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epigenetics and weight

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#1
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439315/36%C3%A2-h-fasting-of-young-men-influences-adipose-tissue-dna-methylation-of-lep-and-adipoq-in-a-birth-weight-dependent-manner
#2
Line Hjort, Sine W Jørgensen, Linn Gillberg, Elin Hall, Charlotte Brøns, Jan Frystyk, Allan A Vaag, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Subjects born with low birth weight (LBW) display a more energy-conserving response to fasting compared with normal birth weight (NBW) subjects. However, the molecular mechanisms explaining these metabolic differences remain unknown. Environmental influences may dynamically affect epigenetic marks, also in postnatal life. Here, we aimed to study the effects of short-term fasting on leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from subjects with LBW and NBW...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438661/systematic-review-of-the-potential-adverse-effects-of-caffeine-consumption-in-healthy-adults-pregnant-women-adolescents-and-children
#3
Daniele Wikoff, Brian T Welsh, Rayetta Henderson, Gregory P Brorby, Janice Britt, Esther Myers, Jeffrey Goldberger, Harris R Lieberman, Charles O'Brien, Jennifer Peck, Milton Tenebein, Connie Weaver, Seneca Harvey, Jonathan Urban, Candace Doepker
To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015...
April 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432260/dual-histone-reader-zmynd8-inhibits-cancer-cell-invasion-by-positively-regulating-epithelial-genes
#4
Moitri Basu, Isha Sengupta, Wasim Khan, Dushyant Kumar Srivastava, Partha Chakrabarti, Siddhartha Roy, Chandrima Das
Enhanced migratory potential and invasiveness of cancer cells attribute crucially.in cancer progression. These phenotypes are achieved by precise alteration of invasion-associated genes through local epigenetic modifications which are recognized by a class of proteins termed as chromatin reader. ZMYND8 (zinc finger MYND (Myeloid, Nervy and DEAF-1)-type containing 8), a key component of transcription regulatory network, has been recently shown to be a novel reader of H3.1K36Me2/H4K16Ac marks. Through differential gene expression analysis upon silencing this chromatin reader, we identified a subset of genes involved in cell proliferation and invasion/migration regulated by ZMYND8...
April 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425976/prenatal-exposure-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-affects-histone-modification-of-cardiometabolic-genes-in-newborn-rats
#5
Bijaya Upadhyaya, Tricia Larsen, Shivon Barwari, Eli J Louwagie, Michelle L Baack, Moul Dey
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419081/prepubertal-children-born-large-for-gestational-age-have-lower-serum-dheas-concentrations-than-those-with-a-lower-birth-weight
#6
Henrikki Nordman, Raimo Voutilainen, Leena Antikainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations than children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The overall metabolic risk associated with birth weight is U-shaped, but it is not known if children born large for gestational age (LGA) have elevated serum DHEAS levels. METHODS: A cohort of 49 LGA, 56 AGA, and 23 SGA children were studied at 5-8 years of age. Anthropometric data at birth, at the age of two years, and at examination were recorded...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416029/the-health-outcomes-of-human-offspring-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-art
#7
M Chen, L K Heilbronn
Concerns have been raised about the health and development of children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) since 1978. Controversially, ART has been linked with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes, an increased risk of birth defects, cancers, and growth and development disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that ART treatment may also predispose individuals to an increased risk of chronic ageing related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review will summarize the available evidence on the short-term and long-term health outcomes of ART singletons, as multiple pregnancies after multiple embryos transfer, are associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery, which can separately increase risk of adverse postnatal outcomes, and impact long-term health...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414763/enhanced-offspring-predisposition-to-steatohepatitis-with-maternal-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-epigenetic-and-microbiome-alterations
#8
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important co-morbidity associated with obesity and a precursor to steatohepatitis. However, the contributions of gestational and early life influences on development of NAFLD and NASH remain poorly appreciated. METHODS: Two independent studies were performed to examine whether maternal over-nutrition via exposure to high fat diet (HFD) leads to exacerbated hepatic responses to post-natal HFD and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diets in the offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395339/nutritional-programming-of-accelerated-puberty-in-heifers-alterations-in-dna-methylation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#9
Bruna R C Alves, Rodolfo C Cardoso, Ryan Doan, Youwen Zhang, Scott V Dindot, Gary L Williams, Marcel Amstalden
High rates of body weight gain during the juvenile period appear to program molecular events within the hypothalamus, leading to advancement of puberty. Methylation of DNA, an epigenetic mechanism that controls gene expression, is associated with metabolic programming events and is proposed to play a role in the pubertal process. In this study, DNA methylation was assessed in genomic DNA obtained from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of juvenile heifers fed to gain body weight at low (0.5 kg/d; low-gain, LG, n = 4) or high (1 kg/d; high-gain, HG, n = 4) rates from 4...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394087/epigenome-wide-association-of-dna-methylation-in-whole-blood-with-bone-mineral-density
#10
John A Morris, Pei-Chien Tsai, Roby Joehanes, Jie Zheng, Katerina Trajanoska, Mette Soerensen, Vincenzo Forgetta, Juan Edgar Castillo-Fernandez, Morten Frost, Tim D Spector, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jonathan H Tobias, David M Evans, Douglas P Kiel, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, J Brent Richards, Jordana T Bell
Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. As the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome wide association study (EWAS) of BMD. We undertook a large-scale BMD EWAS using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to measure site-specific DNA methylation in up to 5,515 European descent individuals (NDiscovery  = 4,614, NValidation  = 901)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393194/metallothionein-1g-promotes-the-differentiation-of-ht-29-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#11
Juan Martín Arriaga, Alicia Inés Bravo, José Mordoh, Michele Bianchini
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins involved in zinc and redox metabolism, that are epigenetically downregulated during colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, but may be re-induced with a variety of agents. Since loss of MT expression is associated with a worse prognosis, in the present study we investigated the effects of overexpression of the most significantly downregulated isoform in CRC, namely MT1G, on the HT-29 cell line. Overexpression of MT1G resulted in xenograft tumors with an aberrant morphology, characterized by an evident increase in mucin-containing cells that were identified as goblet cells under electron microscopy...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386478/changes-in-the-microrna-profile-observed-in-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-obese-patients-after-laparoscopic-adjustable-gastric-banding
#12
Carmela Nardelli, Laura Iaffaldano, Vincenzo Pilone, Giuseppe Labruna, Maddalena Ferrigno, Nicola Carlomagno, Concetta Anna Dodaro, Pietro Forestieri, Pasqualina Buono, Francesco Salvatore, Lucia Sacchetti
Background. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) results in significant lasting weight loss and improved metabolism in obese patients. To evaluate whether epigenetic factors could concur to these benefits, we investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) microRNA (miRNA) profile before (T0) and three years (T1) after LAGB in three morbidly obese women. Case Reports. SAT miRNA profiling, evaluated by TaqMan Array, showed four downexpressed (miR-519d, miR-299-5p, miR-212, and miR-671-3p) and two upexpressed (miR-370 and miR-487a) miRNAs at T1 versus T0...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386383/genome-wide-hepatic-dna-methylation-changes-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
AhRam Yoon, Stephanie A Tammen, Soyoung Park, Sung Nim Han, Sang-Woon Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, while a calorie-restricted diet can extend life span by reducing the risk of these diseases. It is known that health effects of diet are partially conveyed through epigenetic mechanism including DNA methylation. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide hepatic DNA methylation to identify the epigenetic effects of HFD-induced obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (CD), calorie-restricted control diet (CRCD), or HFD for 16 weeks (after one week of acclimation to the control diet)...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380611/parsimonious-model-for-analyzing-parent-of-origin-effects-related-to-beef-traits-in-dual-purpose-simmental
#14
I Blunk, M Mayer, H Hamann, N Reinsch
Genomic imprinting occurs when allelic effects depend on their parental origin. These parent-of-origin effects (POE) occur because of epigenetic DNA modifications during gametogenesis according to the sex of an animal. Animal breeding programs give little consideration to imprinting, although its relationship to important traits has been shown in different agricultural species. To incorporate imprinting, a previously proposed model (imprinting model) contains the genetic effects of the sire and dam, and it provides an estimate of the variance component due to POE, which is referred to as imprinting variance...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377872/dna-methylation-alters-transcriptional-rates-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-contributes-to-pathophysiology-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Pili Zhang, Tianjiao Chu, N Dedousis, Benjamin S Mantell, Ian Sipula, Lucy Li, Kimberly D Bunce, Patricia A Shaw, Liora S Katz, Jun Zhu, Carmen Argmann, Robert M O'Doherty, David G Peters, Donald K Scott
OBJECTIVE: Overnutrition can alter gene expression patterns through epigenetic mechanisms that may persist through generations. However, it is less clear if overnutrition, for example a high fat diet, modifies epigenetic control of gene expression in adults, or by what molecular mechanisms, or if such mechanisms contribute to the pathology of the metabolic syndrome. Here we test the hypothesis that a high fat diet alters hepatic DNA methylation, transcription and gene expression patterns, and explore the contribution of such changes to the pathophysiology of obesity...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373182/energy-balance-modulation-impacts-epigenetic-reprogramming-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-expression-and-mammary-tumor-development-in-mmtv-neu-transgenic-mice
#16
Emily L Rossi, Sarah M Dunlap, Laura W Bowers, Subreen A Khatib, Steven S Doerstling, Laura A Smith, Manu A Sharma, Darcy Holley, Powel H Brown, Marcos R Estecio, Donna F Kusewitt, Linda A deGraffenried, Scott J Bultman, Stephen D Hursting
The association between obesity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is well established in ER-positive disease but less clear in HER2-positive disease. Here, we report preclinical evidence suggesting weight maintenance through calorie restriction may limit risk of HER2-positive breast cancer. In female MMTV-HER2/neu transgenic mice, we found that ERα and ERβ expression, mammary tumorigenesis and survival are energy balance-dependent in association with epigenetic reprogramming. Mice were randomized to receive a calorie restriction (CR), overweight (OW)-inducing, or diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen (n = 27/group)...
April 3, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366410/introduction-obesity-and-reproduction
#17
David R Meldrum
Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored...
April 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359186/impact-of-lactational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyl-causes-epigenetic-modification-and-impairs-sertoli-cells-functional-regulators-in-f1-progeny
#18
E Sugantha Priya, T Sathish Kumar, P Raja Singh, S Balakrishnan, J Arunakaran
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Sertoli cells (SCs) provide physical and nutritional support for developing germ cells. Dysfunction in SCs has adverse effects on spermatogenesis. Previously, we found that the lactational exposure of PCBs (1, 2, and 5 mg/kg birth weight/day, orally from postnatal days 1 to 20) decreased the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in SCs of F1 progeny. Transcription factors initiate and regulate the transcription of genes...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347305/abnormal-gene-expression-in-regular-and-aggregated-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-placentas
#19
Bo-Woong Sim, Chae-Won Park, Myung-Hwa Kang, Kwan-Sik Min
BACKGROUND: Placental defects in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are a major cause of complications during pregnancy. One of the most critical factors for the success of SCNT is the successful epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. Recently, it was reported that the placental weight in mice cloned with the aggregated SCNT method was significantly reduced. Here, we examine the profile of abnormal gene expression using microarray technology in both regular SCNT and aggregated SCNT placentas as well as in vivo fertilization placentas...
March 27, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338027/molar-incisor-hypomineralisation
#20
Greig D Taylor
Data sourcesThe Medline and Embase databases and hand searches in the journals International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry and European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.Study selectionEnglish language cohort and case-control studies.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection was carried out independently by two reviewers with data abstraction being conducted by a single reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Adjusted (aOR) and unadjusted odds ratios (uOR), P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from the studies...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
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