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Metabolic risk, adiponectin, liver fat

Joy Simpson, Andrew D Smith, Abigail Fraser, Naveed Sattar, Mark Callaway, Robert S Lindsay, Debbie A Lawlor, Scott M Nelson
CONTEXT: Maternal adiposity in pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity and metabolic dysfunction postnatally, including greater risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent genetic analyses suggest a causal effect of greater maternal body mass index on offspring birthweight and ponderal index but the relative roles of the environment in-utero or later in life remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether markers of infant adiposity (birthweight, umbilical cord blood leptin, adiponectin and lipids) were associated with markers of NAFLD in adolescence...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yutaka Shiina, Koichiro Homma, Hideki Ozawa, Joe Yoshizawa, Takako Kobayashi, Mihoko Igarashi, Minoru Aikawa, Takeo Shibata, Yasuhiko Homma
Objective The close relationship between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome suggests that individuals with fatty liver may have multiple coronary risk factors. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among fatty liver, abdominal fat distribution, and coronary risk markers. Methods and Results Eighty-seven pairs of men and 42 pairs of women who were matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in the present study. The obesity-related markers, abdominal fat distribution (examined by CT), and coronary risk markers were compared in subjects with and without fatty liver...
2016: Internal Medicine
Yeonmi Lee, Reika Yoshitsugu, Keidai Kikuchi, Ga-Hyun Joe, Misaki Tsuji, Takuma Nose, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Kimiko Minamida, Kazunori Miwa, Satoshi Ishizuka
Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Óscar Escribano, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Gema García-Gómez, Silvia Fernández, Manuel Benito
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity...
September 2016: Endocrinology
B Kuhla, C C Metges, H M Hammon
The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Jihye Hong, Sera Kim, Hyun-Sook Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by >5% deposition of triglycerides in hepatocytes, is often referred as a major risk factor for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of whole soybean embryos containing bioactive substances such as isoflavones and soyasaponins. For this study, mice were randomly allocated into four groups that were fed different diets for 10 weeks: normal diets and high-fat and high-cholesterol diets (HD), and HD with 10% or 20% soybean embryo powder (10SE-HD and 20SE-HD)...
June 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Bhaskar Narayan, Yuki Sawada, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita
Obesity and diabetes, risk factors for metabolic syndrome, are characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Marine biofunctionals, astaxanthin (Ax) and squalene (SQ), were evaluated for their combined effect. Groups of male KK-A (y) mice were fed high fat/sucrose diet for 4 weeks, supplemented with either 0.1 %Ax, 2 %SQ or 0.1 %Ax + 2 %SQ. In comparison to control, Sod was elevated in only Ax + SQ. However, Gpx was highest in Ax + SQ, indicating the combined antioxidant effect of Ax and SQ...
June 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Chia-Hua Wu, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Joel Thompson, Wen Su, Ming Gong, Genevieve Nguyen, Frédérique Yiannikouris
Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids...
July 2016: Hypertension
Jane J Lee, Kathryn A Britton, Alison Pedley, Joseph M Massaro, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Joanne M Murabito, Udo Hoffmann, Cheryl Ingram, John F Keaney, Ramachandran S Vasan, Caroline S Fox
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and fatty liver differ in their associations with cardiovascular risk compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Several biomarkers have been linked to metabolic derangements and may contribute to the pathogenicity of fat depots. We examined the association between fat depots on multidetector computed tomography and metabolic regulatory biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n=1583, 47% women) underwent assessment of SAT, VAT, and liver attenuation...
May 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Anne Kammel, Sophie Saussenthaler, Markus Jähnert, Wenke Jonas, Laura Stirm, Andreas Hoeflich, Harald Staiger, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Hans-Georg Joost, Annette Schürmann, Robert W Schwenk
Obesity and ectopic fat disposition are risk factors for metabolic disease. Recent data indicate that IGFBP2 expression in liver is epigenetically inhibited during hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if epigenetic de-regulation of hepatic Igfbp2 occurs already early in life and is associated with increased risk for diet-induced obesity (DIO) during adolescence. Male C57BL/6J mice received a high fat diet. After 3 weeks on this diet (age of 6 weeks), DIO-susceptible (responder, Resp) and DIO-resistant (non-responder, nResp) mice were identified by early weight gain...
April 28, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Antonio F Saad, Joshua Dickerson, Talar B Kechichian, Huaizhi Yin, Phyllis Gamble, Ashley Salazar, Igor Patrikeev, Massoud Motamedi, George R Saade, Maged M Costantine
BACKGROUND: Consumption of fructose-rich diets in the United States is on the rise and thought to be associated with obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of antenatal exposure to high-fructose diet on offspring's development of metabolic syndrome-like phenotype and other cardiovascular disease risk factors later in life. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant C57BL/6J dams were randomly allocated to fructose solution (10% wt/vol, n = 10) or water (n = 10) as the only drinking fluid from day 1 of pregnancy until delivery...
September 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, John F Keaney, Ramachandran S Vasan, Caroline S Fox
BACKGROUND: Excess accumulation of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse levels of adipokines and cardiovascular disease risk. Whether fat quality is associated with adipokines has not been firmly established. This study examined the association between abdominal SAT and VAT density, an indirect measure of fat quality, with a panel of metabolic regulatory biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue or the liver independently of absolute fat volumes...
March 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
N Slutsky, M Vatarescu, Y Haim, N Goldstein, B Kirshtein, I Harman-Boehm, Y Gepner, I Shai, N Bashan, M Blüher, A Rudich
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue (AT) autophagy gene expression is elevated in human obesity, correlating with increased metabolic risk, but mechanistic links between the two remain unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess whether elevated autophagy may cause AT endocrine dysfunction, emphasizing the putative role of adiponectin in fat-liver endocrine communication. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We utilized a large (N=186) human AT biobank to assess clinical associations between human visceral AT autophagy genes, adiponectin and leptin, by multivariate models...
June 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ekim Seven
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for hypertension. The mechanisms linking these two diseases are incompletely understood, but abnormalities in several different pathways including insulin and glucose metabolism, inflammation, the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been known for decades. Lately, the attention has shifted toward the endocrine function of adipose tissue, which among others secrete adiponectin, leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which stimulates liver CRP production...
November 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Baris Akinci, Fatos Dilan Koseoglu, Huseyin Onay, Sevgi Yavuz, Canan Altay, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Secil Ozisik, Leyla Demir, Meltem Korkut, Nusret Yilmaz, Samim Ozen, Gulcin Akinci, Tahir Atik, Mehmet Calan, Mustafa Secil, Abdurrahman Comlekci, Tevfik Demir
OBJECTIVE: Acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive selective fat loss. In previous studies, metabolic abnormalities were reported to be relatively rare in APL, whilst they were quite common in other types of lipodystrophy syndromes. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we evaluated 21 Turkish patients with APL who were enrolled in a prospective follow-up protocol. Subjects were investigated for metabolic abnormalities...
September 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
I Copaci, Ioana Lupescu, Elena Caceaune, Grethi Chiriac, G Ismail
UNLABELLED: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which are linked to obesity. The aim of the study was to assess if weight reduction through 12 months of lifestyle intervention and exercise would lead to improvement of steatosis. METHODS: In a prospective observational study 86 overweight subjects (51 men, 35 women) with steatosis were recruited, after excluding other etiologies. Patients were assigned a caloric goal and a daily fat goal...
January 2015: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Cemal Nuri Ercin, Teoman Dogru, Halil Genc, Gurkan Celebi, Fatih Aslan, Hasan Gurel, Muammer Kara, Erdim Sertoglu, Serkan Tapan, Sait Bagci, Manfredi Rizzo, Alper Sonmez
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. It is well known that the presence of visceral fat increases the risk for metabolic complications of obesity, especially NAFLD. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), a novel marker of visceral fat dysfunction, shows a strong association with insulin resistance and also cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, there is conflicting data regarding the association between VAI and NAFLD...
September 2015: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Stavroula N Psychari, Nectaria Rekleiti, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Evangelia Varhalama, Christos Drakoulis, Thomas S Apostolou, Efstathios K Iliodromitis
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and might be an important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related CV disease. In an NAFLD population, we investigated EAT thickness and its possible relations to NAFLD and cardiac structure and function. This was an observational study of 57 patients with NAFLD and 48 age-matched controls. Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index (P < ...
January 2016: Angiology
Lotte Geys, Ilse Scroyen, Elien Roose, Karen Vanhoorelbeke, Henri Roger Lijnen
BACKGROUND: BMI and ADAMTS13 levels are positively correlated in man. Development of obesity is associated with angiogenesis and inflammation, and increased ADAMTS13 synthesis in the liver. METHODS: Male wild-type (WT) and ADAMTS13 deficient (Adamts13-/-) mice were kept on normal chow (SFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. RESULTS: HFD feeding of WT mice resulted in significantly enhanced levels of ADAMTS13 antigen and activity as compared to SFD feeding...
July 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiuquan Ma, Paul Lee, Donald J Chisholm, David E James
Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots have physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or "beige" fat [brown adipose tissue (BAT)] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [visceral white adipose tissue (VAT)] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic risk...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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