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Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Irene Baquedano Lobera, Raquel Bernadó Fonz, Sara Laliena Aznar, Matilde Bustillo Alonso, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
The main clinical manifestation of human herpesvirus 6 is exanthema subitum (also known as roseola infantum) and febrile syndrome. Central nervous system manifestations are not unusual in herpesvirus 6 infection, and even though the pathophysiology is not clear, they need to be early diagnosed and treated in order to avoid potentially serious damage. We present the case of an immunocompetent 2-year-old girl with encephalitis as a complication of herpesvirus 6 infection. We want to emphasize the significance of an early diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent further complications due to the central nervous system extension...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Francesca Macchi, José Manuel Rojas, Andrea Elizabeth Verna, Noemí Sevilla, Valentina Franceschi, Giulia Tebaldi, Sandro Cavirani, Verónica Martín, Gaetano Donofrio
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) is an extremely infective morbillivirus that primarily affects goats and sheep. In underdeveloped countries where livestock are the main economical resource, PPRV causes considerable economic losses. Protective live attenuated vaccines are currently available but they induce antibody responses similar to those produced in PPRV naturally infected animals. Effective vaccines able to distinguish between vaccinated and naturally infected animals are required to PPRV control and eradication programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fan-Xiang Gao, Wei-Jia Lu, Yang Wang, Qi-Ya Zhang, Yi-Bing Zhang, Cheng-Yan Mou, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Chao-Wei Liu, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing protein (DICP) family is a novel bony fish-specific multi-gene family encoding diversified immune receptors. However, their function and the implication of binding partners remain unknown. In this study, we first identified 28 DICPs from three gibel carp gynogenetic clones and revealed their high variability and clone-specific feature. After crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) infection, these DICPs were significantly upregulated in head kidney, kidney and spleen. The up-regulation folds in clone A+ , F and H were related to the susceptibility to CaHV, progressively increasing from resistant clone to susceptible clone...
March 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Leíse Gomes Fernandes, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira Romaldini, Eliana De Stefano, Inácio José Clementino, Amanda Rafaela Alves Maia, Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos, Clebert José Alves, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) cause reproductive problems in cattle and restrictions on international trade in animals worldwide. Both infections were detected in cattle herds in the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, however, the spatial distribution and geographic identification of positive herds for these viruses has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the spatial pattern of apparent prevalence estimate and to identify spatial clustering of positive herds of BVDV and BoHV-1 infections in cattle herds from the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Alexander L Greninger, Giselle M Knudsen, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Derek J Hanson, Ruth Hall Sedlak, Hong Xie, Jon Guan, Thuy Nguyen, Vikas Peddu, Michael Boeckh, Meei-Li Huang, Linda Cook, Daniel P Depledge, Danielle M Zerr, David M Koelle, Soren Gantt, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Mary Caserta, Joshua A Hill, Keith R Jerome
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B (HHV-6) are betaherpesviruses that reach > 90% seroprevalence in the adult population. Unique among human herpesviruses, HHV-6 can integrate into the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes; when this occurs in germ line cells it causes a condition called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). Only two complete genomes are available for replicating HHV-6B, leading to numerous conflicting annotations and little known about the global genomic diversity of this ubiquitous virus...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Maria Brambila Navarette, Gloria Martinez, Gabriela Chapa, Shirin Hasan, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of ~18-25 nucleotides that have gained extensive attention as critical regulators in complex gene networks including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis and function. Many viruses encode miRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of factors of the innate immune system, which includes proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruitment. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of three previously identified viral miRNAs (v-miRs) from the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, HSV-1 (miR-H1), KSHV (miR-K12-3-3p), and HCMV (miR-US4) in healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and observed increased levels of v-miRs in diseased tissues...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Varankpicha Kochagul, Saralee Srivorakul, Kittikorn Boonsri, Chalermchart Somgird, Nattawooti Sthitmatee, Chatchote Thitaram, Kidsadagon Pringproa
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating viral infectious diseases in elephants worldwide. To date, it remains unclear how elephants get infected by the virus, where the virus persists, and what mechanisms drive the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was aimed to develop an antibody against glycoprotein B (gB) of EEHV, investigate the EEHV tissue tropisms, and provide the possible routes of EEHV transmission in Asian elephants. Samples from elephant organs that had died from EEHV1A and EEHV4 infections, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from EEHV4- and non-EEHV-infected calves were used in this study...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hirofumi Shibata, Takahiro Yasumi, Saeko Shimodera, Eitaro Hiejima, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryutaro Shirakawa, Taizo Wada, Ryuta Nishikomori, Hisanori Horiuchi, Osamu Ohara, Eiichi Ishii, Toshio Heike
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is the major form of hereditary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH); as such, it requires prompt and accurate diagnosis. We previously reported that FHL type 3 (FHL3) can be rapidly screened by detecting munc13-4 expression in platelets using flow cytometry; however, the reliability of the munc13-4 expression assay for FHL3 diagnosis is unclear. Regardless of the type of UNC13D mutation, all reported FHL3 cases examined for munc13-4 protein showed significantly reduced expression...
March 16, 2018: Blood
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Kazuya Miyashita, Fumi Miyagawa, Yuki Nakamura, Rie Ommori, Hiroaki Azukizawa, Hideo Asada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Steffi De Pelsmaeker, Nicolas Romero, Massimo Vitale, Herman W Favoreel
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the host response against viral infections and cancer development. They are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells, and produce different important cytokines that stimulate the antiviral and antitumor adaptive immune response, particularly interferon gamma. NK cells are of particular importance in herpesvirus infections, which is illustrated by systemic and life-threatening herpesvirus disease symptoms in patients with deficiencies in NK cell activity, and by the myriad of reports describing herpesvirus NK cell evasion strategies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
S Bertolini, A Rosamilia, C Caruso, C Maurella, F Ingravalle, A Quasso, P L Acutis, M Pitti, L Masoero, G Ru
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) causes neonatal mortality and reproductive failure in goats. Despite its impact on herd reproductive performance, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with CpHV-1 infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential herd- and host-level risk factors associated with CpHV-1 prevalence in a goat population with heterogeneous seropositivity for CpHV-1. RESULTS: Blood samples and individual data from 4542 goats were collected from 255 herds in Piedmont, Italy...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ramona Weber, Rainer Hospes, Axel Wehrend
The aim of this study was to summarize the current status of the possible causes, clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of abortion in the mare and to evaluate the frequency of varying causes of abortion in German thoroughbred breeding. An analysis of the literature using electronic libraries, journals and textbooks was performed. In addition, the results of examinations of 123 abortions of thoroughbred breeding in central Germany were evaluated. In the literature, bacterial infections are the most frequently described cause of abortion...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Íñigo Corral, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Mario Rodríguez, Michal-Maciej Kawiorski, María-José López-Martínez, Juan-Carlos Galán
Neurological manifestations associated with HHV-7 have been described in primary infection in children, and very occasionally in immunocompromised adult patients. However, the role of HHV-7 reactivation as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) diseases in immunocompetent adults has not yet been defined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and microbiological features of adults with neurological symptoms who underwent lumbar puncture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviruses (HHV-1-8) and enteroviruses performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), during a 4-year period...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Takahiro Kobayashi, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
Nedd4 is a family of ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate numerous cellular processes. In this report, we showed that alpha- and beta-herpesviruses have membrane proteins that regulate the function of the Nedd4 family members. Although the homology search score was quite low, UL56 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, ORF0 of varicella-zoster virus, UL42 of human cytomegalovirus, and U24 of human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7 all possess at least one PPxY (PY) motif in their cytoplasmic domain, and are able to bind with Itch, a member of the Nedd4 family...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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