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fertility and sterility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673045/counselling-women-about-lubricants-and-intercourse
#1
Gary N Frishman
A comprehensive review by the World Health Organization reported that 8-22% of women have pain with intercourse (Latthe P, et al. BMC Public Health 2006;6:177-83). In addition, intercourse for the purpose of procreation can be quite stressful. Putting these facts together, it is no surprise that approximately 1 in 4 couples trying to conceive use a lubricant (Ellington J. Fertil Steril 2003;79 (Suppl 2):21-2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671763/cd9-and-cd81-interactions-and-their-structural-modelling-in-sperm-prior-to-fertilization
#2
Michaela Frolikova, Pavla Manaskova-Postlerova, Jiri Cerny, Jana Jankovicova, Ondrej Simonik, Alzbeta Pohlova, Petra Secova, Jana Antalikova, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
Proteins CD9 and CD81 are members of the tetraspanin superfamily and were detected in mammalian sperm, where they are suspected to form an active tetraspanin web and to participate in sperm⁻egg membrane fusion. The importance of these two proteins during the early stages of fertilization is supported by the complete sterility of CD9/CD81 double null female mice. In this study, the putative mechanism of CD9/CD81 involvement in tetraspanin web formation in sperm and its activity prior to fertilization was addressed...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#3
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665794/mapping-a-male-fertility-restoration-locus-for-the-a-4-cytoplasmic-genic-male-sterility-system-in-pearl-millet-using-a-genotyping-by-sequencing-based-linkage-map
#4
Anna Pucher, C Tom Hash, Jason G Wallace, Sen Han, Willmar L Leiser, Bettina I G Haussmann
BACKGROUND: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., syn. Cenchrus americanus (L.) R. Br) is an important cereal and fodder crop in hot and arid environments. There is great potential to improve pearl millet production through hybrid breeding. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the corresponding nuclear fertility restoration / sterility maintenance genes (Rfs) are essential tools for economic hybrid seed production in pearl millet. Mapping the Rf genes of the A4 CMS system in pearl millet would enable more efficient introgression of both dominant male-fertility restoration alleles (Rf) and their recessive male-sterility maintenance counterparts (rf)...
April 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659949/emc10-governs-male-fertility-via-maintaining-sperm-ion-balance
#5
Yuchuan Zhou, Fei Wu, Man Zhang, Zuquan Xiong, Qianqian Yin, Yanfei Ru, Huijuan Shi, Jinsong Li, Shanhua Mao, Yanliang Li, Xinyi Cao, Renming Hu, Chong Wee Liew, Qiang Ding, Xuanchun Wang, Yonglian Zhang
Infertility is a severe public health problem worldwide that prevails up to 15% in reproductive-age couples, and male infertility accounts for half of total infertility. Studies on genetically modified animal models have identified lots of genes involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility. The underlying causes, however, remain largely unclear. In this study, we provide evidence that EMC10, one subunit of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC), is required for male fertility. EMC10 is significantly decreased in spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia and positively associated with human sperm motility...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644433/boron-application-improves-yield-of-rice-cultivars-under-high-temperature-stress-during-vegetative-and-reproductive-stages
#6
Mohammad Shahid, Amaresh Kumar Nayak, Rahul Tripathi, Jawahar Lal Katara, Priyanka Bihari, Banwari Lal, Priyanka Gautam
It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626311/exploration-of-mirnas-and-target-genes-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-line-in-cotton-during-flower-bud-development
#7
Hushuai Nie, Yumei Wang, Ying Su, Jinping Hua
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines provide crucial material to harness heterosis for crop plants, which serves as an important strategy for hybrid seed production. However, the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vegetative growth and reproductive growth, there are few reports on miRNAs regulating the development of male sterility in Upland cotton. In present study, 12 small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced for two development stages of flower buds from a CMS line and its maintainer line...
April 7, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620987/oocyte-freezing-reproductive-panacea-or-false-hope-of-family
#8
Susie Jacob, Adam Balen
Advanced technology now allows young women to freeze and store oocytes with a realistic chance of future pregnancy. Vitrification has revolutionized oocyte preservation, with comparable pregnancy rates to fresh oocyte use. Traditionally used for women who were about to undergo sterilizing oncology treatment, now the opportunity has been extended for 'social freezing'. A steady rise in all women accessing freezing continues. Despite this, there is a lack of understanding of natural fertility and the impact of age on pregnancy outcomes...
April 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617657/transgenerational-sterility-of-piwi-mutants-represents-a-dynamic-form-of-adult-reproductive-diapause
#9
Bree Heestand, Matt Simon, Stephen Frenk, Denis Titov, Shawn Ahmed
Environmental stress can induce adult reproductive diapause, a state of developmental arrest that temporarily suspends reproduction. Deficiency for C. elegans Piwi protein PRG-1 results in strains that reproduce for many generations but then become sterile. We found that sterile-generation prg-1/Piwi mutants typically displayed pronounced germ cell atrophy as L4 larvae matured into 1-day-old adults. Atrophied germlines spontaneously reproliferated across the first days of adulthood, and this was accompanied by fertility for day 2-4 adults...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616376/chemical-fertility-signaling-in-termites-idiosyncrasies-and-commonalities-in-comparison-with-ants
#10
REVIEW
Judith Korb
Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610216/hybrid-sterility-in-fish-caused-by-mitotic-arrest-of-primordial-germ-cells
#11
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Dongdong Xu, Yasuko Ino, Tasuku Yoshino, Takao Hayashida, Junije Wang, Ryosuke Yazawa, Goro Yoshizaki, Yutaka Takeuchi
Sterility in hybrid animals is widely known to be due to a cytological mechanism of aberrant homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis in hybrid germ cells. In this study, the gametes of four marine fish species belonging to Sciaenid were artificially fertilized, and germ cell development was examined at the cellular and molecular levels. One of the intergeneric hybrids had gonads that were testis-like in structure, small in size, and lacked germ cells. Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and their migration towards genital ridges were normally occurred in hybrid embryos, but these PGCs did not proliferate in the hybrid gonads...
April 2, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608173/manipulation-of-ploidy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Erlyana K Clarke, Katherine A Rivera Gomez, Zaki Mustachi, Mikaela C Murph, Mara Schvarzstein
Mechanisms that involve whole genome polyploidy play important roles in development and evolution; also, an abnormal generation of tetraploid cells has been associated with both the progression of cancer and the development of drug resistance. Until now, it has not been feasible to easily manipulate the ploidy of a multicellular animal without generating mostly sterile progeny. Presented here is a simple and rapid protocol for generating tetraploid Caenorhabditis elegans animals from any diploid strain. This method allows the user to create a bias in chromosome segregation during meiosis, ultimately increasing ploidy in C...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#13
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605406/micro-rna-profile-and-proteins-in-peritoneal-fluid-from-women-with-endometriosis-their-relationship-with-sterility
#14
Josep Marí-Alexandre, Moisés Barceló-Molina, Elisa Belmonte-López, Javier García-Oms, Amparo Estellés, Aitana Braza-Boïls, Juan Gilabert-Estellés
OBJECTIVE: To define the microRNA (miRNA) profile and its relationship with cytokines content in peritoneal fluid (PF) from endometriosis patients. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University hospital, research institute. PATIENT(S): One hundred twenty-six women with endometriosis (EPF) and 45 control women (CPF). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE(S): MiRNA arrays were prepared from six EPF and six CPF...
March 28, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605404/informing-offspring-of-their-conception-by-gamete-or-embryo-donation-an-ethics-committee-opinion
#15
(no author information available yet)
This document discusses the ethical implications of informing offspring about their conception using gamete or embryo donation. It replaces the 2013 ASRM Ethics Committee document of the same name (Fertil Steril 2013;100:45-9).
March 28, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589295/the-varicocele-argument-resurfaces
#16
Sherman Silber
A recent series of articles and reviews published in Fertility and Sterility have rekindled the more than half century debate on varicocelectomy. Every one of these articles favored strongly the repair of varicocele for male infertility. Since my review paper on this issue in 2001, published in Human Reproduction Update, and since advent of ICSI in 1993, I had thought that most reproductive physicians felt negatively about the benefit of varicocelectomy. However, more recent urological papers are causing this negative view to be re-evaluated...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588287/fanconi-anemia-fancm-fncm-1-and-fancd2-fcd-2-are-required-for-maintaining-histone-methylation-levels-and-interact-with-the-histone-demethylase-lsd1-spr-5-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Hyun-Min Kim, Sara E Beese-Sims, Monica P Colaiácovo
The histone demethylase LSD1 was originally discovered as removing methyl groups from di- and monomethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/1). Several studies suggest LSD1 plays roles in meiosis as well as in the epigenetic regulation of fertility given that in its absence there is evidence of a progressive accumulation of H3K4me2 and increased sterility through generations. In addition to the progressive sterility phenotype observed in the mutants, growing evidence for the importance of histone methylation in the regulation of DNA damage repair has attracted more attention to the field in recent years...
March 27, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577977/transcriptome-profiling-and-cataloging-differential-gene-expression-in-floral-buds-of-fertile-and-sterile-lines-of-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#18
Rasmieh Hamid, Rukam S Tomar, Hassan Marashi, Saeid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Balaji A Golakiya, Motahhareh Mohsenpour
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility is maternally inherited trait in plants, characterized by failure to produce functional pollen during anther development. Anther development is modulated through the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In the present study, differential gene expression of floral buds at the sporogenous stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) between CGMS and its fertile maintainer line of cotton plants was studied. A total of 320 significantly differentially expressed genes, including 20 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated in CGMS comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, as well as and 89 down-regulated and 4 up-regulated in CGMS compared to the fertile line at MS stage...
March 22, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566130/unravelling-the-epigenomic-interactions-between-parental-inbreds-resulting-in-an-altered-hybrid-methylome-in-pigeonpea
#19
Alim Junaid, Himanshu Kumar, A R Rao, A N Patil, N K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad
DNA methylation is an important heritable landmark conferring epigenetic changes in hybrids and has fascinated biologists and plant-breeders over the years. Although epigenetic changes have been documented in rice and maize hybrids, such investigations have not been reported in pigeonpea. Here, we report genome-wide methylation profiles of pigeonpea sterile and fertile inbred lines and their fertile F1 hybrid at single base resolution. We found that pigeonpea genome is relatively enriched in CG methylation...
March 16, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563606/photobiont-switching-causes-changes-in-the-reproduction-strategy-and-phenotypic-dimorphism-in-the-arthoniomycetes
#20
Damien Ertz, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska, Göran Thor, Anna Łubek, Martin Kukwa
Phylogenetic analyses using mtSSU and nuITS sequences of Buellia violaceofusca (previously placed in Lecanoromycetes), a sterile, sorediate lichen having a trebouxioid photobiont, surprisingly prove that the species is conspecific with Lecanographa amylacea (Arthoniomycetes), a fertile, esorediate species with a trentepohlioid photobiont. These results suggest that L. amylacea and B. violaceofusca are photomorphs of the same mycobiont species, which, depending on the photobiont type, changes the morphology and the reproduction strategy...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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