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bovine milk exosomes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852870/biological-activities-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-cargos-from-bovine-and-human-milk-in-humans-and-implications-for-infants
#1
REVIEW
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984735/human-vascular-endothelial-cells-transport-foreign-exosomes-from-cow-s-milk-by-endocytosis
#2
Rio Jati Kusuma, Sonia Manca, Taylor Friemel, Sonal Sukreet, Christopher Nguyen, Janos Zempleni
Encapsulation of microRNAs in exosomes confers protection against degradation and a vehicle for shuttling of microRNAs between cells and tissues, and cellular uptake by endocytosis. Exosomes can be found in foods including milk. Humans absorb cow's milk exosomes and deliver the microRNA cargo to peripheral tissues, consistent with gene regulation by dietary nucleic acids across species boundaries. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human vascular endothelial cells transport milk exosomes by endocytosis, constituting a step crucial for the delivery of dietary exosomes and their cargo to peripheral tissues...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26889380/lactogenic-hormones-alter-cellular-and-extracellular-microrna-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell%C3%A2-culture
#3
Susumu Muroya, Tatsuro Hagi, Ataru Kimura, Hisashi Aso, Masatoshi Matsuzaki, Masaru Nomura
BACKGROUND: Bovine milk contains not only a variety of nutritional ingredients but also microRNAs (miRNAs) that are thought to be secreted by the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). The objective of this study was to elucidate the production of milk-related miRNAs in BMECs under the influence of lactogenic hormones. RESULTS: According to a microarray result of milk exosomal miRNAs prior to cellular analyses, a total of 257 miRNAs were detected in a Holstein cow milk...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691922/milk-an-epigenetic-amplifier-of-fto-mediated-transcription-implications-for-western-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within intron 1 of the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene are associated with enhanced FTO expression, increased body weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The N (6) -methyladenosine (m(6)A) demethylase FTO plays a pivotal regulatory role for postnatal growth and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence that links milk signaling with FTO-activated transcription of the milk recipient. FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A regulates mRNA splicing required for adipogenesis, increases the stability of mRNAs, and affects microRNA (miRNA) expression and miRNA biosynthesis...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604130/bovine-milk-derived-exosomes-for-drug-delivery
#5
Radha Munagala, Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ramesh C Gupta
Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo...
February 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475455/microrna-expression-profiles-of-bovine-milk-exosomes-in-response-to-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#6
Jiajie Sun, Kshama Aswath, Steven G Schroeder, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Tad S Sonstegard
BACKGROUND: Milk exosomes are a rich source of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are protected from degradation. Ingestion of milk and subsequent absorption of miRNAs into recipient cells by endocytosis may play a role in the regulation of neonatal innate and adaptive immunity. In contrast, the miRNA content of milk exosomes may also be indicative of a lactating animal's health; whereby, the presence or absence of specific miRNAs could serve as biomarkers for early detection of bacterial infection that can lead to mastitis...
2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269243/the-intestinal-transport-of-bovine-milk-exosomes-is-mediated-by-endocytosis-in-human-colon-carcinoma-caco-2-cells-and-rat-small-intestinal-iec-6-cells
#7
Tovah Wolf, Scott R Baier, Janos Zempleni
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play essential roles in gene regulation. A substantial fraction of microRNAs in tissues and body fluids is encapsulated in exosomes, thereby conferring protection against degradation and a pathway for intestinal transport. MicroRNAs in cow milk are bioavailable in humans. OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the transport mechanism of bovine milk exosomes, and therefore microRNAs, in human and rodent intestinal cells. METHODS: The intestinal transport of bovine milk exosomes and microRNAs was assessed using fluorophore-labeled bovine milk exosomes in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells and rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26047123/oral-administration-of-bovine-milk-derived-extracellular-vesicles-attenuates-arthritis-in-two-mouse-models
#8
Onno J Arntz, Bartijn C H Pieters, Marina C Oliveira, Mathijs G A Broeren, Miranda B Bennink, Marieke de Vries, Peter L E M van Lent, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Peter M van der Kraan, Fons A J van de Loo
SCOPE: This study shows the effect of bovine milk derived extracellular vesicles (BMEVs) on spontaneous polyarthritis in IL-1Ra-deficient mice and collagen-induced arthritis. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMEVs were isolated from semi-skimmed milk by ultracentrifugation and the particle size was around 100 nm by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. BMEVs expressed exosome marker CD63, immunoregulatory microRNA's (miR-30a, -223, -92a), and milk-specific beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin mRNA...
September 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25986518/transdermal-delivery-of-bovine-milk-vesicles-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-novel-strategy-to-induce-mog-specific-tolerance
#9
Aram Mokarizadeh, Kambiz Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Abdi, Hamid Soraya, Mohammad Reza Faryabi, Ebrahim Mohammadi, Abbas Ahmadi
Recently, butyrophilin (BTN) - a protein which shares cross-reactive epitopes with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) - has been found in milk. A high amount of milk BTN has been reported in the outer membrane of vesicular structures known as exosome and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These vesicles can act as Trojan horses, passing their BTN content through epidermis or other biologic barriers of the body. By altering the dose schedule and route of administration, the BTN-bearing vesicles (exosomes and MFGMs) may acquire enough potential to be used in MOG-specific immunotherapy program...
August 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25726110/bovine-milk-exosomes-contain-microrna-and-mrna-and-are-taken-up-by-human-macrophages
#10
Hirohisa Izumi, Muneya Tsuda, Yohei Sato, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Takahiro Ochiya, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Namba, Yasuhiro Takeda
We reported previously that microRNA (miRNA) are present in whey fractions of human breast milk, bovine milk, and rat milk. Moreover, we also confirmed that so many mRNA species are present in rat milk whey. These RNA were resistant to acidic conditions and to RNase, but were degraded by detergent. Thus, these RNA are likely packaged in membrane vesicles such as exosomes. However, functional extracellular circulating RNA in bodily fluids, such as blood miRNA, are present in various forms. In the current study, we used bovine raw milk and total RNA purified from exosomes (prepared by ultracentrifugation) and ultracentrifuged supernatants, and analyzed them using miRNA and mRNA microarrays to clarify which miRNA and mRNA species are present in exosomes, and which species exist in other forms...
May 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587719/the-pathogenic-role-of-persistent-milk-signaling-in-mtorc1-and-milk-microrna-driven-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik
Milk, the secretory product of the lactation genome, promotes growth of the newborn mammal. Milk delivers insulinotropic amino acids, thus maintains a molecular crosstalk with the pancreatic β-cell of the milk recipient. Homeostasis of β-cells and insulin production depend on the appropriate magnitude of mTORC1 signaling. mTORC1 is activated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid, abundant nutrient signals of cow´s milk. Furthermore, milk delivers bioactive exosomal microRNAs...
2015: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25122645/micrornas-are-absorbed-in-biologically-meaningful-amounts-from-nutritionally-relevant-doses-of-cow-milk-and-affect-gene-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-hek-293-kidney-cell-cultures-and-mouse-livers
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Scott R Baier, Christopher Nguyen, Fang Xie, Jennifer R Wood, Janos Zempleni
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate genes in animals and plants and can be synthesized endogenously. In milk, miRNAs are encapsulated in exosomes, thereby conferring protection against degradation and facilitating uptake by endocytosis. The majority of bovine miRNAs have nucleotide sequences complementary to human gene transcripts, suggesting that miRNAs in milk might regulate human genes. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that humans absorb biologically meaningful amounts of miRNAs from nutritionally relevant doses of milk, milk-borne miRNAs regulate human gene expression, and mammals cannot compensate for dietary miRNA depletion by endogenous miRNA synthesis...
October 2014: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24795753/expression-of-micrornas-in-bovine-and-human-pre-implantation-embryo-culture-media
#13
Jenna Kropp, Sana M Salih, Hasan Khatib
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma...
2014: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24499489/exploration-of-micrornas-in-porcine-milk-exosomes
#14
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Qi-En Qi, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Breast milk contains complex nutrients and facilitates the maturation of various biological systems in infants. Exosomes, membranous vesicles of endocytic origin found in different body fluids such as milk, can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding small RNAs of 18-25 nt which are known to be packaged in exosomes of human, bovine and porcine milk, may play important roles in the development of piglets. RESULTS: In this study, exosomes of approximately 100 nm in diameter were isolated from porcine milk through serial centrifugation and ultracentrifugation procedures...
2014: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24146982/cell-infectivity-in-relation-to-bovine-leukemia-virus-gp51-and-p24-in-bovine-milk-exosomes
#15
Tetsuya Yamada, Hiroaki Shigemura, Naotaka Ishiguro, Yasuo Inoshima
Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exosomes and BLV in bovine milk...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23719952/purification-of-rna-from-milk-whey
#16
Hirohisa Izumi, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Takashi Shimizu, Kazunori Sekine, Takahiro Ochiya, Mitsunori Takase
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that modulate specific target mRNAs and play very important roles in physiological processes. They were recently detected in body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, and milk. These body fluid miRNAs have been studied thoroughly as potential diagnostic biomarkers. However, there have been few studies of milk miRNAs, and their roles are not clearly understood. Milk is the only nutritional source for newborn infants, and bovine milk is used widely as a dairy product...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23459212/bovine-milk-proteome-quantitative-changes-in-normal-milk-exosomes-milk-fat-globule-membranes-and-whey-proteomes-resulting-from-staphylococcus-aureus-mastitis
#17
Timothy A Reinhardt, Randy E Sacco, Brian J Nonnecke, John D Lippolis
UNLABELLED: Milk protein expression in healthy cows and cows with mastitis will provide information important for the dairy food industry and immune function in the mammary gland. To facilitate protein discovery, milk was fractioned into whey, milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and exosomes from healthy and Staphylococcus aureus infected cows. Amine-reactive isobaric tags (iTRAQ) were used to quantify protein changes between milk fractions isolated from healthy and S. aureus infected cows...
April 26, 2013: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22785357/comparison-of-methods-for-isolating-exosomes-from-bovine-milk
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tetsuya Yamada, Yasuo Inoshima, Tsukasa Matsuda, Naotaka Ishiguro
Four methods were evaluated for isolating exosomes from bovine milk: (1) ExoQuick precipitation, (2) ultracentrifugation with ExoQuick precipitation, (3) ultracentrifugation with density gradient centrifugation, and (4) human milk exosome isolation. Methods 1 and 4 failed due to differences between bovine and human milk. Exosomes were efficiently isolated by ultracentrifugation with either ExoQuick precipitation (method 2) or density gradient centrifugation (method 3). The highest yield of exosomes was achieved using ultracentrifugation with ExoQuick precipitation, whereas higher quality exosome isolation with intact morphological structures was achieved by ultracentrifugation with density gradient centrifugation...
November 2012: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22129587/bovine-milk-exosome-proteome
#19
Timothy A Reinhardt, John D Lippolis, Brian J Nonnecke, Randy E Sacco
Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, secreted by cells and are found in biological fluids including milk. These exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication, and immune function. Therefore, the proteome of bovine milk exosomes may provide insight into the complex processes of milk production. Exosomes were isolated from the milk of mid-lactation cows. Purified exosomes were trypsin digested, subjected offline high pH reverse phase chromatography and further fractionated on a nanoLC connected to tandem mass spectrometer...
February 16, 2012: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20434431/isolation-of-bovine-milk-derived-microvesicles-carrying-mrnas-and-micrornas
#20
Taketoshi Hata, Kosuke Murakami, Hajime Nakatani, Yasunari Yamamoto, Tsukasa Matsuda, Naohito Aoki
By a series of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation, we could isolate microvesicles with approximately 100 nm in diameter from bovine milk. We also found that approximately 1700 and 1000 ng of total RNA, in which small RNAs were major components, was contained inside the microvesicles isolated from 6 ml of colostrum and mature milk, respectively, despite high RNase activity in the milk. Polyadenylated gene transcripts for major milk proteins and translation elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) were present in the microvesicles, and integrity of some transcripts was confirmed by real-time PCR targeting 5'- and 3'-ends of mRNA and by in vitro translation analysis...
May 28, 2010: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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