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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230904/impacts-of-climate-change-on-rice-production-in-africa-and-causes-of-simulated-yield-changes
#1
Pepijn A J van Oort, Sander J Zwart
This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature sum as adaptation option. We simulated rice yields for 4 RCP climate change scenarios and identified causes of yield declines. Without adaptation, shortening of the growing period due to higher temperatures had a negative impact on yields (-24% in RCP 8...
December 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202968/child-rearing-ability-and-the-provision-of-fertility-services-an-ethics-committee-opinion
#2
(no author information available yet)
Fertility programs may withhold services from prospective patients on the basis of well-grounded reasons that those patients will be unable to provide minimally adequate or safe care for offspring. This document was reviewed and updated; this version replaces the previous version of this document, last published July 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:50-53).
December 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197985/pervasive-interactions-of-sa-and-sb-loci-cause-high-pollen-sterility-and-abrupt-changes-in-gene-expression-during-meiosis-that-could-be-overcome-by-double-neutral-genes-in-autotetraploid-rice
#3
Jinwen Wu, Lin Chen, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Minyi Chen, Qinglei Dong, Jirui Li, Xiaosong Xu, Xiangdong Liu
BACKGROUND: Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids possess high hybrid vigor; however, low pollen fertility is a critical hindrance in its commercial utilization. Our previous study demonstrated that polyploidy could increase the multi-loci interaction and cause high pollen abortion in autotetraploid rice hybrids. However, there is little known about the critical role of pollen sterility locus or loci in the intersubspecific hybrids. We developed autotetraploid rice hybrids harboring heterozygous genotypes (S i S i S j S j ) at different pollen sterility loci by using the near isogenic lines of Taichung65-4×...
December 2, 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183617/azadirachtin-impact-on-mate-choice-female-sexual-receptivity-and-male-activity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae
#4
N Aribi, M C Oulhaci, S Kilani-Morakchi, J C Sandoz, L Kaiser, B Denis, D Joly
Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD50 (0...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177892/exploring-the-genetics-of-fertility-restoration-controlled-by-rf1-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-using-high-density-linkage-maps
#5
Manuel Geyer, Theresa Albrecht, Lorenz Hartl, Volker Mohler
Hybrid wheat breeding has the potential to significantly increase wheat productivity compared to line breeding. The induction of male sterility by the cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. is a widely discussed approach to ensure cross-pollination between parental inbred lines in hybrid wheat seed production. As fertility restoration in hybrids with this cytoplasm is often incomplete, understanding the underlying genetics is a prerequisite to apply this technology. A promising component for fertility restoration is the restorer locus Rf1, which was first detected on chromosome 1A of the restorer accession R3...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176590/nanocarrier-mediated-delivery-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-for-non-surgical-castration-of-male-animals
#6
Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Mattaka Khongkow, Chatwalee Boonthum, Sasithon Pagseesing, Nattika Saengkrit, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan, Teerapong Yata
The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties of AM-NLC and determine the biological effects of AM-NLC on spermatogonia cells and testicular explants obtained from castrated testes...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174895/a-peptide-signaling-system-that-rapidly-enforces-paternity-in-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito
#7
Laura B Duvall, Nipun S Basrur, Henrik Molina, Conor J McMeniman, Leslie B Vosshall
Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes typically mate only once with one male in their lifetime, a behavior known as "monandry" [1]. This single mating event provisions the female with sufficient sperm to fertilize the >500 eggs she will produce during her ∼4- to 6-week lifespan in the laboratory [2]. Successful mating induces lifetime refractoriness to subsequent insemination by other males, enforcing the paternity of the first male [3-5]. Ae. aegypti mate in flight near human hosts [6], and females become refractory to remating within seconds [1, 3, 4], suggesting the existence of a rapid mechanism to prevent female remating...
November 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167273/restorer-of-fertility%C3%A2-mutations-recovered-in-transposon-active-lines-of-s-male-sterile-maize
#8
Susan Gabay-Laughnan, A Mark Settles, L Curtis Hannah, Timothy G Porch, Philip W Becraft, Donald R McCarty, Karen E Koch, Liming Zhao, Terry L Kamps, Karen C Chamusco, Christine D Chase
Mitochondria execute key pathways of central metabolism and serve as cellular sensing and signaling entities - functions that depend upon interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems. This is exemplified in cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S) of Zea mays, where novel mitochondrial open reading frames are associated with a pollen collapse phenotype, but nuclear restorer-of-fertility (restorer) mutations rescue pollen function. To better understand these genetic interactions, we screened Activator-Dissociation (Ac-Ds), Enhancer/Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm) and Mutator (Mu) transposon-active CMS-S stocks to recover new restorer mutants...
November 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164264/risks-and-benefits-of-salpingectomy-at-the-time-of-sterilization
#9
Tara Castellano, Matthew Zerden, Laura Marsh, Kim Boggess
Importance: Bilateral salpingectomy reduces the risk ovarian cancer. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology has recommended surgeons discuss salpingectomy with patients desiring sterilization. Objective: This review summarizes current literature on the benefits and risks of bilateral salpingectomy to reduce ovarian cancer risk. Areas of insufficient evidence and directions for further research are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: We examined the benefits and risks of bilateral salpingectomy for female surgical sterilization, using a PubMed and EMBASE literature review...
November 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158637/marker-assisted-identification-of-restorer-gene-s-in-iso-cytoplasmic-restorer-lines-of-wa-cytoplasm-in-rice-and-assessment-of-their-fertility-restoration-potential-across-environments
#10
Amit Kumar, Prolay Kumar Bhowmick, Vikram Jeet Singh, Manoj Malik, Ashish Kumar Gupta, R Seth, M Nagarajan, S Gopala Krishnan, Ashok Kumar Singh
Iso-cytoplasmic restorers possess the same male sterile cytoplasm as the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, thereby minimizing the potential cyto-nuclear conflict in the hybrids. Restoration of fertility of the wild abortive CMS is governed by two major genes namely, Rf3 and Rf4. Therefore, assessing the allelic status of these restorer genes in the iso-cytoplasmic restorers using molecular markers will not only help in estimating the efficiency of these genes either alone or in combination, in fertility restoration in the hybrids in different environments, but will also be useful in determining the efficacy of these markers...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155509/current-strategies-and-future-perspectives-in-fertility-preservation-for-cancer-patients
#11
Romeo Micu, Bogdan Petrut, Cristina Zlatescu-Marton, Alexandra Traila, Radu Harsa, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu
Nowadays, cancer is being detected at younger ages. Health care providers should consider cancer patients' desire towards fertility preservation before the initiation of possibly sterilizing treatments. The aim of the current review was to register the current state of fertility preservation procedures available for male and female cancer patients.
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150594/mating-design-and-genetic-structure-of-a-multi-parent-advanced-generation-inter-cross-magic-population-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#12
Patrick O Ongom, Gebisa Ejeta
MAGIC populations are powerful next generation mapping resources. We describe here the mating design and structure of the first MAGIC population in sorghum and test its utility for mapping. The population was developed by intercrossing 19 diverse founder lines, through a series of paired crosses with a genetic male sterile source, followed by 10 generations of random mating. At the final stage of random mating, one thousand random fertile plants in the population were identified and subjected to six generations of selfing to produce 1000 immortal MAGIC inbred lines...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144434/the-role-of-non-coding-rnas-in-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-flowering-plants
#13
REVIEW
Helena Štorchová
The interactions between mitochondria and nucleus substantially influence plant development, stress response and morphological features. The prominent example of a mitochondrial-nuclear interaction is cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), when plants produce aborted anthers or inviable pollen. The genes responsible for CMS are located in mitochondrial genome, but their expression is controlled by nuclear genes, called fertility restorers. Recent explosion of high-throughput sequencing methods enabled to study transcriptomic alterations in the level of non-coding RNAs under CMS biogenesis...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143644/the-effects-of-family-planning-and-other-factors-on-fertility-abortion-miscarriage-and-stillbirths-in-the-spectrum-model
#14
John Stover, William Winfrey
BACKGROUND: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) estimates the effects of maternal and child health interventions on mortality rates and the number of deaths. The family planning module in Spectrum interacts with LiST by providing estimates of the effects of scaling up family planning use on the number of live births, miscarriages, abortions, and stillbirths. METHODS: We use the proximate determinants of fertility framework to estimate the effects of changes in contraceptive use, proportion married, postpartum insusceptibility, abortion and sterility on the total fertility rate...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134711/x-exceptionalism-in-caenorhabditis-speciation
#15
Asher D Cutter
Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to 'rules' of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial inter-fertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134282/aba-and-iaa-control-microsporogenesis-in-petunia-hybrida-l
#16
L V Kovaleva, A S Voronkov, E V Zakharova, I M Andreev
The formation of fertile male gametophyte is known to require timely degeneration of polyfunctional tapetum tissue. The last process caused by the programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of the anther program maturation which leads to sequential anther tissue destruction coordinated with pollen differentiation. In the present work, distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in developing anthers of male-fertile and male-sterile lines of petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) was analyzed by using the immunohistochemical method...
November 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132036/holding-immature-bovine-oocytes-in-a-commercial-embryo-holding-medium-high-developmental-competence-for-up-to-10%C3%A2-h-at-room-temperature
#17
Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Maaike Catteeuw, Ann Van Soom, Geert Opsomer
Bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) following Ovum Pick Up (OPU) is all too often hampered by a large time gap between the harvest of oocytes of the first and last OPU session of the day. Immediately after retrieval, oocyte maturation is initiated, resulting in oocytes maturing at different time points which necessitates laborious scheduling of the IVP process. In this study, the potential of a commercial embryo holding medium (EHM; Syngro, Bioniche Inc.) to hold immature bovine oocytes was validated. We assessed the effect of holding time and temperature on (1) oocytes' maturation; (2) blastocyst development and quality at day 8 post insemination; and (3) blastocyst yield in small groups of oocytes/zygotes simulating OPU settings...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126789/molecular-control-of-male-fertility-for-crop-hybrid-breeding
#18
REVIEW
Yu-Jin Kim, Dabing Zhang
In many plant species, male-sterile female lines with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) or nuclear-controlled environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS) have long been used to efficiently produce hybrids that harness hybrid vigor or heterosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for these applications have only recently been uncovered in a few species. We provide here an update on the understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication based on the discovery of mitochondrial CMS genes and their corresponding nuclear fertility determinants...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125785/cytogenetic-analysis-and-mapping-of-leaf-rust-resistance-in-aegilops-speltoides-tausch-derived-bread-wheat-line-selection2427-carrying-putative-gametocidal-gene-s
#19
M Niranjana, Vinod, J B Sharma, Niharika Mallick, S M S Tomar, S K Jha
Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427)...
August 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116179/breeding-and-study-of-two-new-photoperiod-and-thermo-sensitive-genic-male-sterile-lines-of-polyploid-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#20
Xianhua Zhang, Bo Zuo, Zhaojian Song, Wei Wang, Yuchi He, Yuhua Liu, Detian Cai
Male sterile lines play an important role in the utilization of heterosis. To explore and exploit the heterosis of polyploid hybrid rice, two photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines of polyploid rice, PS006 and PS012, were bred via chromosome doubling, complex hybridization and self-breeding. The characteristics of these two lines, including the agronomic traits, growth, development, fertility transformation and combining ability, were investigated. Both lines had good agronomic characteristics and flowering habits, a high outcrossing rate, obvious fertility alterations and good combining abilities...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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