/beyond-pegylation-alternative-surface-modification-of-nanoparticles-with-mucus-inert-biomaterials
#13
Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy
Mucus is a highly hydrated viscoelastic gel present on various moist surfaces in our body including the eyes, nasal cavity, mouth, gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive tracts. It serves as a very efficient barrier that prevents harmful particles, viruses and bacteria from entering the human body. However, the protective function of the mucus also hampers the diffusion of drugs and nanomedicines, which dramatically reduces their efficiency. Functionalisation of nanoparticles with low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGylation) is one of the strategies to enhance their penetration through mucus...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#14
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733191/ethnomedicobotanical-study-of-indigenous-knowledge-on-medicinal-plants-used-for-the-treatment-of-reproductive-problems-in-nalbari-district-assam-india
#15
Simi Talukdar, Partha Pradip Adhikari, Ananta Borah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reproductive problems are evolving as most predominant health care problems in many countries, furthermore, WHO, 2012 exemplified maternal illnesses, birth asphyxia and post birth difficulties, are rising at an alarming rate.Not all abnormalities of the human reproductive system have the same origin; the effects on reproductive problems would likely be affected by both male and female. For easy accessibility and affordability medicinal plants play a key role in primary healthcare care services in India and their use is an integral part of the cultural heritage...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732430/bee-pollen-flavonoids-as-a-therapeutic-agent-in-allergic-and-immunological-disorders
#16
Masoomeh Jannesar, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Zahra Pourpak
Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732077/mutations-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-required-for-mitochondrial-trna-modification-cause-similar-electron-transport-chain-defects-but-different-nuclear-responses
#17
Carmen Navarro-González, Ismaïl Moukadiri, Magda Villarroya, Ernesto López-Pascual, Simon Tuck, M-Eugenia Armengod
Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731309/toxicology-of-lead-and-its-damage-to-mammalian-organs
#18
Samuel Caito, Ana Carolina B Almeida Lopes, Monica M B Paoliello, Michael Aschner
The toxicity of lead has been appreciated for centuries. Lead is a commonly used metal in industrialized nations, which results in the release of lead into the environment. Governmental agencies regulate the amount of lead permissible for workers to be exposed to; however, unregulated environmental lead exposure is a high concern. While essential metals have physiologic roles, there are no health benefits from lead intake. In this chapter, we discuss sources of lead exposure, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of lead from the human body, and molecular mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731299/human-biomonitoring-of-lead-exposure
#19
Katrin Klotz, Thomas Göen
After a chronic exposure, lead accumulates in the human body, especially in bones and teeth. Critical effects of lead affect the nervous system, reproduction, fertility as well as genotoxicity and carcinogenicity [1]. Analyses of lead concentrations in human biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, but also electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The predominant sample matrices include blood and bone, as well as urine, hair, nail, and saliva...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728138/first-trimester-urinary-bisphenol-a-concentration-in-relation-to-anogenital-distance-an-androgen-sensitive-measure-of-reproductive-development-in-infant-girls
#20
Emily S Barrett, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Omar Mbowe, Sally W Thurston, J Bruce Redmon, Ruby H N Nguyen, Shanna H Swan
INTRODUCTION: Evidence from animal models suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females. Exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal models. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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