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epigenetics and depression

Yong-Jun Xu, Hui Sheng, Tian-Wen Wu, Qing-Yue Bao, You Zheng, Yan-Min Zhang, Yu-Xiang Gong, Jian-Qiang Lu, Zhen-Dong You, Yang Xia, Xin Ni
Pregnant women at risk of preterm labor usually receive synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) to promote fetal lung development. Emerging evidence indicates that antenatal sGC increases the risk of affective disorders in offspring. Data from animal studies show that such disorders can be transmitted to the second generation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the intergenerational effects of prenatal sGC remain largely unknown. Here we show that prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) administration in late pregnancy induced depression-like behavior in first-generation (F1) offspring, which could be transmitted to second-generation (F2) offspring with maternal dependence...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shlomo Yeshurun, Anthony J Hannan
In recent years, striking new evidence has demonstrated non-genetic inheritance of acquired traits associated with parental environmental exposures. In particular, this transgenerational modulation of phenotypic traits is of direct relevance to psychiatric disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Here we review the recent progress in this field, with an emphasis on acquired traits of psychiatric illnesses transmitted epigenetically via the male lineage. We discuss the transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to stress vs...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Julie Sadino, Zoe Donaldson
Over a lifetime, humans build relationships with family, friends, and partners that are critically important for our mental and physical health. Unlike commonly used laboratory mice and rats, Microtine rodents provide a unique model to study the neurobiology underlying pair bonding and the selective attachments that form between adults. Comparisons between monogamous prairie voles and the closely related, but non-monogamous meadow and montane voles, have revealed that brain-region-specific neuropeptide receptor patterning modulates social behavior between and within species...
March 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Bronwyn K Brew, Cecilia Lundholm, Tong Gong, Henrik Larsson, Catarina Almqvist
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma and atopic diseases have an increased risk of depression or anxiety. Each of these diseases have strong genetic and environmental components, therefore it seems likely that there is a shared liability rather than causative risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence and nature of familial aggregation for the comorbidity of atopic diseases and depression or anxiety. METHODS: Participants came from the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS), n= 14197...
March 7, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Shilpa Sharma, Ravi Shankar Akundi
BACKGROUND: Depression is a widespread phenomenon with varying degrees of pathology in different patients. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the cause and continuance of depression. Some of these include, but not limited to, the monoamine hypothesis, the neuroendocrine hypothesis, and the more recent epigenetic and inflammatory hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review all the above hypotheses with a focus on the role of mitochondria as the connecting link...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Catherine L Tegeler, Lee Gerdes, Hossam A Shaltout, Jared F Cook, Sean L Simpson, Sung W Lee, Charles H Tegeler
BACKGROUND: Military-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) is associated with numerous symptom clusters and diminished autonomic cardiovascular regulation. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is a noninvasive, closed-loop, allostatic, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology that produces real-time translation of dominant brain frequencies into audible tones of variable pitch and timing to support the auto-calibration of neural oscillations. We report clinical, autonomic, and functional effects after the use of HIRREM® for symptoms of military-related PTS...
December 22, 2017: Military Medical Research
Xenia Gonda, Gabor Hullam, Peter Antal, Nora Eszlari, Peter Petschner, Tomas Gm Hökfelt, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Depression is a polygenic and multifactorial disorder where environmental effects exert a significant impact, yet most genetic studies do not consider the effect of stressors which may be one reason for the lack of replicable results in candidate gene studies, GWAS and between human studies and animal models. Relevance of functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes previously implicated in animal and human studies on a depression-related phenotype given various recent stress exposure levels was assessed with Bayesian relevance analysis in 1682 subjects...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katherine G Akers, Yoan Chérasse, Yuki Fujita, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Neural stem and progenitor cells continue to generate new neurons in particular regions of the brain during adulthood. One of these neurogenic regions is the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which plays an important role in cognition and emotion. By exploiting this innate neuronal regeneration mechanism in the DG, new technologies have the potential to promote resistance to or recovery from brain dysfunction or degeneration. However, a deeper understanding of how adult DG neurogenesis is regulated by factors such as sleep and epigenetic modifications of gene expression could lead to further breakthroughs in the clinical application of neural stem and progenitor cells...
February 27, 2018: Stem Cells
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jennifer Blaze, Jun Wang, Lap Ho, Natalia Mendelev, Fatemeh Haghighi, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
SCOPE: Stress is a known contributor to various forms of disease in humans and animals, although mechanisms are still unknown. In animals, psychosocial stress-induced depression/anxiety phenotypes are coincidental with increased inflammation in both brain and blood. We recently showed that a novel treatment with a select bioactive polyphenol preparation promotes resilience to stress-mediated depression/anxiety phenotypes mice. Moreover, we identified selective bioactive phenolic compounds within the polyphenol preparation that were effective in mitigating the behavioral effects of bone marrow transplantation from stressed mice...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Primoz Knap, Toma Tebaldi, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli, Mauro Dalla Serra, Gabriella Viero
Pathogenic bacteria produce powerful virulent factors, such as pore-forming toxins, that promote their survival and cause serious damage to the host. Host cells reply to membrane stresses and ionic imbalance by modifying gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional and translational level, to recover from the toxin attack. The fact that the majority of the human transcriptome encodes for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) raises the question: do host cells deploy non-coding transcripts to rapidly control the most energy-consuming process in cells-i...
November 3, 2017: Toxins
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Ashwini Tiwari, Andrea Gonzalez
Childhood trauma exposure is a significant public health problem. While adult mental health consequences of such experiences are well documented, sex differences in both prevalence and severity are less understood. Sex-based differences in biological circuitry and physiological trauma responses are proposed to potentiate the differential risk for pathogenesis of mental health disorders among adults. This paper will provide a contextualized summary of neuroendocrine, neuroimaging, and behavioral epigenetic studies on biological sex differences contributing to internalizing psychopathology, specifically posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, among adults with a history of childhood abuse...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Hye-Ran Kim, Myung-Geun Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
It has been suggested that hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation plays a role in the etiology of depression. HPA axis function is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), which are influenced by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation). The association between the DNA methylation of the GR gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1; NR3C1) and late-life depression as well as the role of NR3C1 methylation in the prediction of the incidence of depression have not yet been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Dong-Yao Wang, Joel Kosowan, James Samsom, Laura Leung, Kai-Lai Zhang, Ying-Xiang Li, Yan Xiong, Jian Jin, Arturas Petronis, Gabriel Oh, Albert H C Wong
Epigenetic gene-regulation abnormalities have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression, as well as in the regulation of mood and anxiety. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the actions of psychiatric drugs. Current anxiolytic drugs have significant shortcomings, and development of new medications is warranted. Two proteins, G9a (also known as EHMT2 or KMT1C) and GLP (G9a-like protein, also known as EHMT1 or KMT1D), which methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9), could be promising anxiolytic targets...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head
Cardiovascular disease and associated cerebral stroke are a global epidemic attributed to genetic and epigenetic factors, such as diet, life style and an increasingly sedentary existence due to technological advances in both the developing and developed world. There are approximately 5.9 million stroke-related deaths worldwide annually. Current epidemiological data indicate that nearly 16.9 million people worldwide suffer a new or recurrent stroke yearly. In 2014 alone, 2.4% of adults in the United States (U...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Shun-Feng Cheng, Lan Li, Yong Zhao, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
It is generally accepted that significant germ cell loss occurs during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool in most mammalian ovaries around the time of birth. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these processes remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we explored the role of autophagy during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool and found that autophagy was active in this process. Our data suggested that 17.5 dpc ovaries treated with rapamycin displayed a delay in germ cell cyst breakdown resulting in more oocytes at day 5 of treatment, while, ovaries that treated with 3-MA showed the opposite effect...
February 5, 2018: Aging
Shile Qi, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Vince D Calhoun, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Shengfeng Liu, Rongtao Jiang, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Xiaohong Ma
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons...
February 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jun Wang, Georgia E Hodes, Hongxing Zhang, Song Zhang, Wei Zhao, Sam A Golden, Weina Bi, Caroline Menard, Veronika Kana, Marylene Leboeuf, Marc Xie, Dana Bregman, Madeline L Pfau, Meghan E Flanigan, Adelaida Esteban-Fernández, Shrishailam Yemul, Ali Sharma, Lap Ho, Richard Dixon, Miriam Merad, Ming-Hu Han, Scott J Russo, Giulio M Pasinetti
Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the brain and the immune system. Chronic stress in animals showed that epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms play important roles in mediating resilience and susceptibility to depression. Here, through a high-throughput screening, we identify two phytochemicals, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) and malvidin-3'-O-glucoside (Mal-gluc) that are effective in promoting resilience against stress by modulating brain synaptic plasticity and peripheral inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Nature Communications
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