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Higher education

Xiaofei Li, Sarah Zito, Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
China is the world's biggest livestock producer, and has a rapidly expanding intensive livestock production in response to growing demand. The large size of the country and geographical dispersion of the livestock production systems means that animals are often transported long distances to slaughter. This study investigated perceptions of animal welfare issues by stakeholders in the Chinese transport and slaughter industry using utility scores and adaptive conjoint analysis. An initial workshop for experts in this field identified key concerns; these were then included in a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Roberta E Emetu
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) than among heterosexual men. Most research and public health programs among YMSM CSA survivors have been mainly infectious disease-based, and research on the physical sexual health among this group is limited. This study sought to further understand components of physical sexual health among YMSM with CSA histories. Sixteen participants were recruited, and through a phenomenological approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Stephen Whyte, Ho Fai Chan, Benno Torgler
Using a unique cross-sectional data set of dating website members' educational preferences for potential mates ( N = 41,936), we showed that women were more likely than men to stipulate educational preferences at all ages. When members indifferent to educational level were excluded, however, the specificity of men's and women's preferences did differ for different age groups. That is, whereas women expressed more refined educational preferences during their years of maximum fertility, their demand specificity decreased with age...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Iona Borg, Stephen Mizzi, Cynthia Formosa
BACKGROUND: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy, with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This study aimed to investigate whether a first-ray amputation affects plantar pressures and plantar pressure distribution patterns in individuals living with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: A nonexperimental matched-subject design was conducted. Twenty patients living with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited...
May 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Debbie Chatman Bryant, L Monique Hill, Cathy Melvin, Yolanda M Powell-Young, Marvella E Ford
Despite cutting edge progress in early detection, risk reduction, and prevention, unique contextual and sociocultural factors contribute to higher mortality rates for selected cancers in African-American men and women. Collaborative community engagement and outreach programming strategies that focus on sustainability and grass-roots organizing can inform health risk disparities, build trust, and allow communities to take ownership of their own health needs. This paper describes a successful evidence-based community engagement intervention woven into the social and interpersonal fabric of the African-American community in Charleston, South Carolina...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Amanda B Crosbie, Lisa M Roche, Linda M Johnson, Karen S Pawlish, Lisa E Paddock, Antoinette M Stroup
Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US)...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Monika Ferguson, James Dollman, Martin Jones, Kathryn Cronin, Lynne James, Lee Martinez, Nicholas Procter
BACKGROUND: Suicide rates are higher in rural and remote areas of Australia compared with major cities. AIM: To evaluate the impact of a brief, community-based suicide prevention educational intervention on the attitudes and confidence of rural South Australian health and human service professionals. METHOD: Participants attended a 1-day suicide prevention education program, and completed a survey at four time points: baseline (T1), immediately pretraining (T2), immediately posttraining (T3), and 4-month follow-up (T4)...
June 21, 2018: Crisis
Valeria Isella, Stefano Giuseppe Grisanti, Francesca Ferri, Sabrina Morzenti, Cinzia Crivellaro, Monica Musarra, Carlo Ferrarese
BACKGROUND: Cognitively stimulating life experiences and activities are deemed to moderate the clinical impact of brain damage progressively building a neural and cognitive reserve (CR). CR has been studied extensively in various neurodegenerative disorders, but not in Corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Using SPM8 we correlated years of education, as determinant of cognitive reserve, with tracer uptake on FDG-PET, as marker of neurodegeneration, in 35 patients with various phenotypes of CBD, including a cognitive-motor composite score or symptoms duration as covariates for controlling disease stage...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Naina Sinha Gregory, Jane J Seley, Savira Kochhar Dargar, Naveen Galla, Linda M Gerber, Jennifer I Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with diabetes are known to have higher 30-day readmission rates compared to the general inpatient population. A number of strategies have been shown to be effective in lowering readmission rates. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of the current literature revealed several strategies that have been associated with a decreased risk of readmission in high-risk patients with diabetes. These strategies include inpatient diabetes survival skills education and medication reconciliation prior to discharge to send the patient home with the "right" medications...
June 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Irja Ventä, Miira M Vehkalahti, Anna L Suominen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to characterize third molars that have remained disease-free in a representative sample of the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-staged stratified cluster sampling (N = 8028) was used, and 6005 subjects participated in a clinical oral examination and panoramic radiography. Disease-free third molars were characterized as follows: no dentinal caries, no filling, periodontal pocket depths of neighboring second molars less than 4 mm, and no radiographic pathological findings...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Giacomo Tondo, Fabiola De Marchi, Emanuela Terazzi, Paolo Prandi, Marta Sacchetti, Cristoforo Comi, Roberto Cantello
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with worsening of cognitive performance. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with and without COPD, and we analyzed, in a retrospective way, clinical and neuropsychological variables to verify if COPD plays a pejorative role on cognitive or functional autonomy in patients with dementia. METHODS: We enrolled 23 adult patients (AD-COPD) with probable AD and COPD and 23 with AD only (AD-only); they were matched for sex, age, educational level, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at the disease onset...
June 21, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Evangelos A Voudrias, Antonios Topalidis, Alexandros Mandalidis, Nikolaos Iosifidis
The objective of this work was to compare the composition and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW) produced by three dentist groups of Xanthi, Greece, defined according to the country of their dental education/training: (1) dentists educated in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries, (2) dentists educated in Turkey, and (3) dentists educated in former Soviet Union and repatriated to Greece. All DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece, was collected, manually separated, and weighed over a period of four working weeks and classified according to Greek regulations...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tara Kumaraswami, Kristin M Rankin, Britt Lunde, Allison Cowett, Rachel Caskey, Bryna Harwood
Objectives The postpartum period is a high-risk time for unintended pregnancy, and additional opportunities to provide contraception are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the acceptability of providing postpartum contraceptive counseling at a pediatric well baby visit, and compare it to counseling at the routine postpartum visit. Methods Postpartum women (100 per group) were recruited for this cohort study at pediatric well baby visits and obstetric postpartum visits at an academic medical center. Well baby participants completed a baseline survey followed by contraceptive counseling by an obstetrician or midwife and a post-counseling survey...
June 21, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
D Weyhe, J Conze, A Kuthe, F Köckerling, B J Lammers, R Lorenz, H Niebuhr, W Reinpold, K Zarras, R Bittner
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES: The HerniaSurge guidelines have the highest evidence with respect to a strong recommendation for mesh-based surgical techniques. This evidence is equally valid for the Lichtenstein procedure as for the minimally invasive procedures TEP/TAPP. In the case of discrete symptomatic or asymptomatic inguinal hernias, watchful waiting can be an option, taking into account health status and social circumstances. Femoral hernias, on the other hand, should be treated promptly with mesh insertion...
June 21, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Joeri J Meijsen, Alexandros Rammos, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Motivation: The genomic architecture of human complex diseases is thought to be attributable to single markers, polygenic components and epistatic components. No study has examined the ability of tree-based methods to detect epistasis in the presence of a polygenic signal. We sought to apply decision tree-based methods, C5.0 and logic regression, to detect epistasis under several simulated conditions, varying strength of interaction and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure. We, then applied the same methods to the phenotype of educational attainment in a large population cohort...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Gozde Gundogdu Meydaneri, Sertac Meydaneri
Background Neutrophil lymphocyte rate (NLR), platelet lymphocyte rate (PLR), and systemic immune inflammatory index (SIII) are rates obtained from hemogram parameters, and they are biomarkers used for the diagnoses of many diseases and their severity, and prediction of disease. In addition to the NLR, PLR, and SIII, platelets, plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet distribution width (PDW), which are platelet indices, are also investigated as biomarkers in many diseases. There are limited studies on the use of hemogram derivates (NLR, PLR, and SIII) in the diagnosis and severity determination of psychiatric disorders...
April 19, 2018: Curēus
Anselme Simeon Sanou, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Penny Holding, Victoria Nankabirwa, Ingunn Marie S Engebretsen, Grace Ndeezi, James K Tumwine, Nicolas Meda, Thorkild Tylleskär, Esperance Kashala-Abotnes
Background: In Burkina Faso, stunting affects children and is a public health problem. We studied the association between stunting and child's neuro-psychological outcomes at 6-8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II), the Children's Category Test 1 (CCT-1) and the Test of Variable of Attention (TOVA). Methods: We re-enrolled children of a previously community-based Exclusive breastfeeding trial in Burkina Faso...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Luca Steardo, Benedetta Pocai, Marina Barone, Mario Amore, Francesca Pacitti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Mario Maj
Patients with severe mental disorders die on average 20 years prior to the general population. This mortality gap is mainly due to the higher prevalence of physical diseases and the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.The LIFESTYLE trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychosocial group intervention (including psychoeducational, motivational, and problem-solving techniques) focused on healthy lifestyle behavior compared to a brief educational group intervention in a community sample of patients with severe mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sothy Sor, Michiyo Higuchi, Mohammad Abul Bashar Sarker, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Background: The rabies incidence and number of dogs in Cambodia are much higher than in nearby countries. Knowledge and behaviors which are related to rabies and/or dogs are considered to be contributing factors for rabies infection control in the community; however, such information in rural Cambodia is limited. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess knowledge and experiences related to rabies as well as dog-related behaviors among people in Siem Reap Province, and to identify the specific factors associated with adequate knowledge...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
William J Hall, Mimi V Chapman
Bullying is a significant problem in U.S. schools. Policies have been developed to reduce bullying, yet policy implementation by educators is an essential yet difficult and complex process. Few studies have investigated factors that act as barriers to or facilitators of bullying policy implementation and teacher protection of students. This study examined the influence of school context on educators' capacity to implement a statewide bullying law and protect students from bullying following the enactment of the policy...
June 2018: Educational Policy
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