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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705424/proteome-profiling-of-exosomes-derived-from-plasma-of-heifers-with-divergent-genetic-merit-for-fertility
#1
Yong Qin Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Fatema B Almughlliq, Susanne Meier, Chris R Burke, John R Roche, Charlotte B Reed, Buddhika J Arachchige, Sarah Reed, Murray D Mitchell
The current study evaluated exosomes isolated from plasma of heifers bred to have high or low fertility through developing extreme diversity in fertility breeding values, however, key animal traits (e.g., body weight, milk production, and percentage of North American genetics) remained similar between the 2 groups. The exosomes were isolated by a combined ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography approach and characterized by their size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and presence of exosomal markers (immunoblotting)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644801/exosomal-micrornas-in-milk-from-mothers-delivering-preterm-infants-survive-in-vitro-digestion-and-are-taken-up-by-human-intestinal-cells
#2
Sarah Kahn, Yalin Liao, Xiaogu Du, Wei Xu, Jie Li, Bo Lönnerdal
SCOPE: This study investigates the ability of preterm milk exosomes to survive gastric/pancreatic digestion, internalization by intestinal epithelia, and the microRNAs (miRNAs) contents. METHODS AND RESULTS: At average infant age 1 week 6 days, milk was collected from mothers who delivered preterm and term infants (n  =  10). Milk was exposed to conditions simulating infant gut digestion. Exosomes were isolated and lysed, and the exposed miRNAs were sequenced...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621595/extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-alcohol-and-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-their-therapeutic-applications
#3
REVIEW
Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Mohammed Akbar, Moon-Chang Baek
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous vesicles originating from various cells and tissues, including the liver parenchymal hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells such as Kupffer and stellate cells. Recently, the pathophysiological role of EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, has been increasingly recognized based on intercellular communications. These EVs travel through the circulating blood and interact with specific cells and then deliver their cargos such as nucleic acids and proteins into recipient cells...
April 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599768/mother-s-milk-a-purposeful-contribution-to-the-development-of-the-infant-microbiota-and-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Kirsty Le Doare, Beth Holder, Aisha Bassett, Pia S Pannaraj
Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant's developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother's intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499928/exosomes-in-cancer-liquid-biopsy-a-focus-on-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Sina Halvaei, Shiva Daryani, Zahra Eslami-S, Tannaz Samadi, Narges Jafarbeik-Iravani, Tayebeh Oghabi Bakhshayesh, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Rezvan Esmaeili
The important challenge about cancer is diagnosis in primary stages and proper treatment. Although classical clinico-pathological features of the tumor have major prognostic value, the advances in diagnosis and treatment are indebted to discovery of molecular biomarkers and control of cancer in the pre-invasive state. Moreover, the efficiency of available therapeutic options is highly diminished, and chemotherapy is still the main treatment due to lack of enough specific targets. Accordingly, finding the new noninvasive biomarkers for cancer is still an important clinical challenge that is not achieved yet...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450143/purified-horse-milk-exosomes-contain-an-unpredictable-small-number-of-major-proteins
#6
Sergey E Sedykh, Lada V Purvinish, Artem S Monogarov, Evgeniya E Burkova, Alina E Grigor'eva, Dmitrii V Bulgakov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Valentin V Vlassov, Elena I Ryabchikova, Georgy A Nevinsky
Exosomes are 40-100 nm nanovesicles containing RNA and different proteins. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs are important in intracellular communication and immune function. Exosomes from different sources are usually obtained by combination of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation and according to published data can contain from a few dozens to thousands of different proteins. Crude exosome preparations from milk of eighteen horses were obtained for the first time using several standard centrifugations...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383581/genome-wide-microrna-profiling-of-bovine-milk-derived-exosomes-infected-with-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Mingcheng Cai, Hongbing He, Xianbo Jia, Shiyi Chen, Jie Wang, Yu Shi, Buwei Liu, Wudian Xiao, Songjia Lai
Bovine milk is rich in exosomes, which contain abundant miRNAs and play important roles in the regulation of neonatal growth and development of adaptive immunity. Here, we analyzed miRNA expression profiles of bovine milk exosomes from three healthy and three mastitic cows, and then six miRNA libraries were constructed. Interestingly, we detected no scRNAs and few snRNAs in milk exosomes; this result indicated a potential preference for RNA packaging in milk exosomes. A total of 492 known and 980 novel exosomal miRNAs were detected, and the 10 most expressed miRNAs in the six samples accounted for 80-90% of total miRNA-associated reads...
January 30, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345286/cyclooxygenase-2-expression-is-induced-by-celecoxib-treatment-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-is-transferred-to-neighbor-cells-via-exosomes
#8
Jayoung Kim, Seung-Woo Hong, Seonghan Kim, Daejin Kim, Dae Young Hur, Dong-Hoon Jin, Bomi Kim, Yeong Seok Kim
Lung cancer is one of most common types of cancer worldwide. Lung cancer results in a death higher rate each year compared to colon, breast and prostate cancer combined. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX‑2), an enzyme of which the expression is induced by various stimuli, such as inflammation. In addition, celecoxib triggers COX-2 loading on exosomes. Exosomes are small vesicles composed of a lipid bilayer membrane and are found in most biological fluids, such as blood breast milk and urine...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295476/detection-of-plant-mirnas-abundance-in-human-breast-milk
#9
Anna Lukasik, Iwona Brzozowska, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Piotr Zielenkiewicz
Breast milk is a natural food and important component of infant nutrition. Apart from the alimentary substances, breast milk contains many important bioactive compounds, including endogenous microRNA molecules (miRNAs). These regulatory molecules were identified in various mammalian biological fluids and were shown to be mostly packed in exosomes. Recently, it was revealed that plant food-derived miRNAs are stably present in human blood and regulate the expression of specific human genes. Since then, the scientific community has focused its efforts on contradicting or confirming this discovery...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221571/micrornas-milk-s-epigenetic-regulators
#10
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
Our perception of milk has changed from a "simple food" to a highly sophisticated maternal-neonatal nutrient and communication system orchestrating early programming of the infant. Milk miRNAs delivered by exosomes and milk fat globules derived from mammary gland epithelial cells play a key role in this process. Exosomes resist the harsh intestinal environment, are taken up by intestinal cells via endocytosis, and reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient. The most abundant miRNA found in exosomes and milk fat globules of human and cow's milk, miRNA-148a, attenuates the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, which is critically involved in epigenetic regulation...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047044/exosomes-for-the-enhanced-tissue-bioavailability-and-efficacy-of-curcumin
#11
Farrukh Aqil, Radha Munagala, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Ramesh Gupta
Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles with a particle size of 30-100 nm and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. Their properties of shuttling in-and-out of the cells suggest that these particles can be exploited as a nano drug carrier. In this manuscript, we show that curcumin can be delivered effectively using milk-derived exosomes. Curcumin when mixed with exosomes in the presence of 10% ethanol:acetonitrile (1:1) provided a drug load of 18-24%, and the formulation stored at - 80°C was stable for 6 months as determined by particle size analysis, drug load, and antiproliferative activity...
November 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030127/a-method-for-the-isolation-and-enrichment-of-purified-bovine-milk-exosomes
#12
Kanchan Vaswani, Yong Qin Koh, Fatema B Almughlliq, Hassendrini N Peiris, Murray D Mitchell
Exosomes are nanovesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication as they carry information to target cells. Isolation of high purity exosomes will aid in studying the exosomal cargo and quantity as well as how cell-specific messages are carried. We describe a new method incorporating size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to enrich milk-derived exosomes from extracellular vesicles (EVs). This involved the initial isolation of EVs from bovine milk via milk processing and ultracentrifugation; followed by a new method to enrich exosomes using SEC...
December 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992005/characterization-of-exosomes-from-body-fluids-of-dairy-cows
#13
Y Q Koh, H N Peiris, K Vaswani, S Meier, C R Burke, K A Macdonald, J R Roche, F Almughlliq, B J Arachchige, S Reed, M D Mitchell
Exosomes are a specific subpopulation of extracellular vesicles that are widely released by cells of different origins with divergent functions that make their way into body fluids that can be conveniently sampled. In the current study, we isolated and evaluated exosomes from concurrently collected samples of milk, plasma, saliva, and urine from a group of 6 pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (aged 7 mo, 174 to 203 d of gestation). The cows had BCS of 3.5 to 5.25 (on a scale of 1 to 10), and the milk production for the season to the time of sampling ranged between 5,118 and 6,959 kg...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991298/exosomal-delivery-of-berry-anthocyanidins-for-the-management-of-ovarian-cancer
#14
Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ashish K Agrawal, Al-Hassan Kyakulaga, Radha Munagala, Lynn Parker, Ramesh C Gupta
Despite optimal diagnosis and early therapeutic interventions, the prognosis for ovarian cancer patients remains dismal because the efficacy of chemotherapy is limited by the development of resistance and off-site toxicity. Berry bioactives indicate preventive and therapeutic activities against various cancer types. Here, we examined the antiproliferative activity of berry anthocyanidins (Anthos) against drug-sensitive (A2780) and drug-resistant (A2780/CP70, OVCA432 and OVCA433) ovarian cancer cells. These drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines overexpress p-glycoproteins (PgP) and show >100-fold resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin compared to A2780...
October 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967249/small-interfering-rna-in-milk-exosomes-is-resistant-to-digestion-and-crosses-the-intestinal-barrier-in-vitro
#15
Shruti Shandilya, Payal Rani, Suneel Kumar Onteru, Dheer Singh
Milk is not only a composite of nutrients but emerged as a source of exosomes acting as a promising drug delivery vehicle for small interfering RNA (siRNA). siRNA is known for its immense therapeutic potential but has various physiological limitations, including stable delivery. To investigate the suitability of siRNA for physiological stability and oral delivery, we encapsulated scrambled Alexa Fluor (AF)-488 siRNA in milk whey exosomes using lipofection and evaluated stability against the digestive processes along with its uptake and transepithelial transport by intestinal epithelial cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933365/milk-s-role-as-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
It is the intention of this review to characterize milk's role as an epigenetic regulator in health and disease. Based on translational research, we identify milk as a major epigenetic modulator of gene expression of the milk recipient. Milk is presented as an epigenetic "doping system" of mammalian development. Milk exosome-derived micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) that target DNA methyltransferases are implicated to play the key role in the upregulation of developmental genes such as FTO, INS, and IGF1. In contrast to miRNA-deficient infant formula, breastfeeding via physiological miRNA transfer provides the appropriate signals for adequate epigenetic programming of the newborn infant...
March 15, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894420/exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Kha Wai Hon, Nadiah Abu, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
The number of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have increased gradually year by year. In fact, CRC is one of the most widely diagnosed cancer in men and women today. This disease is usually diagnosed at a later stage of the development, and by then, the chance of survival has declined significantly. Even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanism of CRC, there is still a lack of understanding in using the available information for diagnosing CRC effectively. Liquid biopsies are minimally invasive and have become the epitome of a good screening source for stage-specific diagnosis, measuring drug response and severity of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833502/tumor-derived-exosomes-potential-biomarker-or-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer
#18
REVIEW
AmirReza Hesari, Seyed Ali Golrokh Moghadam, AmirShayan Siasi, Mahsa Rahmani, Negin Behboodi, Azam Rastgar-Moghadam, Gordon A Ferns, Faezeh Ghasemi, Amir Avan
Exosomes are released by normal and tumour cells, including those involved in breast cancer, and provide a means of intercellular communications. Exosomes with diameters ranging between 30-150 nm are involved in transferring biological information, via various lipids, proteins, different forms of RNAs, and DNA from one cell to another, and this can result in reprogramming of recipient cell functions. These vesicles are present in all body fluids, for example, blood plasma/serum, semen, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, breast milk, and urine...
June 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828662/in-vivo-tracking-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-mice-using-fusion-protein-comprising-lactadherin-and-gaussia-luciferase
#19
Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles comprising a lipid bilayer and are found in body fluids, such as blood, sweat, and urine. As EVs, especially exosomes, function as endogenous intercellular delivery tools, their roles in various biological events have been extensively investigated. In addition, they are expected to become safe and effective drug delivery systems (DDS) because of their intrinsic nature. In the development of EV-based DDS, as well as in the investigation of the biological functions of EVs, it is important to analyze the in vivo behavior of EVs by tracking them...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740388/role-of-tim-4-in-exosome-dependent-entry-of-hiv-1-into-human-immune-cells
#20
Brian Sims, Anitra L Farrow, Sparkle D Williams, Anju Bansal, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Linlin Gu, Qiana L Matthews
Exosomes, 30-200 nm nanostructures secreted from donor cells and internalized by recipient cells, can play an important role in the cellular entry of some viruses. These microvesicles are actively secreted into various body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk. We successfully isolated exosomes from human breast milk and plasma. The size and concentration of purified exosomes were measured by nanoparticle tracking, while Western blotting confirmed the presence of the exosomal-associated proteins CD9 and CD63, clathrin, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin proteins (TIMs)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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