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Research waste

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636179/discontinuation-and-non-publication-of-neurodegenerative-disease-trials-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#1
J D Stefaniak, T C H Lam, N E Sim, R Al-Shahi Salman, D P Breen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trial discontinuation and non-publication represent major sources of research waste in clinical medicine. No previous studies have investigated non-dissemination bias in clinical trials of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for all randomized, interventional, phase II-IV trials that were registered between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009 and included adults with Alzheimer's disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633861/optimization-of-magnetic-field-assisted-ultrasonication-for-the-disintegration-of-waste-activated-sludge-using-box-behnken-design-with-response-surface-methodology
#2
Su Guan, Feng Deng, Si-Qi Huang, Shu-Yang Liu, Le-Xian Ai, Pu-Ying She
This study investigated for the first time the feasibility of using a magnetic field for sludge disintegration. Approximately 41.01% disintegration degree (DD) was reached after 30min at 180mT magnetic field intensity upon separate magnetic field treatment. Protein and polysaccharide contents significantly increased. This test was optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to fit the multiple equation of the DD. The maximum DD was 43.75% and the protein and polysaccharide contents increased to 56...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633401/biomedical-text-mining-for-research-rigor-and-integrity-tasks-challenges-directions
#3
Halil Kilicoglu
An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications...
June 13, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630973/consort-statement-for-randomized-trials-of-nonpharmacologic-treatments-a-2017-update-and-a-consort-extension-for-nonpharmacologic-trial-abstracts
#4
Isabelle Boutron, Douglas G Altman, David Moher, Kenneth F Schulz, Philippe Ravaud
Incomplete and inadequate reporting is an avoidable waste that reduces the usefulness of research. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement is an evidence-based reporting guideline that aims to improve research transparency and reduce waste. In 2008, the CONSORT Group developed an extension to the original statement that addressed methodological issues specific to trials of nonpharmacologic treatments (NPTs), such as surgery, rehabilitation, or psychotherapy. This article describes an update of that extension and presents an extension for reporting abstracts of NPT trials...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629710/anaerobic-digestion-of-tuna-waste-for-the-production-of-volatile-fatty-acids
#5
Noela Bermúdez-Penabad, Christian Kennes, Maria C Veiga
Fish canning industries generate a significant amount of solid waste that can be digested anaerobically into volatile fatty acids (VFA). The aim of this research was to study the effect of various pHs, ranging from 5.0 to 10.0, and percentage of total solids on the anaerobic digestion of tuna waste into VFA, both in batch assays and continuous reactor. The production of VFA was affected by pH and was significantly higher under alkaline conditions. At pH 8.0, the VFA production reached 30,611mgCOD/L. The VFA mainly consisted of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and i-valeric acids...
June 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629396/identifying-approaches-for-assessing-methodological-and-reporting-quality-of-systematic-reviews-a-descriptive-study
#6
Kusala Pussegoda, Lucy Turner, Chantelle Garritty, Alain Mayhew, Becky Skidmore, Adrienne Stevens, Isabelle Boutron, Rafael Sarkis-Onofre, Lise M Bjerre, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson, Douglas G Altman, David Moher
BACKGROUND: The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time...
June 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624732/comparison-of-different-treatment-methods-for-protein-solubilisation-from-waste-activated-sludge
#7
Keke Xiao, Yun Chen, Xie Jiang, Wan Yi Seow, Chao He, Yao Yin, Yan Zhou
Biomaterials recovery from wasted activated sludge has become an increasing interesting research topic. The purpose of this study was to systemically evaluate different sludge disintegration methods (ultrasonic, alkaline, and thermal treatments) for protein solubilisation from waste activated sludge (WAS). Compared to control without treatment, the soluble protein concentration increased by 11, 23 and 12 times under the optimal treatment conditions (ultrasonic treatment of 1 W mL(-1), alkaline treatment of pH 12 and thermal treatment at 80 °C)...
June 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623572/nutritional-fe-mn-ni-and-cr-and-growth-responses-of-rice-plant-affected-by-perennial-application-of-two-bio-solids
#8
Seyed Majid Mousavi, Mohammad Ali Bahmanyar, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Salahedin Moradi
Trace toxic elements often restrict the land application of different bio-solids in agriculture. In order to evaluate the separate influence of the municipal solid waste compost (MSW), sewage sludge (SS) and combined application with inorganic fertilizers (chemical fertilizer (CF)) on nutritional (Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr) and growth responses of rice plant, a research was conducted on paddy soil from 2013 to 2015. Obtained results showed that SS levels were superior to MSW in most studied traits. The maximum chlorophyll content (46...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623504/biosorption-of-chromium-vi-from-aqueous-solutions-and-ann-modelling
#9
Soma Nag, Abhijit Mondal, Nirjhar Bar, Sudip Kumar Das
The use of sustainable, green and biodegradable natural wastes for Cr(VI) detoxification from the contaminated wastewater is considered as a challenging issue. The present research is aimed to assess the effectiveness of seven different natural biomaterials, such as jackfruit leaf, mango leaf, onion peel, garlic peel, bamboo leaf, acid treated rubber leaf and coconut shell powder, for Cr(VI) eradication from aqueous solution by biosorption process. Characterizations were conducted using SEM, BET and FTIR spectroscopy...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623163/factors-associated-with-school-lunch-consumption-reverse-recess-and-school-brunch
#10
Leah Elizabeth Chapman, Juliana Cohen, Melanie Canterberry, Thomas W Carton
BACKGROUND: While school foods have become healthier under the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act, research suggests there is still substantial food waste in cafeterias. It is therefore necessary to study factors that can impact food consumption, including holding recess before lunch ("reverse recess") and starting lunch periods very early or very late. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between the timing of recess (pre-lunch vs post-lunch recess), the timing of the lunch period, and food consumed by students at lunch...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618076/priorities-for-methodological-research-on-patient-and-public-involvement-in-clinical-trials-a-modified-delphi-process
#11
Anna Kearney, Paula Williamson, Bridget Young, Heather Bagley, Carrol Gamble, Simon Denegri, Delia Muir, Natalie A Simon, Stephen Thomas, Jim T Elliot, Helen Bulbeck, Joanna C Crocker, Claire Planner, Claire Vale, Mike Clarke, Tim Sprosen, Kerry Woolfall
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. DESIGN: A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting...
June 15, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618001/three-dimensional-cell-culture-models-for-anticancer-drug-screening-worth-the-effort
#12
REVIEW
Eddy-Tim Verjans, Jordi Doijen, Walter Luyten, Bart Landuyt, Liliane Schoofs
High attrition of new oncology drug candidates in clinical trials is partially caused by the poor predictive capacity of artificial monolayer cell culture assays early in drug discovery. Monolayer assays do not take the natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment of cells into account. As a result, false positive compounds often enter clinical trials, leading to high dropout rates and a waste of time and money. Over the past two decades, tissue engineers and cell biologists have developed a broad range of 3D in vitro culturing tools that better represent in vivo cell biology...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616071/combined-de-novo-and-ex-novo-lipid-fermentation-in-a-mix-medium-of-corncob-acid-hydrolysate-and-soybean-oil-by-trichosporon-dermatis
#13
Chao Huang, Mu-Tan Luo, Xue-Fang Chen, Gao-Xiang Qi, Lian Xiong, Xiao-Qing Lin, Can Wang, Hai-Long Li, Xin-De Chen
BACKGROUND: Microbial oil is one important bio-product for its important function in energy, chemical, and food industry. Finding suitable substrates is one key issue for its industrial application. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates can be utilized by oleaginous microorganisms with two different bio-pathways ("de novo" lipid fermentation and "ex novo" lipid fermentation). To date, most of the research on lipid fermentation has focused mainly on only one fermentation pathway and little work was carried out on both "de novo" and "ex novo" lipid fermentation simultaneously; thus, the advantages of both lipid fermentation cannot be fulfilled comprehensively...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615311/modeling-physiological-events-in-2d-vs-3d-cell-culture
#14
REVIEW
Kayla Duval, Hannah Grover, Li-Hsin Han, Yongchao Mou, Adrian F Pegoraro, Jeffery Fredberg, Zi Chen
Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611186/success-failure-and-transparency-in-biomarker-based-drug-development-a-case-study-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors
#15
Spencer Phillips Hey, Jessica M Franklin, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S Kesselheim
BACKGROUND: Although biomarkers are used as surrogate measures for drug targeting and approval and are generally based on plausible biological hypotheses, some are found to not correlate well with clinical outcomes. Over-reliance on inadequately validated biomarkers in drug development can lead to harm to trial subjects and patients and to research waste. To shed greater light on the process and ethics of biomarker-based drug development, we conducted a systematic portfolio analysis of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors, a drug class designed to improve lipid profiles and prevent cardiovascular events...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610443/valorization-of-potato-peel-a-biorefinery-approach
#16
Pranav D Pathak, Sachin A Mandavgane, Nikhil Manoj Puranik, Swapnil Jaygopal Jambhulkar, Bhaskar D Kulkarni
Potato is the fourth main crop consumed worldwide and is an important constituent in the human diet. Consequently, potato is widely used in food-processing industries. However, these industries generate massive amounts of potato peel (PP) as a by-product, which is usually considered a waste, and is discarded. Interestingly, recent research suggests that PP is a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which can be converted into value-added products. In this study, we review the physicochemical composition and valorization of PP...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609847/soil-contamination-with-cadmium-consequences-and-remediation-using-organic-amendments
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad Amjad Khan, Sardar Khan, Anwarzeb Khan, Mehboob Alam
Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608820/a-multi-parametric-device-with-innovative-solid-electrodes-for-long-term-monitoring-of-ph-redox-potential-and-conductivity-in-a-nuclear-waste-repository
#18
Jordan Daoudi, Stephanie Betelu, Theodore Tzedakis, Johan Bertrand, Ioannis Ignatiadis
We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl(-) selective electrodes, one Ag₂S/Ag-based reference or S(2-) selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity...
June 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608156/a-study-on-the-oil-based-drilling-cutting-pyrolysis-residue-resource-utilization-by-the-exploration-and-development-of-shale-gas
#19
Chao-Qiang Wang, Ji-Zhong Jin, Xiao-Yan Lin, De-Ming Xiong, Xu-Dong Mei
Based on the requirement of national energy conservation and environmental protection, attention has been given to building an environment-friendly and resource-saving society. Shale gas oil-based drilling cutting pyrolysis residues (ODPRs) have been used as the main research object to developing new technology which can convert the residues into a harmless and recyclable material. Using the test data of ODPR, we analyze the development prospect in the building material industry and provide a scheme to utilize this particular solid-waste efficiently...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606544/mining-marine-shell-wastes-for-polyelectrolyte-chitosan-anti-biofoulants-fabrication-of-high-performance-economic-and-ecofriendly-anti-biofouling-coatings
#20
Reda F M Elshaarawy, Fatma H A Mustafa, Lasse van Geelen, Amaal E A Abou-Taleb, Hermine R Z Tadros, Rainer Kalscheuer, Christoph Janiak
Banning organotins as antifouling biocides in 2003 was the starting point for many researchers to search for novel economic and environmentally-friendly anti-fouling biocides. In our present contribution, we have successfully functionalized a natural biopolymer, chitosan (CS), isolated from marine wastes with polyelectrolyte brushes akin to ionic liquids. These antifouling biopolymers anchoring polyelectrolyte brushes were in vitro assessed for their ability to eradicate or inhibit the Staphylococcal/Escherichia biofilms...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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