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epigenetics and weight

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901122/parental-and-sexual-conflicts-over-the-peg3-imprinted-domain
#1
Hongzhi He, Bambarendage P U Perera, An Ye, Joomyeong Kim
In the current study, the imprinting control region of the mouse Peg3 domain was deleted to test its functional impact on animal growth and survival. The paternal transmission of the deletion resulted in complete abolition of the transcription of two paternally expressed genes, Peg3 and Usp29, causing the reduced body weight of the pups. In contrast, the maternal transmission resulted in the unexpected transcriptional up-regulation of the remaining paternal allele of both Peg3 and Usp29, causing the increased body weight and survival rates...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898666/algorithm-optimization-in-methylation-detection-with-multiple-rt-qpcr
#2
Lele Song, Yuemin Li, Jia Jia, Guangpeng Zhou, Jianming Wang, Qian Kang, Peng Jin, Jianqiu Sheng, Guoxiang Cai, Sanjun Cai, Xiaoliang Han
Epigenetic markers based on differential methylation of DNA sequences are used in cancer screening and diagnostics. Detection of abnormal methylation at specific loci by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been developed to enable high-throughput cancer screening. For tests that combine the results of multiple PCR replicates into a single reportable result, both individual PCR cutoff and weighting of the individual PCR result are essential to test outcome. In this opportunistic screening study, we tested samples from 1133 patients using the triplicate Epi proColon assay with various algorithms and compared it with the newly developed single replicate SensiColon assay that measures methylation status of the same SEPT9 gene sequence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891191/birth-weight-for-gestational-age-is-associated-with-dna-methylation-at-birth-and-in-childhood
#3
Golareh Agha, Hanine Hajj, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Allan C Just, Marie-France Hivert, Heather H Burris, Xihong Lin, Augusto A Litonjua, Emily Oken, Dawn L DeMeo, Matthew W Gillman, Andrea A Baccarelli
BACKGROUND: Both higher and lower fetal growth are associated with cardio-metabolic health later in life, suggesting that prenatal developmental programming determines long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Epigenetic mechanisms, which orchestrate fetal growth and development, may offer insight on the early programming of health and disease. We investigated whether birth weight-for-gestational is associated with DNA methylation at birth and mid-childhood, measured via the Infinium 450K array...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881521/is-famine-exposure-during-developmental-life-in-rural-bangladesh-associated-with-a-metabolic-and-epigenetic-signature-in-young-adulthood-a-historical-cohort-study
#4
S Finer, M S Iqbal, R Lowe, B W Ogunkolade, S Pervin, C Mathews, M Smart, D S Alam, G A Hitman
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in utero can 'programme' an individual towards type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. We sought to identify, (1) whether Bangladeshis exposed to famine during developmental life are programmed towards diabetes and obesity, (2) whether this programming was specific to gestational or postnatal exposure windows and (3) whether epigenetic differences were associated with famine exposure. DESIGN: A historical cohort study was performed as part of a wider cross-sectional survey...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855185/aberrant-expression-of-timp-2-and-pbef-genes-in-the-placentae-of-cloned-mice-due-to-epigenetic-reprogramming-error
#5
Hong Rye Kim, Jae Eun Lee, Reza Kheirkhahi Oqani, So Yeon Kim, Teruhiko Wakayama, Chong Li, Su Jin Sa, Je Seok Woo, Dong Il Jin
Cloned mice derived from somatic or ES cells show placental overgrowth (placentomegaly) at term. We had previously analyzed cloned and normal mouse placentae by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify differential protein expression patterns. Cloned placentae showed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling, and downregulation of pre-B cell colony enhancing factor 1 (PBEF), which inhibits apoptosis and induces spontaneous labor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831918/17%C3%AE-estradiol-suppresses-visceral-adipogenesis-and-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-specific-gene-expression
#6
Saad Misfer Al-Qahtani, Galyna Bryzgalova, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Marion Korach-André, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Suad Efendić, Per-Olof Berggren, Neil Portwood
Both functional ovaries and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Understanding the mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) may permit the development of a molecular targeting strategy for the treatment of metabolic disease. This study examines how the promotion of insulin sensitivity and weight loss by E2 treatment in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice involve several anti-adipogenic processes in the visceral adipose tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed specific reductions in visceral adipose tissue volume in HFD+E2 mice, compared with HFD mice...
November 10, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825936/new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-chemical-carcinogenesis-in-vivo-adduction-of-histone-h2b-by-a-reactive-metabolite-of-the-chemical-carcinogen-furan
#7
João Nunes, Inês L Martins, Catarina Charneira, Igor P Pogribny, Aline de Conti, Frederick A Beland, M Matilde Marques, Cristina C Jacob, Alexandra M M Antunes
Furan is a rodent hepatocarcinogen ubiquitously found in the environment and heat-processed foods. Furan undergoes cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed bioactivation to cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which has been shown to form an electrophilic conjugate (GSH-BDA) with glutathione. Both BDA and GSH-BDA yield covalent adducts with lysine residues in proteins. Dose- and time-dependent epigenetic histone alterations have been observed in furan-treated rats. While the covalent modification of histones by chemical carcinogens has long been proposed, histone-carcinogen adducts have eluded detection in vivo...
November 5, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824486/novel-epigenetic-biomarkers-mediating-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-female-mice
#8
Olivia S Anderson, Jung H Kim, Karen E Peterson, Brisa N Sanchez, Karilyn E Sant, Maureen A Sartor, Caren Weinhouse, Dana C Dolinoy
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic modifications link developmental environmental insults to adult disease susceptibility. Animal studies have associated perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to altered DNA methylation, but these studies are often limited to candidate gene and global non-loci specific approaches. Utilizing an epigenome-wide discovery platform, we elucidate epigenetic alterations in liver tissue from adult offspring (10 months) following perinatal BPA exposure at human physiologically relevant doses (50 ng, 50 μg, and 50 mg BPA/kg diet)...
November 8, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809239/substitution-models-of-water-for-other-beverages-and-the-incidence-of-obesity-and-weight-gain-in-the-sun-cohort
#9
Ujué Fresán, Alfredo Gea, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Miguel A Martínez-Gonzalez
Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them) and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models...
October 31, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806114/regulation-of-il-20-expression-by-estradiol-through-kmt2b-mediated-epigenetic-modification
#10
Chia-Hsin Su, I-Hsuan Lin, Tsai-Yu Tzeng, Wen-Ting Hsieh, Ming-Ta Hsu
Cytokines are low molecular weight regulatory proteins, or glycoproteins, with both tumor-promoting and inhibitory effects on breast cancer growth. Different cytokines play important roles in breast cancer initiation and progression. Here, we show that of the 39 interleukin (IL) genes, IL-20 is the only gene over-expressed in MCF-7 cells treated with estradiol (E2) and that induction of IL-20 expression by estrogen was epigenetically regulated. Methylation of histone H3K4 in the IL-20 promoter was shown to occur via the specific recruitment of KMT2B by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not by other members of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) family of histone methyltransferases...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806066/prevalence-and-predictors-of-malnutrition-among-guatemalan-children-at-2-years-of-age
#11
Jason M Nagata, James Gippetti, Stefan Wager, Alejandro Chavez, Paul H Wise
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. RESULTS: Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795551/attenuation-of-diet-induced-obesity-and-induction-of-white-fat-browning-with-a-chemical-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylases
#12
A Ferrari, E Fiorino, R Longo, S Barilla, N Mitro, G Cermenati, M Giudici, D Caruso, A Mai, U Guerrini, E De Fabiani, M Crestani
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In the last decade a strict link between epigenetics and metabolism has been demonstrated. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key epigenetic regulators involved in metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathologic conditions. Here we investigated the effect of the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in a model of obesity induced by a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57BL6/J male mice were fed HFD for 17 weeks and then randomized in two groups treated intraperitoneally with vehicle (DMSO) or with the class I selective HDAC inhibitor MS-275 every other day for 22 days...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792769/use-of-combined-msap-and-ngs-techniques-to-identify-differentially-methylated-regions-in-somaclones-a-case-study-of-two-stable-somatic-wheat-mutants
#13
Miroslav Baránek, Jana Čechová, Tamas Kovacs, Aleš Eichmeier, Shunli Wang, Jana Raddová, Tomáš Nečas, Xingguo Ye
The appearance of somaclonal variability induced by in vitro cultivation is relatively frequent and can, in some cases, provide a valuable source of new genetic variation for crop improvement. The cause of this phenomenon remains unknown; however, there are a number of reports suggesting that epigenetics, including DNA methylations, are an important factor. In addition to the non-heritable DNA methylation changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive gene regulation, recent evidence supports the existence of mitotically and meiotically inherited changes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777636/maternal-vitamin-d-depletion-alters-dna-methylation-at-imprinted-loci-in-multiple-generations
#14
Jing Xue, Sarah A Schoenrock, William Valdar, Lisa M Tarantino, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
BACKGROUND: Environmental perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms is linked to a growing number of diseases. Characterizing the role environmental factors play in modifying the epigenome is important for disease etiology. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient affecting brain, bone, heart, immune and reproductive health. Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue, and the role in maternal and child health remains under investigation. METHODS: We used Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred mice to characterize the effect of maternal vitamin D depletion on offspring phenotypic and epigenetic outcomes at imprinted domains (H19/Igf2, Snrpn, Dlk1/Gtl2, and Grb10) in the soma (liver) and germline (sperm)...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776203/obesogens-and-male-fertility
#15
A M Cardoso, M G Alves, P P Mathur, P F Oliveira, J E Cavaco, L Rato
In the last decades, several studies evidenced a decrease in male fertility in developed countries. Although the aetiology of this trend in male reproductive health remains a matter of debate, environmental compounds that predispose to weight gain, namely obesogens, are appointed as contributors because of their action as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens favour adipogenesis by an imbalance of metabolic processes and can be found virtually everywhere. These compounds easily accumulate in tissues with high lipid content...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774781/fetal-programming-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773939/an-epigenome-wide-study-of-body-mass-index-and-dna-methylation-in-blood-using-participants-from-the-sister-study-cohort
#17
L E Wilson, S Harlid, Z Xu, D P Sandler, J A Taylor
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between obesity and chronic disease risk is well-established; the underlying biological mechanisms driving this risk increase may include obesity-related epigenetic modifications. To explore this hypothesis, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and body mass index (BMI) using data from a subset of women in the Sister Study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Sister Study is a cohort of 50 884 U.S. women who had a sister with breast cancer but were free of breast cancer themselves at enrollment...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752090/dnmt1-regulates-the-myogenic-lineage-specification-of-muscle-stem-cells
#18
Renjing Liu, Kun-Yong Kim, Yong-Wook Jung, In-Hyun Park
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1 plays an important role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands. Studies have shed light into the functional role of Dnmt1 regulation in the hematopoietic and epidermal systems. Here we show that Dnmt1 is required for myogenesis. Loss of Dnmt1 results in reduced expression of myogenic genes and defects in myogenic differentiation. We have utilized a conditional knockout mouse approach to examine the functional consequences of Dnmt1 depletion specifically in the developing muscle...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749711/dietary-protein-intake-and-quality-in-early-life-impact-on-growth-and-obesity
#19
Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743978/influence-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-long-term-health-of-offspring
#20
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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