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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#1
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#2
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903352/analysis-of-bos-taurus-and-sus-scrofa-x-and-y-chromosome-transcriptome-highlights-reproductive-driver-genes
#3
Faheem Ahmed Khan, Hui Liu, Hao Zhou, Kai Wang, Muhammad Tahir Ul Qamar, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Zhang Shujun
The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#4
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888834/season-of-birth-and-primary-central-nervous-system-tumors-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-of-the-literature-with-critical-appraisal-of-underlying-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Marios K Georgakis, Erato Ntinopoulou, Despoina Chatzopoulou, Eleni Th Petridou
PURPOSE: Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. RESULTS: Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883895/alterations-of-sorbin-and-sh3-domain-containing-3-sorbs3-in-human-skeletal-muscle-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#6
Samantha E Day, Luis A Garcia, Richard L Coletta, Latoya E Campbell, Tonya R Benjamin, Elena A De Filippis, James A Madura, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori R Roust, Dawn K Coletta
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease that is caused by genetic and environmental factors. However, epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are less well known. DNA methylation provides a mechanism whereby environmental factors can influence gene transcription. The aim of our study was to investigate skeletal muscle DNA methylation of sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) with weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RESULTS: Previously, we had shown increased methylation (5...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878180/bariatric-surgery-and-precision-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Carolina F Nicoletti, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Marcela A S Pinhel, Carla B Nonino
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869584/an-xqtl-map-integrates-the-genetic-architecture-of-the-human-brain-s-transcriptome-and-epigenome
#8
Bernard Ng, Charles C White, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Solveig K Sieberts, Cristin McCabe, Ellis Patrick, Jishu Xu, Lei Yu, Chris Gaiteri, David A Bennett, Sara Mostafavi, Philip L De Jager
We report a multi-omic resource generated by applying quantitative trait locus (xQTL) analyses to RNA sequence, DNA methylation and histone acetylation data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 411 older adults who have all three data types. We identify SNPs significantly associated with gene expression, DNA methylation and histone modification levels. Many of these SNPs influence multiple molecular features, and we demonstrate that SNP effects on RNA expression are fully mediated by epigenetic features in 9% of these loci...
September 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864983/epigenetic-influences-during-the-periconception-period-and-assisted-reproduction
#9
Akwasi A Amoako, Tamer M Nafee, Bolarinde Ola
The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864012/maternal-obesity-and-gestational-weight-gain-are-modestly-associated-with-umbilical-cord-dna-methylation
#10
Keshari M Thakali, Jennifer B Faske, Arjun Ishwar, Maria P Alfaro, Mario A Cleves, Thomas M Badger, Aline Andres, Kartik Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. METHODS: We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct targeted DNA methylation association analysis of maternal obesity and excessive GWG with DNA methylation of select metabolism-related and imprinted genes...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859286/persistence-of-risk-factors-associated-with-maternal-cardiovascular-disease-following-aberrant-inflammation-in-rat-pregnancy
#11
Takafumi Ushida, Shannyn K Macdonald-Goodfellow, Allegra Quadri, M Yat Tse, Louise M Winn, Stephen C Pang, Michael A Adams, Tomomi Kotani, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Charles H Graham
Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the affected mothers. While aberrant inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, it is unclear whether maternal inflammation contributes to the increased risk of disease. Here, we determined the effect of aberrant inflammation in pregnancy on cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors. Methods: Wistar rats were administered low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gestational days (GD) 13...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853041/the-effect-of-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-on-dna-methylation-patterns
#12
REVIEW
Sonsoles Morcillo, Manuel Macías-González, Francisco J Tinahones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is considered to be the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only due to the significant weight reduction but also because of the many health benefits associated with it. In the last 5 years, several studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications could be involved in the mechanisms underlying the response to bariatric surgery. In this review, we will compile the different studies (2012-2017) concerning the effect of this surgical procedure on DNA methylation patterns (the most studied epigenetic marker) and its association with metabolic improvement...
August 30, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837121/diagnostic-approach-to-pulmonary-hypertension-in-premature-neonates
#13
REVIEW
Vasantha H S Kumar
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease in premature infants following respiratory distress at birth. With increasing survival of extremely low birth weight infants, alveolar simplification is the defining lung characteristic of infants with BPD, and along with pulmonary hypertension, increasingly contributes to both respiratory morbidity and mortality in these infants. Growth restricted infants, infants born to mothers with oligohydramnios or following prolonged preterm rupture of membranes are at particular risk for early onset pulmonary hypertension...
August 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831923/the-food-and-drug-addiction-epidemic-targeting-dopamine-homeostasis
#14
Kenneth Blum, Panayotis K Thanos, Gene-Jack Wang, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Edward Justin Modestino, Eric R Braverman, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
Obesity is damaging the lives of more than 300 million people worldwide and maintaining a healthy weight using popular weight loss tactics remains a very difficult undertaking. Managing the obesity problem seems within reach, as better understanding develops, of the function of our genome in drug/nutrient responses. Strategies indicated by this understanding of nutriepigenomics and neurogenetics in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and obesity include moderation of mRNA expression by DNA methylation, and inhibition of histone deacetylation...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821223/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-mid-to-late-gestation-influences-fetal-mrna-expression-in-muscle-tissues-in-beef-cattle
#15
Francois Paradis, Katie M Wood, Kendall C Swanson, Stephen P Miller, Brian W McBride, Carolyn Fitzsimmons
BACKGROUND: Manipulating maternal nutrition during specific periods of gestation can result in re-programming of fetal and post-natal development. In this experiment we investigated how a feed restriction of 85% compared with 140% of total metabolizable energy requirements, fed to cows during mid-to-late gestation, influences phenotypic development of fetuses and mRNA expression of growth (Insulin-Like Growth Factor family and Insulin Receptor (INSR)), myogenic (Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1), Myogenin (MYOG), Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A (MEF2A), Serum Response Factor (SRF)) and adipogenic (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)) genes in fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816414/accuracy-and-utility-of-an-epigenetic-biomarker-for-smoking-in-populations-with-varying-rates-of-false-self-report
#16
Allan M Andersen, Robert A Philibert, Fredrick X Gibbons, Ronald L Simons, Jeffrey Long
Better biomarkers to detect smoking are needed given the tremendous public health burden caused by smoking. Current biomarkers to detect smoking have significant limitations, notably a short half-life for detection and lack of sensitivity for light smokers. These limitations may be particularly problematic in populations with less accurate self-reporting. Prior epigenome-wide association studies indicate that methylation status at cg05575921, a CpG residue located in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene, may be a robust indicator of smoking status in individuals with as little as half of a pack-year of smoking...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798080/long-term-programming-effect-of-early-hypoxia-and-high-carbohydrate-diet-at-first-feeding-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-juveniles
#17
Jingwei Liu, Karine Dias, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Vincent Véron, Stéphane Panserat, Lucie Marandel
Environmental conditions experienced during early life play an important role in the long-term metabolic status of individuals. The present study investigated whether early hypoxia exposure (24 h, 2.5 mg·l(-1), 20% dissolved O2) during embryo stage alone (hypoxic history) or combined with a 5-day high carbohydrate diet (60%) stimulus at first-feeding (high carbohydrate diet history) can affect the glucose metabolism later in life, i.e. in fish juveniles. After 19 weeks of growth, we observed a decrease in final body weight in fish with a high carbohydrate diet history...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781890/self-reported-pregnancy-exposures-and-placental-dna-methylation-in-the-marbles-prospective-autism-sibling-study
#18
Rebecca J Schmidt, Diane I Schroeder, Florence K Crary-Dooley, Jacqueline M Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Cheryl K Walker, Sally Ozonoff, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Janine M LaSalle
Human placenta is a fetal-derived tissue that offers a unique sample of epigenetic and environmental exposures present in utero. In the MARBLES prospective pregnancy study of high-risk younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), pregnancy and environmental factors collected by maternal interviews were examined as predictors of placental DNA methylation, including partially methylated domains (PMDs), an embryonic feature of the placental methylome. DNA methylation data from MethylC-seq analysis of 47 placentas of children clinically diagnosed at 3 years with ASD or typical development using standardized assessments were examined in relation to: child's gestational age, birth-weight, and diagnosis; maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, parity, height, prenatal vitamin and folate intake; home ownership; pesticides professionally applied to lawns or gardens or inside homes, pet flea/tick pouches, collars, or soaps/shampoos used in the 3 months prior to or during pregnancy...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765836/muscle-stem-cell-and-physical-activity-what-point-is-the-debate-at
#19
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Laura Benedetti, Maria Luisa Arcari, Cecilia Carubbi, Daniela Galli
In the last 15 years, it emerged that the practice of regular physical activity reduces the risks of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.) and it is fundamental in weight control and energy consuming to contrast obesity. Different groups proposed many molecular mechanisms as responsible for the positive effects of physical activity in healthy life. However, many points remain to be clarified. In this mini-review we reported the latest observations on the effects of physical exercise on healthy skeletal and cardiac muscle focusing on muscle stem cells...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764645/correcting-nucleotide-specific-biases-in-high-throughput-sequencing-data
#20
Jeremy R Wang, Bryan Quach, Terrence S Furey
BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequence (HTS) data exhibit position-specific nucleotide biases that obscure the intended signal and reduce the effectiveness of these data for downstream analyses. These biases are particularly evident in HTS assays for identifying regulatory regions in DNA (DNase-seq, ChIP-seq, FAIRE-seq, ATAC-seq). Biases may result from many experiment-specific factors, including selectivity of DNA restriction enzymes and fragmentation method, as well as sequencing technology-specific factors, such as choice of adapters/primers and sample amplification methods...
August 1, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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