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malaria vaccine 2015

Angela Oyo-Ita, Charles S Wiysonge, Chioma Oringanje, Chukwuemeka E Nwachukwu, Olabisi Oduwole, Martin M Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: Immunisation is a powerful public health strategy for improving child survival, not only by directly combating key diseases that kill children but also by providing a platform for other health services. However, each year millions of children worldwide, mostly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), do not receive the full series of vaccines on their national routine immunisation schedule. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2011 and focuses on interventions for improving childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee-Ling Lau, Mun-Yik Fong
Malaria remains a major health threat in many parts of the globe and causes high mortality and morbidity with 214 million cases of malaria occurring globally in 2015. Recent studies have outlined potential diagnostic markers and vaccine candidates one of which is the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3. In this study, novel recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi MSP-3 was cloned, expressed and purified in an Escherichia coli system. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity...
2016: PloS One
John Clemens, Vasee Moorthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Vera Scott, Sarah Crawford-Browne, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: The 2014/2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic has caused the global public health community to engage in difficult self-reflection. First, it must consider the part it played in relation to an important public health question: why did this epidemic take hold and spread in this unprecedented manner? Second, it must use the lessons learnt to answer the subsequent question: what can be done now to prevent further such outbreaks in the future? These questions remain relevant, even as scientists announce that the Guinea Phase III efficacy vaccine trial shows that rVSV-EBOV (Merck, Sharp & Dohme) is highly efficacious in individuals...
2016: BMC Public Health
Giovanni Benelli, Heinz Mehlhorn
The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control...
May 2016: Parasitology Research
Janet Hemingway, Hilary Ranson, Alan Magill, Jan Kolaczinski, Christen Fornadel, John Gimnig, Maureen Coetzee, Frederic Simard, Dabiré K Roch, Clément Kerah Hinzoumbe, John Pickett, David Schellenberg, Peter Gething, Mark Hoppé, Nicholas Hamon
World Malaria Day 2015 highlighted the progress made in the development of new methods of prevention (vaccines and insecticides) and treatment (single dose drugs) of the disease. However, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens the successes made with existing methods. Insecticide resistance has decreased the efficacy of the most commonly used insecticide class of pyrethroids. This decreased efficacy has increased mosquito survival, which is a prelude to rising incidence of malaria and fatalities...
April 23, 2016: Lancet
Martin M Meremikwu, Uduak Okomo
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease causes chronic haemolytic anaemia, dactylitis, and painful acute crises. It also increases the risk of stroke, organ damage, bacterial infections, and complications of blood transfusion. In sub-Saharan Africa, up to one third of adults are carriers of the defective sickle cell gene, and 1% to 2% of babies are born with the disease. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of pharmaceutical interventions to prevent sickle cell crisis and other acute complications in people with sickle cell disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2015 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview)...
2016: Clinical Evidence
Mercy Kanyuka, Jameson Ndawala, Tiope Mleme, Lusungu Chisesa, Medson Makwemba, Agbessi Amouzou, Josephine Borghi, Judith Daire, Rufus Ferrabee, Elizabeth Hazel, Rebecca Heidkamp, Kenneth Hill, Melisa Martínez Álvarez, Leslie Mgalula, Spy Munthali, Bejoy Nambiar, Humphreys Nsona, Lois Park, Neff Walker, Bernadette Daelmans, Jennifer Bryce, Tim Colbourn
BACKGROUND: Several years in advance of the 2015 endpoint for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Malawi was already thought to be one of the few countries in sub-Saharan Africa likely to meet the MDG 4 target of reducing under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Countdown to 2015 therefore selected the Malawi National Statistical Office to lead an in-depth country case study, aimed mainly at explaining the country's success in improving child survival. METHODS: We estimated child and neonatal mortality for the years 2000-14 using five district-representative household surveys...
March 2016: Lancet Global Health
Kazutoyo Miura
There have been significant decreases in malaria mortality and morbidity in the last 10-15 years, and the most advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine, RTS,S, received a positive opinion from European regulators in July 2015. However, no blood-stage vaccine has reached a phase III trial. The first part of this review summarizes the pros and cons of various assays and models that have been and will be used to predict the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines. In the second part, blood-stage vaccine candidates that showed some efficacy in human clinical trials or controlled human malaria infection models are discussed...
June 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Thomas L Richie, Peter F Billingsley, B Kim Lee Sim, Eric R James, Sumana Chakravarty, Judith E Epstein, Kirsten E Lyke, Benjamin Mordmüller, Pedro Alonso, Patrick E Duffy, Ogobara K Doumbo, Robert W Sauerwein, Marcel Tanner, Salim Abdulla, Peter G Kremsner, Robert A Seder, Stephen L Hoffman
Sanaria Inc. has developed methods to manufacture, purify and cryopreserve aseptic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ), and is using this platform technology to develop an injectable PfSPZ-based vaccine that provides high-grade, durable protection against infection with Pf malaria. Several candidate vaccines are being developed and tested, including PfSPZ Vaccine, in which the PfSPZ are attenuated by irradiation, PfSPZ-CVac, in which fully infectious PfSPZ are attenuated in vivo by concomitant administration of an anti-malarial drug, and PfSPZ-GA1, in which the PfSPZ are attenuated by gene knockout...
December 22, 2015: Vaccine
Lindsey S Garver, Megan Dowler, Silas A Davidson
Thirty years ago, the Entomology Branch at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) performed the first controlled human malaria infection, in which lab-reared mosquitoes were infected with lab-cultured malaria parasites and allowed to feed on human volunteers. The development of this model was a turning point for pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine research and, through decades of refinement, has supported 30 years of efficacy testing of a suite of antimalarial vaccines and drugs. In this article, we present a historical overview of the research that enabled the first challenge to occur and the modifications made to the challenge over time, a summary of the 104 challenges performed by WRAIR from the first into 2015, and a prospective look at what the next generation of challenges might entail...
July 2015: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
(no author information available yet)
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization held its seventh meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 5 to 7 March 2015. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and meeting recommendations. Meeting sessions included: an update on the Greater Mekong Subregion elimination strategy; an update on the RTS,S vaccine; G6PD testing to support the safe use of anti-relapse therapy for Plasmodium vivax; update from the Vector Control Advisory Group; newly proposed evidence reviews or consultations on malaria terminology, malaria in pregnancy, and the feasibility of eradication; as well as updates from the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme regarding their strategy update and policy setting processes...
2015: Malaria Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2015: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
Zonghui Hu, Dean A Follmann, Kazutoyo Miura
There are many different strains of malaria parasites, each represented by a unique sequence of amino acids. A desirable vaccine would match the amino acid sequence of the parasite antigen. Because of the three-dimensional structure of protein, not all sites in the amino acid sequence participate in the binding between the vaccine-induced antibody and the parasite antigen. Nor do all sites have equal importance. In this work, we apply a nonnegative lasso-based variable selection to identify the 'important' amino acid sites and evaluate their relative importance...
May 10, 2015: Statistics in Medicine
F Bustreo, J-M Okwo-Bele, L Kamara
Child mortality has decreased substantially globally-from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013-due, in large part to of governments' and organisations' work, to prevent pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, the main causes of death in the postneonatal period. In 2012, the World Health Assembly adopted the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 as the current framework aimed at preventing millions of deaths through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all communities. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) plays a critical role in this effort by financing and facilitating delivery platforms for vaccines, with focused support for the achievements of improved vaccination coverage and acceleration of the uptake of WHO-recommended lifesaving new vaccines in 73 low-income countries...
February 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Ss Malik, Mc Gupta, Js Braich
Malaria, one of the deadliest infectious diseases, affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as there has never before been a vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria. There are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development...
2012: International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology
Gema Ruíz López Del Prado, Cristina Hernán García, Lourdes Moreno Cea, Virginia Fernández Espinilla, Ma Fe Muñoz Moreno, Antonio Delgado Márquez, Ma José Polo Polo, Irene Andrés García
Malaria still poses a real threat to travellers, particularly in areas with high transmission rates such as sub-Saharan Africa, Papua New Guinea, and the South Pacific islands. Malaria causes an estimated 660,000 deaths each year from 219 million cases of illness. It is a preventable and curable disease. Malaria symptoms appear after a period of seven days or longer, and without treatment, the disease can lead to death. Mosquito bite prevention is the main way to reduce malaria transmission. Chemoprophylaxis recommendations depend on travelers' age, destination, type of travelling, or length of stay...
January 2014: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Lorenz von Seidlein, Philip Bejon
The currently available malaria control tools have allowed malaria elimination in many regions but there remain many regions where malaria control has made little progress. A safe and protective malaria vaccine would be a huge asset for malaria control. Despite the many challenges, efforts continue to design and evaluate malaria vaccine candidates. These candidates target different stages in the life cycle of Plasmodia. The most advanced vaccine candidates target the pre-erythrocytic stages in the life cycle of the parasite and include RTS,S/AS01, which has progressed through clinical development to the stage that it may be licensed in 2015...
December 2013: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Agbessi Amouzou, Oumarou Habi, Khaled Bensaïd
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) is to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years, between 1990 and 2015. The 2012 Countdown profile shows that Niger has achieved far greater reductions in child mortality and gains in coverage for interventions in child survival than neighbouring countries in west Africa. Countdown therefore invited Niger to do an in-depth analysis of their child survival programme between 1998 and 2009. METHODS: We developed new estimates of child and neonatal mortality for 1998-2009 using a 2010 household survey...
September 29, 2012: Lancet
Danielle I Stanisic, Michael F Good
An effective malaria vaccine remains an important priority for the millions of people living in malaria endemic regions. Subambitious goals for the development of a vaccine have been set, which aim to achieve a licensed first-generation P. falciparum malaria vaccine with more than 50% protective efficacy against severe disease and death, lasting for at least 1 year by 2015. These goals were set in the context of a subunit vaccine. However, a whole-parasite vaccine might be expected to induce substantially superior protection...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
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