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epigenetics and weight

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#1
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329838/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-biological-aging-using-marginal-structural-models-to-assess-the-link-between-neighborhood-census-variables-and-epigenetic-aging
#2
Man-Kit Lei, Ronald L Simons, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
Objectives: Past research has reported an association between neighborhood disadvantage and healthy aging, but most of these studies utilize self-report measures of health or physical functioning and do not properly account for neighborhood selection effects, creating concerns regarding inflated associations. To overcome these limitations and provide a more stringent estimate of effects, the current study investigated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on aging using newly developed epigenetic methods to assess rate of biological aging and marginal structural modeling (MSM) to account for potential confounds due to neighborhood selection...
March 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326758/genetic-determinants-of-low-birth-weight
#3
Theresa Mallia, Alexia Grech, Abigail Hili, Jean Calleja Agius, Nikolai P Pace
Birth weight depends on the elaborate interaction between maternal and foetal genotypes, placental function, maternal nutrition and lifestyle and their effect on epigenetic regulators ofgene activity. The maternal environment in which the foetus develops is a critical factor indetermining birth weight. This review provides an overview of the effect of several geneticvariants leading to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Irrespective of theexact cause of genetic variations of foetal genes, intrauterine growth restriction is most likelydue to alteration in the growth hormone and insulin like growth factor axis with distinctchanges in the growth factors and their interaction with corresponding receptors...
March 21, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324105/thyroid-hormone-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-levels-in-female-offspring-of-obese-rats
#4
T Tabachnik, T Kisliouk, A Marco, N Meiri, A Weller
Maternal obesity is a risk factor for offspring obesity. Melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) is one of the mediators of food intake and energy balance. This study examines epigenetic mechanisms underlying altered Mc4r levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in offspring of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese dams, and aims to elucidate the role of thyroid hormones in epigenetic regulation and tagging of their nucleosome at the Mc4r promoter. Female Wistar rats were fed HFD or chow from weaning through gestation and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#5
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300636/perinatal-protein-malnutrition-alters-expression-of-mirna-biogenesis-genes-xpo5-and-ago2-in-mice-brain
#6
Bruno G Berardino, Estefanía A Fesser, Eduardo T Cánepa
Due to its widespread incidence, maternal malnutrition remains one of the major non-genetic factors affecting the development of newborn's brain. While all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. An increasing number of studies point out that the effects of early-life nutritional inadequacy has long lasting effects on the brain and lead to permanent deficits in learning and behavior. Epigenetic mechanisms provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296592/ethanol-extract-of-capsella-bursa-pastoris-improves-hepatic-steatosis-through-inhibition-of-histone-acetyltransferase-activity
#7
Hyo-Kyoung Choi, Eun Ju Shin, Su Jin Park, Haeng Jeon Hur, Jae Ho Park, Min-Yu Chung, Myung Sunny Kim, Jin-Taek Hwang
Histone lysine acetylation is thought to play a role in regulating the balance between energy storage and energy expenditure. However, the epigenetic mechanisms by which food phytochemicals influence metabolic processes in the liver have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris (ECB) on histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibition, and whether it could thereby attenuate lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo. We observed that ECB inhibits HAT activity as assessed by colorimetric and autoradiography assay systems...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291256/exercise-rescues-obese-mothers-insulin-sensitivity-placental-hypoxia-and-male-offspring-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Geraldine Gascoin, Barbara Musial, Sarah Carr, Daniella Duque-Guimaraes, Heather L Blackmore, Maria Z Alfaradhi, Elena Loche, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Abigail L Fowden, Susan E Ozanne
The prevalence of obesity during pregnancy continues to increase at alarming rates. This is concerning as in addition to immediate impacts on maternal wellbeing, obesity during pregnancy has detrimental effects on the long-term health of the offspring through non-genetic mechanisms. A major knowledge gap limiting our capacity to develop intervention strategies is the lack of understanding of the factors in the obese mother that mediate these epigenetic effects on the offspring. We used a mouse model of maternal-diet induced obesity to define predictive correlations between maternal factors and offspring insulin resistance...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283671/obesity-energy-balance-and-spermatogenesis
#9
Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Mario Sousa, Branca M Silva, Mariana P Monteiro, Marco G Alves
Obesity has grown to pandemic proportions. It affects an increasing number of children, adolescents and young adults exposed to the silent co-morbidities of this disorder for a longer period. Infertility has arisen as one important comorbidity associated with the energy dysfunction promoted by obesity. Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that is determined by specific energetic requirements. The reproductive potential of males relies on hormonal-dependent and independent stimuli that control sperm quality...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275132/impact-of-polyunsaturated-and-saturated-fat-overfeeding-on-the-dna-methylation-pattern-in-human-adipose-tissue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Alexander Perfilyev, Ingrid Dahlman, Linn Gillberg, Fredrik Rosqvist, David Iggman, Petr Volkov, Emma Nilsson, Ulf Risérus, Charlotte Ling
Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264723/developmental-pathways-to-adiposity-begin-before-birth-and-are-influenced-by-genotype-prenatal-environment-and-epigenome
#11
Xinyi Lin, Ives Yubin Lim, Yonghui Wu, Ai Ling Teh, Li Chen, Izzuddin M Aris, Shu E Soh, Mya Thway Tint, Julia L MacIsaac, Alexander M Morin, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Seang Mei Saw, Michael S Kobor, Michael J Meaney, Keith M Godfrey, Yap Seng Chong, Joanna D Holbrook, Yung Seng Lee, Peter D Gluckman, Neerja Karnani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide, and hence the causes underlying its development are of primary importance to public health. There is growing evidence that suboptimal intrauterine environment can perturb the metabolic programing of the growing fetus, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in later life. However, the link between early exposures in the womb, genetic susceptibility, and perturbed epigenome on metabolic health is not well understood...
March 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250848/tissue-specific-methylation-profile-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-before-and-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#12
REVIEW
Priscila Sala, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda Torrinhas, Danielle Cristina Fonseca, Graziela Rosa Ravacci, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg, Daniel Giannella-Neto
Eating habits, lifestyles, and exposure to specific environmental factors can greatly impact the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), influence the genome epigenetically, and affect the expression of genes, including genes related to glycemic control, at any stage of life. The epigenetic mechanism underlying obesity and T2D pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Conventional strategies for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities often have poor long-term adherence, and pharmacological interventions are limited...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239993/maternal-betaine-supplementation-in-rats-induces-intergenerational-changes-in-hepatic-igf-1-expression-and-dna-methylation
#13
Nannan Zhao, Shu Yang, Yun Hu, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
SCOPE: Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth. Here we aimed to investigate whether maternal betaine supplementation during pregnancy can exert multigenerational effects on growth across two generations and the possible epigenetic modifications associated to such effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diet supplemented with 1% betaine throughout the pregnancy and lactation. Betaine-supplemented dams produced bigger litter but smaller F1 pups at birth and weaning...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225911/clean-air-matters-an-overview-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-pregnancy
#14
Anne Dorothée Slovic, Carmen Simone Diniz, Helena Ribeiro
The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death...
February 16, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#15
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219123/identification-of-core-gene-networks-and-hub-genes-associated-with-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-rna-sequencing
#16
Kikuko Hotta, Masataka Kikuchi, Takuya Kitamoto, Aya Kitamoto, Yuji Ogawa, Yasushi Honda, Takaomi Kessoku, Kaori Kobayashi, Masato Yoneda, Kento Imajo, Wataru Tomeno, Akihiro Nakaya, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses because of the interaction between numerous genes. Thus, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify core gene networks and key genes associated with NAFLD progression. METHODS: We enrolled 39 patients with mild NAFLD (fibrosis stages 0 to 2) and 21 with advanced NAFLD (fibrosis stages 3 or 4). Total RNA was extracted from frozen liver biopsies, and sequenced to capture a large dynamic range of expression levels...
February 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#17
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
March 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198448/influence-of-fkbp5-polymorphism-and-dna-methylation-on-structural-changes-of-the-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Kyu-Man Han, Eunsoo Won, Youngbo Sim, June Kang, Changsu Han, Yong-Ku Kim, Seung-Hyun Kim, Sook-Haeng Joe, Min-Soo Lee, Woo-Suk Tae, Byung-Joo Ham
A single nucleotide polymorphism of rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene is associated with a predisposition to developing major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the interactive effects of FKBP5 rs1360780 allelic variants, DNA methylation, and the diagnosis of MDD on structural changes of the entire brain. One hundred and fourteen patients with MDD and eighty-eight healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and FKBP5 rs1360780 genotyping, including DNA methylation of intron 7...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#19
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152279/pulmonary-vein-stenosis-of-ex-premature-infants-with-pulmonary-hypertension-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-epidemiology-and-survival-from-a-multicenter-cohort
#20
Linda Mahgoub, Tarek Kaddoura, A Rebecca Kameny, Paloma Lopez Ortego, Rachel D Vanderlaan, Ashok Kakadekar, Frank Dicke, Ivan Rebeyka, Christopher A Calderone, Andrew Redington, Maria Jesus Del Cerro, Jeff Fineman, Ian Adatia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein stenosis is emerging as an important clinical problem in ex-premature infants. METHODS: We sought to describe the epidemiology of pulmonary vein stenosis affecting ex-premature infants by a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients from seven children's hospitals diagnosed between 2000-2014. RESULTS: We identified 39 ex-premature patients (26 males, median gestational age 28 weeks range 22-36 weeks, birth weight 1...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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