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Research waste

Bas Verbruggen, Lina Gunnarsson, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Österlund, Stewart F Owen, Jason R Snape, Charles R Tyler
Pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific molecular targets in humans and these targets generally have orthologs in other species. This provides opportunities for the drug discovery community to use alternative model species for drug development. It also means, however, there is potential for mode of action related effects in non-target wildlife species as many pharmaceuticals reach the environment through patient use and manufacturing wastes. Acquiring insight in drug target ortholog predictions across species and taxonomic groups has proven difficult because of the lack of an optimal strategy and because necessary information is spread across multiple and diverse sources and platforms...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Josef Novotný, Jiří Hasman, Martin Lepič
BACKGROUND: Unsafe management of human faecal waste represents a major risk for public health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Efforts to improve sanitation conditions are considerably sensitive to contextual specifics of natural and social environments. This review operationalises, analyses, and synthesises evidence of how contextual factors and motivations affect different sanitation outcomes with a specific focus on community approaches to rural sanitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We operationalised contextual factors and motivations as determinants that influence sanitation conditions independently of the examined intervention...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Abdulmannan Fadel, Ayman M Mahmoud, Jason J Ashworth, Weili Li, Yu Lam Ng, Andrew Plunkett
Arabinoxylans (AXs) are major dietary fibers. They are composed of backbone chains of β-(1-4)-linked xylose residues to which α-l-arabinose are linked in the second and/or third carbon positions. Recently, AXs have attracted a great deal of attention because of their biological activities such as their immunomodulatory potential. Extraction of AXs has some difficulties; therefore, various methods have been used to increase the extractability of AXs with varying degrees of success, such as alkaline, enzymatic, mechanical extraction...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Farogh Ahsan, Tarique Mahmood Ansari, Shazia Usmani, Paramdeep Bagga
Silks are naturally occurring polymers that have been used clinically as sutures for hundreds of years. It's so for obtained from insects or worms, silk consists of a filament core protein, termed fibroin, and a glue-like coating made up of sericin proteins. An important component of silk has an extended history of being discarded as a waste in the course of silk processing. The cost of sericin for tissue engineering is underestimated and its capability in using as regenerative remedy has simply began to be explored...
November 13, 2017: Drug Research
David T Dodemaide, Ty G Matthews, Dion Iervasi, Rebecca E Lester
Ecological research associated with the importance of refuges has tended to focus on natural rather than anthropogenic water bodies. The frequency of disturbances, including drought events, is predicted to increase in many regions worldwide due to human-induced climate change. More frequent disturbance will affect freshwater ecosystems by altering hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, available habitat and assemblage structure. Under this scenario, many aquatic biota are likely to rely on permanent water bodies as refuge, including anthropogenic water bodies...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mateja Senica, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
In fruit production seeds are mostly regarded a waste, but for plants they represent a beginning of new life. Seeds accumulate toxic or health-beneficial compounds and the elucidation of their metabolic profile is especially important to people who consume the entire fruit, including the seeds. The present research quantifies the levels of bioactive compounds (phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides (CGG)) in fruit seeds of 35 cultivars belonging to 6 different fruit species. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrophotometry were used to detect and identify the studied compounds...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michael J Palmer, Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Madeleine King, Melanie Calvert, Harriet Richardson, Michael Brundage
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Missing patient-reported outcome data can lead to biased results, to loss of power to detect between-treatment differences, and to research waste. Awareness of factors may help researchers reduce missing patient-reported outcome data through study design and trial processes. The aim was to construct a Classification Framework of factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data in the context of comparative studies. The first step in this process was informed by a systematic review...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Ivan Nancucheo, José A P Bitencourt, Prafulla K Sahoo, Joner Oliveira Alves, José O Siqueira, Guilherme Oliveira
Acidic mine drainage (AMD) is regarded as a pollutant and considered as potential source of valuable metals. With diminishing metal resources and ever-increasing demand on industry, recovering AMD metals is a sustainable initiative, despite facing major challenges. AMD refers to effluents draining from abandoned mines and mine wastes usually highly acidic that contain a variety of dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in much greater concentration than what is found in natural water bodies. There are numerous remediation treatments including chemical (lime treatment) or biological methods (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) used for metal precipitation and removal from AMD...
2017: BioMed Research International
Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Eric Trably, Sanjeet Mehariya, Nicolas Bernet, Jonathan W C Wong, Hélène Carrere
Food waste (FW) management by biological process is more attractive and eco-friendly approach than thermo-chemical conversion or landfilling. However, FW composition and physico-chemical and biological characteristics affect the overall biological process in terms of product yield and degradation rate. To overcome this major bottle-neck, the pretreatment of FW is proposed. Therefore this review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the importance of pretreatment of FW with respect to FW management by anaerobic digestion (AD) and dark fermentation (DF)...
September 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Krista Carlson, Manoranjan Misra, Swomitra Mohanty
In response to the potential hazards associated with the globalization of the food industry, research has been focused on the development of new sensing techniques to provide the means of contamination detection at any stage in the food supply chain. The demand for on-site detection is growing as pre-emptive sensing of pathogens could eliminate foodborne-related outbreaks and associated healthcare costs. Reduction in food waste is also a driver for point-of-use (POU) sensing, from both an economic and environmental standpoint...
November 6, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Behzad Nasri, Florent Brun, Olivier Fouché
One of the most undesired wastes is the human excreta due to the socio-environmental pressure. Otherwise, the nutriments contained in human excreta could be used as fertilizers to enrich the soil. Familial waterless litter composting toilets (FWLCT) are an alternative for locations where a centralized sewerage network cannot be provided or where there is a lack of standard urban infrastructure including roads, electricity, and water supply. The scientific researches on the composting techniques, the methods of control of the composting processors, and the rate of produced leachate are very limited...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lisa M Prince, Matthew D Rand
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, best known for its selective targeting of the developing nervous system. MeHg exposure has been shown to cause motor deficits such as impaired gait and coordination, muscle weakness, and muscle atrophy, which have been associated with disruption of motor neurons. However, recent studies have suggested that muscle may also be a target of MeHg toxicity, both in the context of developmental myogenic events and of low-level chronic exposures affecting muscle wasting in aging...
November 2, 2017: Toxicology
Thiruvenkitam Manoharan, Dhamothiran Laksmanan, Kaliyannan Mylsamy, Pandian Sivakumar, Anirbid Sircar
Solid wastes generated from manufacturing industries are increasing at an alarming rate and it is consistently increasing. One such industrial solid waste is Used Foundry Sand (UFS). On the other hand, fine aggregates involved in the concrete are generally river sand, which is scarce, high cost and excavation of the river sand that promote environmental degradation. So, there is an urge to find some alternative solution to dispose UFS and to limit the use of river sand. In this research work, river sand was partially replaced by UFS...
November 2, 2017: Waste Management
Seung-Kyu Chun
Understanding the behavior of major elements in landfill is necessary for effective landfill site management. However, there have been no established methods to study the mass balance of major landfill elements, excluding some studies focused on specific target materials. In this study, different landfill management methodologies were used to conduct mass balance analysis of three major elements at Sudokwon Landfill Site 2 (LS2) in South Korea during 2001-2014. The results indicated that biochemically decomposable carbon accounted for 38...
November 2, 2017: Waste Management
Graça Martinho, Ana Gomes, Mário Ramos, Pedro Santos, Graça Gonçalves, Miguel Fonseca, Ana Pires
Research on waste prevention and management at green festivals is scarce. The present study helps to fill this gap by analyzing waste prevention/reduction and management measures implemented at the Andanças festival, Portugal. Waste characterization campaigns and a questionnaire survey were conducted during the festival. The results show that the largest amount of waste generated was residual waste, followed by food and kitchen waste and packaging waste. The amount of waste generated per person per day at the festival was lower than that of other festivals for both the entire venue and the canteen...
October 25, 2017: Waste Management
Robinson Torres, Brenda Segura-Bailón, Gretchen T Lapidus
E-waste is a potential source of large quantities of metals. The ability of citrate solutions to recover base metals from these materials has been demonstrated. In the present study, the effect of the temperature on base metal leaching capacity by the citrate solutions is determined. The material employed consisted of a mechanically prepared, gravity concentrated e-waste, with a metallic content greater than 90%. The leaching conditions were selected based on previous research performed by the authors (0.5 M sodium citrate, pH 4...
October 25, 2017: Waste Management
Kyung-Min Poo, Eun-Bi Son, Jae-Soo Chang, Xianghao Ren, Yun-Jung Choi, Kyu-Jung Chae
For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Yiping Cao, Mano Sivaganesan, Catherine A Kelty, Dan Wang, Alexandria B Boehm, John F Griffith, Stephen B Weisberg, Orin C Shanks
Human fecal pollution of recreational waters remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality research and management. However, there are currently no standardized approaches for field implementation and interpretation of qPCR data. In this study, a standardized HF183/BacR287 qPCR method was combined with a water sampling strategy and a novel Bayesian weighted average approach to establish a human fecal contamination score (HFS) that can be used to prioritize sampling sites for remediation based on measured human waste levels...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
Rajia Kchaou, Rim Baccar, Jalel Bouzid, Saloua Rejeb
There is an increasing interest in the agricultural application of organic waste such as soil amendment, due to the possibility of recycling valuable components, organic matter, and nutrient elements necessary for plant growth. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge, and green waste compost application, on a forage crop, triticale "X Triticosecale Wittmack" compared to unfertilized control. The experimental design was installed in the glasshouse conditions at the Regional Field Crop Research Center in Beja, Tunisia...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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