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epigenetics and weight

Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, John Mehegan, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The role of smoking from the paternal line during the pre-conception period on grand-child's overweight/obesity and associated underlying pathways are uncertain. We examined whether the smoking status from the paternal line was associated with the grand-child's higher weight at birth, and overweight or obesity at 5 and 9 years of age. The grandparental smoking effect from the maternal line was also explored. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were fathers and grandparents and grand-children from the Lifeways Cross Generational Cohort (N = 1021 for the analysis at birth; N = 562 and N = 284 for the analysis at 5 and 9 years, respectively)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Edward W Pietryk, Kiristin Clement, Marwa Elnagheeb, Ryan Kuster, Kayla Kilpatrick, Michael I Love, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
In utero exposure to vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, is linked to multigenerational phenotypic and epigenetic effects. Mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed the role of antiandrogenic activity and DNA sequence context by comparing effects of VIN vs. M2 (metabolite with greater antiandrogenic activity) and wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice vs. mice carrying mutations at the previously reported VIN-responsive H19/Igf2 locus. First generation offspring from VIN-treated 8nrCG mutant dams exhibited increased body weight and decreased sperm ICR methylation...
March 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Michael Cowley, David A Skaar, Dereje D Jima, Rachel L Maguire, Kathleen M Hudson, Sarah S Park, Patricia Sorrow, Cathrine Hoyo
BACKGROUND: Imprinted genes are defined by their preferential expression from one of the two parental alleles. This unique mode of gene expression is dependent on allele-specific DNA methylation profiles established at regulatory sequences called imprinting control regions (ICRs). These loci have been used as biosensors to study how environmental exposures affect methylation and transcription. However, a critical unanswered question is whether they are more, less, or equally sensitive to environmental stressors as the rest of the genome...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Matthias Richter, Martin S Staege
Obesity is a complex disease which has reached epidemic dimensions. Thus, prevention of excessive weight gain and associated metabolic and cardiovascular diseases has to start as early in life as possible. The impact of epigenetic mechanisms on the regulation of genes involved in obesity is increasingly recognized. On the other hand, it is well known that socioeconomic factors influence the risk for obesity. These factors can also have an impact on epigenetic gene regulation. There is increasing body of evidence that several factors and interventions addressing extragenetic causes of obesity may not only improve individual health, but also the health of future generations by epigenetic alterations...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Adrian J Green, Cathrine Hoyo, Carolyn J Mattingly, Yiwen Luo, Jung-Ying Tzeng, Susan K Murphy, David B Buchwalter, Antonio Planchart
OBJECTIVE: Human obesity is a complex metabolic disorder disproportionately affecting people of lower socioeconomic strata, and ethnic minorities, especially African Americans and Hispanics. Although genetic predisposition and a positive energy balance are implicated in obesity, these factors alone do not account for the excess prevalence of obesity in lower socioeconomic populations. Therefore, environmental factors, including exposure to pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants, are agents widely suspected to have obesogenic activity, and they also are spatially correlated with lower socioeconomic status...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Michelle Mendez, Whitney Robinson, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo, Vijaya Hogan, Diane Rowley
Diet is dictated by the surrounding environment, as food access and availability may change depending on where one lives. Maternal diet during pregnancy is an important part of the in utero environment, and may affect the epigenome. Studies looking at overall diet pattern in relation to DNA methylation have been lacking. The Mediterranean diet is known for its health benefits, including decreased inflammation, weight loss, and management of chronic diseases. This study assesses the association between maternal adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern during pregnancy and infant DNA methylation at birth...
May 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Inge Smeers, Ronny Decorte, Wim Van de Voorde, Bram Bekaert
DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for forensic age prediction. A challenge that has emerged in recent studies is the fact that prediction errors become larger with increasing age due to interindividual differences in epigenetic ageing rates. This phenomenon of non-constant variance or heteroscedasticity violates an assumption of the often used method of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative statistical methods that do take heteroscedasticity into account in order to provide more accurate, age-dependent prediction intervals...
February 9, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Debora Lee Oh, Petra Jerman, Sara Silvério Marques, Kadiatou Koita, Sukhdip Kaur Purewal Boparai, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
BACKGROUND: Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. METHODS: PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Sami P Makaroun, Katherine P Himes
Objective  The retroviral genes encoding Syncytin-1 ( SYN1 ) and Syncytin-2 ( SYN2 ) are epigenetically regulated, uniquely expressed in the placenta and critical to placental function. We sought to determine if placental expression and methylation patterns of SYN1 and SYN2 from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) differed from physiologic small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) controls. Study Design  Placental biopsies were obtained from AGA, SGA and FGR neonates delivered at >36 weeks gestation...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Halis Kaan Akturk, Kerim Esenboğa, Fahad Javed, Nichole M Polin, Eiman Jahangir
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a public health problem worldwide, and it has large implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this article, we discuss the etiology and pathophysiology of CVD in DM including the effects of abnormal glucose homeostasis, genetic factors, epigenetics, apoptosis, common pathophysiological mechanisms shared by both DM and CVD, and contributions of other comorbidities. We then cover the pathogenesis of both atherosclerotic disease and cardiomyopathy in relation to DM. Finally, we discuss the prevention of heart disease in DM with a focus on hypertension and dyslipidemia management, weight loss, lifestyle changes, antiplatelet therapy, and glycemic control...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Jan A Mennigen, Lindsay M Thompson, Mandee Bell, Marlen Tellez Santos, Andrea C Gore
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic environmental contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous studies demonstrated that developmental exposure to the weakly estrogenic PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221) in Sprague-Dawley rats altered sexual development, adult reproductive physiology and body weight. The current study tested the hypothesis that prenatal A1221 exposure not only disrupts these endpoints within an exposed individual's (F1 generation) lifespan, but may also affect subsequent generations (F2 -F3 )...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak, Bettina Hohberger
Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma as well as secondary open-angle glaucoma in the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This paper reviews the literature on the association between homocysteine metabolism and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Madeline Rose Keleher, Rabab Zaidi, Shyam Shah, M Elsa Oakley, Cassondra Pavlatos, Samir El Idrissi, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Ting Wang, James M Cheverud
We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts...
2018: PloS One
Chihiro Iwaya, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Ken Yamamoto, Yasutaka Maeda, Noriyuki Sonoda, Hiroki Shibata, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Krüppel-Like Factor 14 (KLF14) gene, which appears to be a master regulator of gene expression on the adipose tissue and have previously been associated with BMI and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) by large GWAS studies. In order to find predictive biomarkers for the development of T2D, it is necessary to take into account changes in the epigenome affected by environmental factors. This study focused on aging and obesity, which are T2D risk factor, and examines epigenetic changes and inflammatory changes. Thus we investigated DNA methylation change at Klf14 promoter region of different organs using mice for comparing aging and weight...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Valerie S Knopik, Kristine Marceau, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Emily Rolan
The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse conditions and exposures may influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as its future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal substance use during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. For example, previous epidemiological studies have associated prenatal substance exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders (e...
February 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Laís Vales Mennitti, Lila Missae Oyama, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
Introduction: Maternal diet composition of fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation seems to modify the fetal programming, epigenetic pattern and offspring phenotype. Aim: Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal consumption of normal-fat diets with distinct lipid sources during pregnancy and lactation on the somatic development and proinflammatory status of 21-day-old rat offspring. Materials and Methods: On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: soybean oil (M-SO), lard (M-L), hydrogenated vegetable fat (M-HVF) and fish oil (M-FO)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
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