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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202351/exosomal-formulation-of-anthocyanidins-against-multiple-cancer-types
#1
Radha Munagala, Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ashish K Agrawal, Ashley M Mudd, Al Hassan Kyakulaga, Inder P Singh, Manicka V Vadhanam, Ramesh C Gupta
Over the last two decades, berries and berry bioactives particularly anthocyanins and their aglycones anthocyanidins (Anthos) have demonstrated excellent anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic limitations such as low solubility, low permeability, and poor oral bioavailability are considered as unfavorable properties for development as drugs. Therefore there is a need to develop systems for efficient systemic delivery and robust bioavailability...
February 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188035/breast-milk-derived-exosomes-promote-intestinal-epithelial-cell-growth
#2
Alison Hock, Hiromu Miyake, Bo Li, Carol Lee, Leonardo Ermini, Yuhki Koike, Yong Chen, Pekka Määttänen, Augusto Zani, Agostino Pierro
BACKGROUND: Breast milk administration prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles highly present in human milk and regulate intercellular signaling, inflammation, and immune response. We hypothesized that milk-derived exosomes beneficially affect intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS: Rat milk was collected, and exosomes were isolated using ExoQuick reagent and visualized by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111361/tracing-cellular-origin-of-human-exosomes-using-multiplex-proximity-extension-assay
#3
Pia Larssen, Lotta Wik, Paulo Czarnewski, Maria Eldh, Liza Lof, Goran Ronquist, Louise Dubois, Eva Freyhult, Caroline Gallant, Johan Oelrich, Anders Larsson, Gunnar Ronquist, Eduardo Villablanca, Ulf Landegren, Susanne Gabrielsson, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-coated objects such as exosomes and microvesicles, released by many cell-types. Their presence in body fluids and the variable surface composition and content render them attractive potential biomarkers. The ability to determine their cellular origin could greatly move the field forward. We used multiplex proximity extension assays (PEA) to identify with high specificity and sensitivity the protein profiles of exosomes of different origins, including seven cell lines and two different body fluids...
January 22, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#4
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852870/biological-activities-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-cargos-from-bovine-and-human-milk-in-humans-and-implications-for-infants
#5
REVIEW
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791479/two-distinct-extracellular-rna-signatures-released-by-a-single-cell-type-identified-by-microarray-and-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Cecilia Lässer, Ganesh Vilas Shelke, Ashish Yeri, Dae-Kyum Kim, Rossella Crescitelli, Stefania Raimondo, Margareta Sjöstrand, Yong Song Gho, Kendall Van Keuren Jensen, Jan Lötvall
Cells secrete extracellular RNA (exRNA) to their surrounding environment and exRNA has been found in many body fluids such as blood, breast milk and cerebrospinal fluid. However, there are conflicting results regarding the nature of exRNA. Here, we have separated 2 distinct exRNA profiles released by mast cells, here termed high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) exRNA. The exRNA in both fractions was characterized by microarray and next-generation sequencing. Both exRNA fractions contained mRNA and miRNA, and the mRNAs in the LD exRNA correlated closely with the cellular mRNA, whereas the HD mRNA did not...
January 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708120/commercial-dairy-cow-milk-micrornas-resist-digestion-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-tract-conditions
#7
Abderrahim Benmoussa, Chan Ho C Lee, Benoit Laffont, Patricia Savard, Jonathan Laugier, Eric Boilard, Caroline Gilbert, Ismail Fliss, Patrick Provost
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. OBJECTIVE: We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). METHODS: We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time...
November 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664331/extracellular-vesicles-in-food-experimental-evidence-of-their-secretion-in-grape-fruits
#8
Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez, Jesús Blesa, José Miguel Soriano, Antonio Marcilla
In the last decade, the number of studies related with extracellular vesicles (EVs) has dramatically grown since their role as key part of intercellular communication has been confirmed. EVs, as transporter of distinct bioactive molecules, can take part in different physiological mechanisms and have been gaining attention as potential tools with a wide range of therapeutic effects. Whereas a high number of studies have been published related to mammalian derived EVs, including products as food source, the existence of EVs in plants still is controversial...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646050/porcine-milk-derived-exosomes-promote-proliferation-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#9
Ting Chen, Mei-Ying Xie, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Li-Min Wei, Meng Li, De-Lin Lin, Qing-Yan Jiang, Qian-Yun Xi, Yong-Liang Zhang
Milk-derived exosomes were identified as a novel mechanism of mother-to-child transmission of regulatory molecules, but their functions in intestinal tissues of neonates are not well-studied. Here, we characterized potential roles of porcine milk-derived exosomes in the intestinal tract. In vitro, treatment with milk-derived exosomes (27 ± 3 ng and 55 ± 5 ng total RNA) significantly promoted IPEC-J2 cell proliferation by MTT, CCK8, EdU fluorescence and EdU flow cytometry assays. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated milk-derived exosomes (0...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175277/milk-a-postnatal-imprinting-system-stabilizing-foxp3-expression-and-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Swen Malte John, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding has protective effects for the development of allergies and atopy. Recent evidence underlines that consumption of unboiled farm milk in early life is a key factor preventing the development of atopic diseases. Farm milk intake has been associated with increased demethylation of FOXP3 and increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Thus, the questions arose which components of farm milk control the differentiation and function of Tregs, critical T cell subsets that promote tolerance induction and inhibit the development of allergy and autoimmunity...
2016: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060153/exosomes-in-human-breast-milk-promote-emt
#11
Wenyi Qin, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Santanu Dasgupta, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Mitsuo Ikebe, Edward R Sauter
PURPOSE: Pregnancy increases breast cancer risk for all women for at least 5 years after parturition. During weaning and involution, the breast microenvironment becomes tumor promotional. Exosomes provide cell-cell communication during physiologic processes such as lactation, but also in breast cancer. We determined whether molecules in milk exosomes from healthy lactating women modulate the development and progression of breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirteen nursing women provided three (transitional, mature, and wean) milk samples...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984735/human-vascular-endothelial-cells-transport-foreign-exosomes-from-cow-s-milk-by-endocytosis
#12
Rio Jati Kusuma, Sonia Manca, Taylor Friemel, Sonal Sukreet, Christopher Nguyen, Janos Zempleni
Encapsulation of microRNAs in exosomes confers protection against degradation and a vehicle for shuttling of microRNAs between cells and tissues, and cellular uptake by endocytosis. Exosomes can be found in foods including milk. Humans absorb cow's milk exosomes and deliver the microRNA cargo to peripheral tissues, consistent with gene regulation by dietary nucleic acids across species boundaries. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human vascular endothelial cells transport milk exosomes by endocytosis, constituting a step crucial for the delivery of dietary exosomes and their cargo to peripheral tissues...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26889380/lactogenic-hormones-alter-cellular-and-extracellular-microrna-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell%C3%A2-culture
#13
Susumu Muroya, Tatsuro Hagi, Ataru Kimura, Hisashi Aso, Masatoshi Matsuzaki, Masaru Nomura
BACKGROUND: Bovine milk contains not only a variety of nutritional ingredients but also microRNAs (miRNAs) that are thought to be secreted by the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). The objective of this study was to elucidate the production of milk-related miRNAs in BMECs under the influence of lactogenic hormones. RESULTS: According to a microarray result of milk exosomal miRNAs prior to cellular analyses, a total of 257 miRNAs were detected in a Holstein cow milk...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691922/milk-an-epigenetic-amplifier-of-fto-mediated-transcription-implications-for-western-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within intron 1 of the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene are associated with enhanced FTO expression, increased body weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The N (6) -methyladenosine (m(6)A) demethylase FTO plays a pivotal regulatory role for postnatal growth and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence that links milk signaling with FTO-activated transcription of the milk recipient. FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A regulates mRNA splicing required for adipogenesis, increases the stability of mRNAs, and affects microRNA (miRNA) expression and miRNA biosynthesis...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643434/-progress-in-study-on-the-role-of-exosome-derived-microrna-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-diseases
#15
Hui Tang, Haishan Wu, Yi Yang, Jingping Zhao, Jindong Chen
Exosome is a kind of biological membrane structure at nanometer level. It is secreted by various cells in the body and widely distributed in most body fluids, such as saliva, blood, and milk. Biological active substances, including mRNAs, microRNAs, cytokines, and transcription factor, have been identified in the exosomes. MiRNAs are short and non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. MiRNAs extensively involves in henogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. With various biological functions, exosome-derived miRNAs can not only be served as biomarkers to diagnose tumor, neurological diseases and mental disorders, but also possess potential as therapeutic targets...
November 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604130/bovine-milk-derived-exosomes-for-drug-delivery
#16
Radha Munagala, Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ramesh C Gupta
Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo...
February 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26528912/computational-characterization-of-exogenous-micrornas-that-can-be-transferred-into-human-circulation
#17
Jiang Shu, Kevin Chiang, Janos Zempleni, Juan Cui
MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475455/microrna-expression-profiles-of-bovine-milk-exosomes-in-response-to-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#18
Jiajie Sun, Kshama Aswath, Steven G Schroeder, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Tad S Sonstegard
BACKGROUND: Milk exosomes are a rich source of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are protected from degradation. Ingestion of milk and subsequent absorption of miRNAs into recipient cells by endocytosis may play a role in the regulation of neonatal innate and adaptive immunity. In contrast, the miRNA content of milk exosomes may also be indicative of a lactating animal's health; whereby, the presence or absence of specific miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for early detection of bacterial infection that can lead to mastitis...
2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452221/tumor-derived-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-and-treatment-failure
#19
REVIEW
Shaorong Yu, Haixia Cao, Bo Shen, Jifeng Feng
Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100 nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways...
November 10, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269243/the-intestinal-transport-of-bovine-milk-exosomes-is-mediated-by-endocytosis-in-human-colon-carcinoma-caco-2-cells-and-rat-small-intestinal-iec-6-cells
#20
Tovah Wolf, Scott R Baier, Janos Zempleni
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play essential roles in gene regulation. A substantial fraction of microRNAs in tissues and body fluids is encapsulated in exosomes, thereby conferring protection against degradation and a pathway for intestinal transport. MicroRNAs in cow milk are bioavailable in humans. OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the transport mechanism of bovine milk exosomes, and therefore microRNAs, in human and rodent intestinal cells. METHODS: The intestinal transport of bovine milk exosomes and microRNAs was assessed using fluorophore-labeled bovine milk exosomes in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells and rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
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