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epigenetics and weight

Renjing Liu, Kun-Yong Kim, Yong-Wook Jung, In-Hyun Park
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1 plays an important role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands. Studies have shed light into the functional role of Dnmt1 regulation in the hematopoietic and epidermal systems. Here we show that Dnmt1 is required for myogenesis. Loss of Dnmt1 results in reduced expression of myogenic genes and defects in myogenic differentiation. We have utilized a conditional knockout mouse approach to examine the functional consequences of Dnmt1 depletion specifically in the developing muscle...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Emilio A Herrera, Francisca Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Esteban Figueroa, Cristian Villanueva, Cherie Hernández, René Alegría, Viviana Arroyo, Estefania Peñaloza, Marcelo Farías, Ricardo Uauy, Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause
In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and eNOS programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, receiving half of the sows NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Hideoki Fukuoka, Fumihiro Sata
Epigenetic modification takes place in many types of environment. Undesirable epigenetic changes for the postnatal life at the developmental stage are induced in utero by exposure to harsh environment such as endocrine disruptors, severe psychological stress and insufficient or excessive nutrition. Some of these changes continues even for a long time after birth from womb to tomb. Under these circumstances with an unhealthy life style, such as higher caloric intake, insufficient exercise, or stress, there is a higher risk of developing various illnesses including lifestyle-related diseases, such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, psychological disorders and cancers...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
X G Zhang, H Zhang, X L Liang, Q Liu, H Y Wang, B Cao, J Cao, S Liu, Y J Long, W Y Xie, D Z Peng
Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the child. Epigenetic alternations may play an essential role in the negative effects of PTSD. This study was aimed to investigate the possible epigenetic alterations of maternal PTSD, which underpins the developmental and behavioral impact. 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly grouped into PTSD and control groups. Open-field tests (OFTs), elevated pull maze (EPM) assays, gene expression profile chip tests, and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) were performed on the offsprings 30 days after birth...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause, José A Castro-Rodríguez, Ricardo Uauy
Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated...
September 28, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Audrey Sambeat, Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of triglycerides, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy by producing heat to maintain body temperature by burning glucose and fatty acids in a process called adaptive thermogenesis. The presence of an inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, and its beneficial effects for maintaining body weight and glucose and lipid homeostasis, has raised intense interest in understanding the regulation of thermogenesis. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the thermogenic adipose program may provide excellent targets for therapeutics against obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Jingting Xu, Hong Hu, Yang Dai
BACKGROUND: The identification of enhancers is a challenging task. Various types of epigenetic information including histone modification have been utilized in the construction of enhancer prediction models based on a diverse panel of machine learning schemes. However, DNA methylation profiles generated from the whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) have not been fully explored for their potential in enhancer prediction despite the fact that low methylated regions (LMRs) have been implied to be distal active regulatory regions...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan Y Huang, Amelia R Gavin, Thomas S Richardson, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, David S Siscovick, Hagit Hochner, Yechiel Friedlander, Daniel A Enquobahrie
Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Julia Spencer Barthold, Susanne Reinhardt, Jorgen Thorup
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism is an isolated anomaly in the majority of cases, with evidence to date suggesting that it is a complex disorder resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Population, family, and limited genome-wide association data suggest moderate genetic risk, multiple susceptibility loci, and a role for the maternal environment. Epidemiologic studies have identified low birth weight or intrauterine growth retardation as factors most strongly associated with cryptorchidism, with additional evidence suggesting that maternal smoking and gestational diabetes increase risk...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Patrick Verrando, Maria Capovilla, Roger Rahmani
Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Ee Ming Wong, JiHoon E Joo, Catriona A McLean, Laura Baglietto, Dallas R English, Gianluca Severi, Hui-Chen Wu, Mary Beth Terry, John L Hopper, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
PURPOSE: Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in breast carcinogenesis. Tools for translational epigenetic studies of breast cancer involving formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues have now been developed. Few studies have measured genome-wide methylation in DNA derived from paraffin-embedded tumour tissues and compared the DNA methylation in corresponding adjacent non-tumour ductal epithelium (ADJNT). These studies are technically challenging due to the spectrum of breast cancer pathologies, the variable suitability of DNA extracted from FFPE material and the difficulties in identifying ADJNT...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Peter Kühnen, Daniela Handke, Robert A Waterland, Branwen J Hennig, Matt Silver, Anthony J Fulford, Paula Dominguez-Salas, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, Joachim Spranger, Anke Hinney, Johannes Hebebrand, Frank L Heppner, Lena Walzer, Carsten Grötzinger, Jörg Gromoll, Susanna Wiegand, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude
The estimated heritability of human BMI is close to 75%, but identified genetic variants explain only a small fraction of interindividual body-weight variation. Inherited epigenetic variants identified in mouse models named "metastable epialleles" could in principle explain this "missing heritability." We provide evidence that methylation in a variably methylated region (VMR) in the pro-opiomelanocortin gene (POMC), particularly in postmortem human laser-microdissected melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-positive neurons, is strongly associated with individual BMI...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro, David Alan Putt, Marlos Cruzeiro Soares-Filho, Júlia Matzenbacher Santos
The incidence of obesity, one of the main risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has been rising, and changes in eating behavior are associated with this increasing rate. Body weight is maintained via a complex integration of endocrine and neuronal inputs that regulate the control of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Overfeeding may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, increasing orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), and/or decreasing the anorexigenic peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) leading to a change in energy balance and body-weight index...
August 24, 2016: Appetite
Gudrun Valgerdur Skuladottir, Emil Karl Nilsson, Jessica Mwinyi, Helgi Birgir Schiöth
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation has been associated with obesity among adults, and accumulating data suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) expression has a relevant impact on fatty acid (FA) composition of lipid pools and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one-night total sleep deprivation (TSD) on DNA methylation in the 5'-prime region of SCD1, and whether detected changes in DNA methylation are associated with SCD activity indices (product to precursor FA ratios; 16:1n-7/16:0 and 18:1n-9/18:0) derived from serum phospholipids (PL)...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
T J G Chambers, M D Morgan, A H Heger, R M Sharpe, A J Drake
Experimental and epidemiological evidence demonstrate that ancestral diet might contribute towards offspring health. This suggests that nutrition may be able to modify genetic or epigenetic information carried by germ cells (GCs). To examine if a parental high fat diet (HFD) influences metabolic health in two generations of offspring, GC-eGFP Sprague Dawley rats were weaned onto HFD (45% fat) or Control Diet (CD; 10% fat). At 19 weeks, founders (F0) were bred with controls, establishing the F1 generation. HFD resulted in 9...
2016: Scientific Reports
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