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fertility and sterility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101110/the-best-age-for-pregnancy-and-undue-pressures
#1
Carlo Bellieni
In western countries we assist at the paradox that fertility is socially discouraged by a mindset that depicts fertility as a resource to exploit as late as possible. So, couples have high expectative about the advantages of delayed parenthood, but they are scarcely informed about its risks. Scientific data suggests to anticipate the first pregnancy, but social pressures impose to wait, though delayed childbearing can provoke sterility and a greater gap between generations. The best age to become parents should be autonomously decided by a couple, under the condition of being a free informed choice and not a social imposition, but currently this is not guaranteed to western women and men...
September 2016: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#2
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078801/abnormal-pollen-vacuolation1-apv1-is-required-for-male-fertility-by-contributing-to-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-in-maize
#3
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077131/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-g-csf-promotes-spermatogenic-regeneration-from-surviving-spermatogonia-after-high-dose-alkylating-chemotherapy
#4
Travis Kotzur, Roberto Benavides-Garcia, Jennifer Mecklenburg, Jamila R Sanchez, Matthew Reilly, Brian P Hermann
BACKGROUND: The lifesaving chemotherapy and radiation treatments that allow patients to survive cancer can also result in a lifetime of side-effects, including male infertility. Infertility in male cancer survivors is thought to primarily result from killing of the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) responsible for producing spermatozoa since SSCs turn over slowly and are thereby sensitive to antineoplastic therapies. We previously demonstrated that the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can preserve spermatogenesis after alkylating chemotherapy (busulfan)...
January 11, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071676/transcriptome-analysis-of-neo-tetraploid-rice-reveals-specific-differential-gene-expressions-associated-with-fertility-and-heterosis
#5
Haibin Guo, Jean Nestor Mendrikahy, Lei Xie, Junfeng Deng, Zijun Lu, Jinwen Wu, Xiang Li, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Xiangdong Liu
Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069181/recommendations-for-practices-utilizing-gestational-carriers-a-committee-opinion
#6
(no author information available yet)
This document provides the latest recommendations for evaluation of gestational carriers and intended parents. It incorporates recent information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gestational carrier services must be thoroughly familiar. This document replaces the previous document of the same name, last published in 2015 (Fertil Steril 2015; 103:e1-8).
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065928/unveiling-the-osmophores-of-philodendron-adamantinum-araceae-as-a-means-to-understanding-interactions-with-pollinators
#7
Patrícia Gonçalves-Souza, Clemens Schlindwein, Stefan Dötterl, Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Araceae species pollinated by nocturnal Cyclocephalini beetles attract their pollinators by inflorescence scents. In Philodendron, despite the intense odour, the osmophores exhibit no definite morphological identity, making them difficult to locate. This may explain why structural studies of the scent-releasing tissue are not available so far. METHODS: Several approaches were employed for locating and understanding the osmophores of Philodendron adamantinum A sensory test allowed other analyses to be restricted to fertile and sterile stamens as odour production sites...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055137/a-single-point-mutation-in-ms44-results-in-dominant-male-sterility-and-improves-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-maize
#8
Tim Fox, Jason DeBruin, Kristin Haug Collet, Mary Trimnell, Joshua Clapp, April Leonard, Bailin Li, Eric Scolaro, Sarah Collinson, Kimberly Glassman, Michael Miller, Jeff Schussler, Dennis Dolan, Lu Liu, Carla Gho, Marc Albertsen, Dale Loussaert, Bo Shen
Application of nitrogen fertilizer in the past 50 years has resulted in significant increases in crop yields. However, loss of nitrogen from crop fields has been associated with negative impacts on the environment. Developing maize hybrids with improved nitrogen use efficiency is a cost-effective strategy for increasing yield sustainably. We report that a dominant male sterile mutant Ms44 encodes a lipid transfer protein which is expressed specifically in the tapetum. A single amino acid change from alanine to threonine at the signal peptide cleavage site of the Ms44 protein abolished protein processing and impeded the secretion of protein from tapetal cells into the locule, resulting in dominant male sterility...
January 5, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052078/morphological-characterization-of-a-new-and-easily-recognizable-nuclear-male-sterile-mutant-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor
#9
Zhanguo Xin, Jian Huang, Ashley R Smith, Junping Chen, John Burke, Scott E Sattler, Dazhong Zhao
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049856/irregular-pollen-exine1-is-a-novel-factor-in-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation
#10
Xiaoyang Chen, Hua Zhang, Huayue Sun, Hongbing Luo, Li Zhao, Zhaobin Dong, Shuangshuang Yan, Cheng Zhao, Renyi Liu, Chunyan Xu, Song Li, Huabang Chen, Weiwei Jin
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are protective barriers for pollen development and fertilization. Despite that several regulators have been identified for anther cuticle and pollen exine development in rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), few genes have been characterized in maize (Zea mays) and the underlying regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report a novel male-sterile mutant in maize, irregular pollen exine1 (ipe1), which exhibited a glossy outer anther surface, abnormal Ubisch bodies, and defective pollen exine...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035342/reproduction-regulates-drosophila-nutrient-intake-through-independent-effects-of-egg-production-and-sex-peptide-implications-for-aging
#11
Elizabeth Bowman, Marc Tatar
BACKGROUND: The ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P:C) consumed influences reproduction and lifespan, outcomes that are often maximized by different P:C intake. OBJECTIVE: Determine if reproduction in female Drosophila drives elevated P:C intake. Distinguish whether such a preference is driven by egg production or from male-derived sex peptides in seminal fluid. METHODS: Intake of protein and carbohydrate was measured in a diet-choice assay. Macronutrient intake was calculated for mated and unmated fertile females, mated and unmated sterile females, and both types of female when mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#12
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialised castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025118/detection-of-echinococcus-granulosus-and-echinococcus-ortleppi-in-bhutan
#13
Nirmal Kumar Thapa, Maria Teresa Armua-Fernandez, Dukpa Kinzang, Ratna B Gurung, Phuntsho Wangdi, Peter Deplazes
In this pilot study, fecal samples were collected from community dogs around slaughterhouses and from the city of Thimphu (n=138) as well as from carnivores in the forest area around a farm in Bhutan (n=28). Samples were analyzed microscopically for the presence of taeniid eggs by the floatation and sieving method. Further molecular analyses of 20 samples of community dogs positive for taeniid eggs confirmed 10 Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and one Taenia hydatigena case. From 14 environmental fecal samples from the forest area positive for taeniid eggs, one contained E...
December 24, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012123/not-only-in-the-temperate-zone-independent-gametophytes-of-two-vittarioid-ferns-pteridaceae-polypodiales-in-east-asian-subtropics
#14
Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Wataru Shinohara, Atsushi Ebihara, Hiroshi Kudoh, Hirotoshi Sato, Yao-Moan Huang, Wen-Liang Chiou
Independent gametophyte ferns are unique among vascular plants because they are sporophyteless and reproduce asexually to maintain their populations in the gametophyte generation. Such ferns had been primarily discovered in temperate zone, and usually hypothesized with (sub)tropical origins and subsequent extinction of sporophyte due to climate change during glaciations. Presumably, independent fern gametophytes are unlikely to be distributed in tropics and subtropics because of relatively stable climates which are less affected by glaciations...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004873/plant-defence-induced-by-pgpr-against-spodoptera-litura-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l
#15
A Bano, R Muqarab
: The research conducted including its rationale: Spodoptera litura is the major pest of tomato causing significant reduction in tomato yield. Application of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) prevent use of chemical fertilizer and synthetic pesticides through enhancement of plant growth and yield and induction of systemic resistance. Present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the role of PGPR, Pseudomonas putida and Rothia sp. on the physiology and yield of tomato fruit infested with the S...
December 22, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999582/the-propensity-of-pentatricopeptide-repeat-genes-to-evolve-into-restorers-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility
#16
REVIEW
Lydiane Gaborieau, Gregory G Brown, Hakim Mireau
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenotype in plants, which present a defect in the production of functional pollen. The male sterilizing factors usually consist of unusual genes or open reading frames encoded by the mitochondrial genome. CMS can be suppressed by specific nuclear genes called restorers of fertility (Rfs). In the majority of cases, Rf genes produce proteins that act directly on the CMS conferring mitochondrial transcripts by binding them specifically and promoting processing events...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999113/the-composite-regulatory-basis-of-the-large-x-effect-in-mouse-speciation
#17
Erica L Larson, Sara Keeble, Dan Vanderpool, Matthew D Dean, Jeffrey M Good
The disruption of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been proposed to be a major developmental mechanism underlying the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility. We tested this idea by analyzing cell-specific gene expression across spermatogenesis in two lineages of house mice and their sterile and fertile reciprocal hybrids. We found pervasive disruption of sex chromosome gene expression in sterile hybrids at every stage of spermatogenesis. Failure of MSCI was developmentally preceded by increased silencing of autosomal genes, supporting the hypothesis that divergence at the hybrid incompatibility gene, Prdm9, results in increased rates of autosomal asynapsis which in turn triggers widespread silencing of unsynapsed chromatin...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998857/-clinical-outcome-of-in-vitro-fertilization-or-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-embryo-transfer-in-women-aged-40-years-and-above
#18
Xing-Yu Zhou, Shu-Xian Feng, Xue-Lan Li, Yu-Dong Liu, Xin Chen, De-Sheng Ye, Jing Niu, Shi-Ling Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcomes in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) in women aged over 40 years. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1050 non-donor IVF/ICSI-ET cycles performed from January, 2007 to December, 2015 in women at the age 40 years or above, including 393 women at 40 years of age, 266 at 41 years, 158 at 42 years, 107 at 43 years, 64 at 44 years, and 65 at 45-51 years. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the women in different age groups were compared and analyzed...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994055/smad3-regulates-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-by-pituitary-gonadotrope-cells-in-vivo
#19
Yining Li, Gauthier Schang, Ulrich Boehm, Chu-Xia Deng, Jonathan Graff, Daniel J Bernard
Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential regulator of fertility in females and of quantitatively normal spermatogenesis in males. Pituitary-derived activins are thought to act as major stimulators of FSH synthesis by gonadotrope cells. In vitro, activins signal via SMAD3, SMAD4, and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) to regulate transcription of the FSHβ subunit gene (Fshb). Consistent with this model, gonadotrope-specific Smad4 or Foxl2 knockout mice have greatly reduced FSH and are subfertile. SMAD3's role in vivo is unresolved; however, residual FSH production in Smad4 conditional knockout mice may derive from partial compensation by SMAD3 and its ability to bind DNA in the absence of SMAD4...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974621/characterization-of-a-tutase-nuclease-complex-required-for-drosophila-gametogenesis
#20
Ching-Jung Lin, Jiayu Wen, Fernando Bejarano, Fuqu Hu, Diane Bortolamiol-Becet, Lijuan Kan, Piero Sanfilippo, Shu Kondo, Eric C Lai
Post-transcriptional regulatory strategies that involve coupling between terminal uridyltransferase (TUTase) and exoribonuclease enzymes have recently been characterized in diverse species. Of note, the 3' exoribonuclease Dis3L2 has received substantial attention as a factor that metabolizes uridylated substrates in contexts such as general mRNA degradation, turnover of specific miRNAs, and quality control of non-coding RNAs. To date, most studies of Dis3L2 have focused on fungi and mammalian cells. Here, we introduce Drosophila as a system that permits analysis of molecular mechanisms as well as the ability to interrogate organismal phenotypes...
December 14, 2016: RNA
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