Read by QxMD icon Read

Adiponectin, liver fat, metabolic risk

Bobae Kim, Min-Seok Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, improvements in glucose control are often linked to side effects such as weight gain and altered lipid metabolism, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop antidiabetic drugs that exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism at the same time. Here we demonstrate that syringin, a naturally occurring glucoside, improves glucose tolerance without increased weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Syringin augmented insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), and the liver, showing an insulin-sensitizing activity...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Niki Katsiki, Christos Mantzoros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, pro-angiogenic, vasoprotective and insulin-sensitizing properties. Several factors may influence adiponectin levels, such as genetic polymorphisms, obesity / body fat distribution, diet and exercise as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as sleep deprivation and smoking as well as medications. Adiponectin has been proposed as a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with cardiometabolic diseases...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Nariman Moradi, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Reza Fadaei, Hossein Poustchi
Irisin, a novel adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, is hypothesized to play a crucial role in metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma levels of irisin and adiponectin in patients with NAFLD (n=41), T2DM (n=41) and NAFLD with T2DM (NAFLD+T2DM) (n=40) in comparison with healthy subjects (n=40) and also to investigate the possible association of irisin levels with NAFLD and diabetes-related indices. The anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects. Plasma levels of irisin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA...
March 31, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Yuki Okada, Motoo Kobayashi, Masaki Sawamura, Toshiro Arai
As in humans, obesity and its associated diseases represent the most significant threat to the health of veterinary populations. Previous human studies have provided insights into the risk factors of obesity, complex pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, and their life-threatening consequences. In humans, the "metabolic syndrome" represents a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and its complications increase health-care utilization and medical expenses...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der-Jiun Ooi, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Rozita Rosli, Maznah Ismail
BACKGROUND: The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings...
January 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
J Kälsch, H Keskin, A Schütte, T Baars, H A Baba, L P Bechmann, A Canbay, J P Sowa
Background and aims: Hepatic steatosis is the basis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD). Mere fat accumulation within hepatocytes is considered the mild form of NAFLD, but can progress in some patients to advanced steatohepatitis (NASH), which may lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. However, even hepatic steatosis alone may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients and methods: In the present real life study 106 patients from the outpatient clinic of the Department for Gastroenterology and Hepatology with either NAFLD (n = 60) or other typical diagnoses (n = 46) were included...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Reza Fadaei, Nariman Moradi, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Hossein Poustchi
Numerous studies have shown that C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders, such as Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). There is a little information concerning CTRP13 in the context of NAFLD and T2DM. We evaluated the plasma levels of CTRP13 in healthy control and patients with NAFLD, T2DM and NAFLD+T2DM, and also correlations between CTRP13 plasma levels and clinical and subclinical features. Circulating CTRP13 was examined in 88 male (20 healthy control, 22 T2DM patients, 22 NAFLD patients and 22 NAFLD+T2DM patients)...
2016: PloS One
Ahtesham Hussain, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Dongwoo Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals...
2016: PloS One
Joy Simpson, Andrew D Smith, Abigail Fraser, Naveed Sattar, Mark Callaway, Robert S Lindsay, Debbie A Lawlor, Scott M Nelson
CONTEXT: Maternal adiposity in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity and metabolic dysfunction postnatally, including greater risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent genetic analyses suggest a causal effect of greater maternal body mass index on offspring birth weight and ponderal index, but the relative roles of the environment in utero or later in life remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether markers of infant adiposity (birth weight, umbilical cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and lipids) were associated with markers of NAFLD in adolescence...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yutaka Shiina, Koichiro Homma, Hideki Ozawa, Joe Yoshizawa, Takako Kobayashi, Mihoko Igarashi, Minoru Aikawa, Takeo Shibata, Yasuhiko Homma
Objective The close relationship between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome suggests that individuals with fatty liver may have multiple coronary risk factors. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among fatty liver, abdominal fat distribution, and coronary risk markers. Methods and Results Eighty-seven pairs of men and 42 pairs of women who were matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in the present study. The obesity-related markers, abdominal fat distribution (examined by CT), and coronary risk markers were compared in subjects with and without fatty liver...
2016: Internal Medicine
Yeonmi Lee, Reika Yoshitsugu, Keidai Kikuchi, Ga-Hyun Joe, Misaki Tsuji, Takuma Nose, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Kimiko Minamida, Kazunori Miwa, Satoshi Ishizuka
Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Óscar Escribano, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Gema García-Gómez, Silvia Fernández, Manuel Benito
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity...
September 2016: Endocrinology
B Kuhla, C C Metges, H M Hammon
The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Jihye Hong, Sera Kim, Hyun-Sook Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by >5% deposition of triglycerides in hepatocytes, is often referred as a major risk factor for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of whole soybean embryos containing bioactive substances such as isoflavones and soyasaponins. For this study, mice were randomly allocated into four groups that were fed different diets for 10 weeks: normal diets and high-fat and high-cholesterol diets (HD), and HD with 10% or 20% soybean embryo powder (10SE-HD and 20SE-HD)...
June 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Bhaskar Narayan, Yuki Sawada, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita
Obesity and diabetes, risk factors for metabolic syndrome, are characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Marine biofunctionals, astaxanthin (Ax) and squalene (SQ), were evaluated for their combined effect. Groups of male KK-A (y) mice were fed high fat/sucrose diet for 4 weeks, supplemented with either 0.1 %Ax, 2 %SQ or 0.1 %Ax + 2 %SQ. In comparison to control, Sod was elevated in only Ax + SQ. However, Gpx was highest in Ax + SQ, indicating the combined antioxidant effect of Ax and SQ...
June 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Chia-Hua Wu, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Joel Thompson, Wen Su, Ming Gong, Genevieve Nguyen, Frédérique Yiannikouris
Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids...
July 2016: Hypertension
Jane J Lee, Kathryn A Britton, Alison Pedley, Joseph M Massaro, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Joanne M Murabito, Udo Hoffmann, Cheryl Ingram, John F Keaney, Ramachandran S Vasan, Caroline S Fox
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and fatty liver differ in their associations with cardiovascular risk compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Several biomarkers have been linked to metabolic derangements and may contribute to the pathogenicity of fat depots. We examined the association between fat depots on multidetector computed tomography and metabolic regulatory biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n=1583, 47% women) underwent assessment of SAT, VAT, and liver attenuation...
May 4, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Anne Kammel, Sophie Saussenthaler, Markus Jähnert, Wenke Jonas, Laura Stirm, Andreas Hoeflich, Harald Staiger, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Hans-Georg Joost, Annette Schürmann, Robert W Schwenk
Obesity and ectopic fat disposition are risk factors for metabolic disease. Recent data indicate that IGFBP2 expression in liver is epigenetically inhibited during hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if epigenetic de-regulation of hepatic Igfbp2 occurs already early in life and is associated with increased risk for diet-induced obesity (DIO) during adolescence. Male C57BL/6J mice received a high-fat diet. After 3 weeks on this diet (age of 6 weeks), DIO-susceptible (responder, Resp) and DIO-resistant (non-responder, nResp) mice were identified by early weight gain...
June 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Antonio F Saad, Joshua Dickerson, Talar B Kechichian, Huaizhi Yin, Phyllis Gamble, Ashley Salazar, Igor Patrikeev, Massoud Motamedi, George R Saade, Maged M Costantine
BACKGROUND: Consumption of fructose-rich diets in the United States is on the rise and thought to be associated with obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of antenatal exposure to high-fructose diet on offspring's development of metabolic syndrome-like phenotype and other cardiovascular disease risk factors later in life. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant C57BL/6J dams were randomly allocated to fructose solution (10% wt/vol, n = 10) or water (n = 10) as the only drinking fluid from day 1 of pregnancy until delivery...
September 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, John F Keaney, Ramachandran S Vasan, Caroline S Fox
BACKGROUND: Excess accumulation of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse levels of adipokines and cardiovascular disease risk. Whether fat quality is associated with adipokines has not been firmly established. This study examined the association between abdominal SAT and VAT density, an indirect measure of fat quality, with a panel of metabolic regulatory biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue or the liver independently of absolute fat volumes...
February 29, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"