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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719723/de-novo-hhv-8-tumors-induced-by-rituximab-in-autoimmune-or-inflammatory-systemic-diseases
#1
Amandine Perier, Léa Savey, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Philippe Serve, David Saadoun, Stéphane Barete
OBJECTIVES: HHV-8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated herpesvirus is involved in KS and other tumors comprising multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Rituximab is currently used for treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases and humoral organ rejection. De novo HHV-8 induced tumors by rituximab used for autoimmune or inflammatory diseases or humoral organ rejection have not been reported. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we report clinical, virological and pathology of five HIV-negative male patients with HHV-8-induced tumors following rituximab therapy...
July 18, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717094/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-hhv-7-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-the-first-reported-case-in-japan
#2
Yoko Aburakawa, Takayuki Katayama, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Tatsuo Suzutani, Hitoshi Aizawa, Naoyuki Hasebe
A 35-year-old male who had not previously suffered any major illnesses was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue, fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and seizures. A neurological examination showed that he was in a semi-comatose state and exhibited neck stiffness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected high-intensity areas in the bilateral hippocampi and periventricular white matter. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mononuclear pleocytosis, an elevated protein level, and positivity for human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) DNA...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715488/microrna-dependent-and-independent-deregulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-by-an-oncogenic-herpesvirus
#3
Sunantha Sethuraman, Lauren Appleby Gay, Vaibhav Jain, Irina Haecker, Rolf Renne
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS and other cancers like Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL). In KS and PEL, all tumors harbor latent KSHV episomes and express latency-associated viral proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The exact molecular mechanisms by which latent KSHV drives tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Recent developments have highlighted the importance of aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in cancer...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711432/inactivated-orf-virus-shows-disease-modifying-antiviral-activity-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-genital-herpesvirus-infection
#4
Astrid Friebe, Angela Siegling, Olaf Weber
BACKGROUND: Inactivated Orf virus (iORFV) has been used as a preventative as well as a therapeutic immunomodulator in veterinary medicine in different species. iORFV elicits strong effects on cytokine secretion in mice and human immune cells leading to an auto-regulated loop of initial up-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines that attenuate immunopathology. The therapeutic potential of iORFV has been recognized in several models for difficult-to-treat disease areas such as chronic viral diseases, liver fibrosis or various forms of cancer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707270/profiling-of-cellular-microrna-responses-during-the-early-stages-of-kshv-infection
#5
Hosni A M Hussein, Shaw M Akula
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes a variety of cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Host cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence virus-host cell interactions. This study investigated cellular miRNA expression profiles operating in response to early stages of KSHV infection of human Burkitt lymphoma B cells (BJAB). We employed deep sequencing to analyze miRNA expression in KSHV-infected BJAB cells 15 min post infection (PI) and compared this to uninfected BJAB cells...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704957/chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-models-of-viral-genome-release-from-the-telomere-and-impacts-on-human-health
#6
REVIEW
Michael L Wood, Nicola J Royle
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release...
July 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704770/detection-of-oncogenic-viruses-in-water-environments-by-a-luminex-based-multiplex-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-infectious-agents
#7
P Di Bonito, M Iaconelli, T Gheit, M Tommasino, S Della Libera, L Bonadonna, G La Rosa
Recent studies documented the detection of viruses strongly associated with human cancer in urban sewages and other water environments worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of human oncogenic viruses in environmental samples (sewage, river, marine, and pool/spa water) using highly sensitive and specific multiplex bead-based assays (Luminex technology). A total of 33 samples were analysed for 140 oncogenic viral agents, including mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs), human polyomaviruses (HPyV), human herpesviruses (HHV) and mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704654/persistent-kshv-infection-increases-ebv-associated-tumor-formation-in%C3%A2-vivo-via-enhanced-ebv-lytic-gene-expression
#8
Donal McHugh, Nicole Caduff, Mario Henrique M Barros, Patrick C Rämer, Ana Raykova, Anita Murer, Vanessa Landtwing, Isaak Quast, Christine T Styles, Michael Spohn, Adeola Fowotade, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Yong-Moon Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Jaap Middeldorp, Thomas F Schulz, Ethel Cesarman, Andrea Zbinden, Riccarda Capaul, Robert E White, Martin J Allday, Gerald Niedobitek, David J Blackbourn, Adam Grundhoff, Christian Münz
The human tumor viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establish persistent infections in B cells. KSHV is linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and 90% of PELs also contain EBV. Studies on persistent KSHV infection in vivo and the role of EBV co-infection in PEL development have been hampered by the absence of small animal models. We developed mice reconstituted with human immune system components as a model for KSHV infection and find that EBV/KSHV dual infection enhanced KSHV persistence and tumorigenesis...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704653/double-the-trouble-when-herpesviruses-join-hands
#9
Un Yung Choi, Angela Park, Jae U Jung
KSHV is the etiologic agent of PEL-an aggressive lymphoma. Interestingly, EBV concurrently exists in nearly 70% of PEL cases. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, McHugh et al. (2017) develop humanized mouse models for EBV/KSHV co-infection and identify their complementary effect on in vivo tumor formation.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701406/structure-and-functional-basis-for-an-ebna1-hexameric-ring-in-epstein-barr-virus-episome-maintenance
#10
Julianna S Deakyne, Kimberly Malecka, Troy E Messick, Paul M Lieberman
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a stable latent infection that can persist for the life of the host. EBNA1 is required for the replication, maintenance, and segregation of the latent episome but the structural features of EBNA1 that confer each of these functions are not completely understood. Here, we have solved the x-ray crystal structure of an EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and discovered a novel hexameric ring oligomeric form. The oligomeric interface pivoted around residue T585 as a joint that links and stabilizes higher order EBNA1 complexes...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701396/effects-of-the-nedd8-activating-enzyme-inhibitor-mln4924-on-lytic-reactivation-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#11
Pey-Jium Chang, Lee-Wen Chen, Li-Yu Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Ying-Ju Shih, Shie-Shan Wang
The switch of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from latency to lytic replication is a key event for viral dissemination and pathogenesis. MLN4924, a novel neddylation inhibitor, reportedly causes the onset of KSHV reactivation but impairs later phases of viral lytic program in infected cells. Thus far, the molecular mechanism involved in the modulation of KSHV lytic cycle by MLN4924 is not yet fully understood. Here, we confirmed that treatment of different KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines with MLN4924 substantially induces viral lytic protein expression...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699856/analysis-of-the-origin-of-inherited-chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-in-the-japanese-population
#12
Yoshiki Kawamura, Tamae Ohye, Hiroki Miura, Masaru Ihira, Yuri Kato, Hiroki Kurahashi, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Integration of the complete human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) genome into the telomere of a chromosome has been reported in some individuals (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6; iciHHV-6). Since the proportion of iciHHV-6-positive individuals with integration in chromosome 22 is high in Japan, we hypothesized a founder effect. In this study, we sought to elucidate the reason for the high proportion of viral integrations into chromosome 22. We analyzed six cases of iciHHV-6A and two cases of iciHHV-6B, including one iciHHV-6A case with a matched sample from a father and one iciHHV-6B case with a matched sample from a mother...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698273/viral-micrornas-repress-the-cholesterol-pathway-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-inhibits-infection
#13
Anna K P Serquiña, Diane M Kambach, Ontara Sarker, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
From various screens, we found that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral microRNAs (miRNAs) target several enzymes in the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR [a rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway]), and farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1 [a committed step in the cholesterol branch]) are repressed by multiple KSHV miRNAs. Transfection of viral miRNA mimics in primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) is sufficient to reduce intracellular cholesterol levels; however, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting only HMGCS1 did not reduce cholesterol levels...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696820/viral-interactions-with-host-cell-rab-gtpases
#14
Paul Spearman
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that utilize cellular machinery for many aspects of their replication cycles. Enveloped viruses generally rely upon host vesicular trafficking machinery to direct their structural proteins and genomes to sites of virus replication, assembly, and budding. Rab GTPases have been implicated in the replication of many important viral pathogens infecting humans. This review provides a summary of virus-Rab protein interactions, with a particular focus on the role of Rab-related trafficking pathways on late events in the lifecycle of herpesviruses and of HIV-1...
July 11, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696226/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-stably-clusters-its-genomes-across-generations-to-maintain-itself-extrachromosomally
#15
Ya-Fang Chiu, Arthur U Sugden, Kathryn Fox, Mitchell Hayes, Bill Sugden
Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694799/a-tiny-rna-that-packs-a-big-punch-the-critical-role-of-a-viral-mir-155-ortholog-in-lymphomagenesis-in-marek-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Guoqing Zhuang, Aijun Sun, Man Teng, Jun Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified in animals, plants, and viruses. These small RNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and all aspects of cancer biology. Rapid-onset T-cell lymphoma of chickens, namely Marek's disease (MD), induced by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV2), could provide an ideal natural animal model for herpesvirus-related cancer research. GaHV2 encodes 26 mature miRNAs derived from 14 precursors assembled in three distinct gene clusters in the viral genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690142/identification-of-an-essential-virulence-gene-of-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3
#17
Maxime Boutier, Yuan Gao, Catherine Vancsok, Nicolás M Suárez, Andrew J Davison, Alain Vanderplasschen
The genus Cyprinivirus consists of a growing list of phylogenetically related viruses, some of which cause severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The archetypal member, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes mass mortalities worldwide in koi and common carp. A CyHV-3 mutant was described previously that is attenuated in vivo by a deletion affecting two genes (ORF56 and ORF57). The relative contributions of ORF56 and ORF57 to the safety and efficacy profile of this vaccine candidate have now been assessed by analysing viruses individually deleted for ORF56 or ORF57...
July 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687922/was-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-introduced-into-china-via-the-ancient-silk-road-an-evolutionary-perspective
#18
Zhenqiu Liu, Qiwen Fang, Jialu Zuo, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Na He, Tiejun Zhang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has become widely dispersed worldwide since it was first reported in 1994, but the seroprevalence of KSHV varies geographically. KSHV is relatively ubiquitous in Mediterranean areas and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The origin of KSHV has long been puzzling. In the present study, we collected and analysed 154 KSHV ORF-K1 sequences obtained from samples originating from Xinjiang, Italy, Greece, Iran and southern Siberia using Bayesian evolutionary analysis in BEAST to test the hypothesis that KSHV was introduced into Xinjiang via the ancient Silk Road...
July 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687749/inhibition-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-virus-by-a-peptide-derived-from-vflip-through-its-direct-destabilization-of-viruses
#19
Ho-Jin Moon, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Min-Eun Park, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Ji-Eun Yoon, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma, Chul-Joong Kim, Jae U Jung, Jong-Soo Lee
The antiviral activities of synthesized Kα2-helix peptide, which was derived from the viral FLICE-like inhibitor protein (vFLIP) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), against influenza A virus (IAV) were investigated in vitro and in vivo, and mechanisms of action were suggested. In addition to the robust autophagy activity of the Kα2-helix peptide, the present study showed that treatment with the Kα2 peptide fused with the TAT peptide significantly inhibited IAV replication and transmission...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684158/the-high-mobility-group-at-hook-1-protein-stimulates-bovine-herpesvirus-1-productive-infection
#20
Liqian Zhu, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle that causes clinical symptoms in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctivitis. Like most alpha-herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 establishes latency in sensory neurons. Stress consistently induces reactivation from latency, which is essential for virus transmission. Recent studies demonstrated that a viral protein (ORF2) expressed in a subset of latently infected neurons is associated with β-catenin and the high mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), which correlates with increased expression of these proteins in latently infected neurons...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
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