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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334649/determining-variables-that-influence-the-phosphorus-content-of-waste-stabilization-pond-algae
#1
Matthew D Sells, Nicola Brown, Andrew N Shilton
Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are one of the most common forms of wastewater treatment for smaller communities globally, but have poor phosphorus removal. It is known that WSP algae can accumulate polyphosphate within their cells in excess of that needed for cell function. If polyphosphate accumulation could be triggered at the higher range of WSP cell concentrations, phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater could be significantly improved. However, this phenomenon is sporadic and still not fully understood...
January 8, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332394/compositional-dependence-of-solubility-retention-of-molybdenum-oxides-in-aluminoborosilicate-based-model-nuclear-waste-glasses
#2
Antoine Brehault, Deepak Patil, Hrishikesh Kamat, Randall E Youngman, Lynn M Thirion, John C Mauro, Claire Corkhill, John Stuart McCloy, Ashutosh Goel
Molybdenum oxides are an integral component of the high-level waste streams being generated from the nuclear reactors in several countries. Although borosilicate glass has been chosen as the baseline waste form by most of the countries to immobilize these waste streams, molybdate oxyanions (MoO42-) exhibit very low solubility (~ 1 mol.%) in these glass matrices. In the past 3-4 decades, several studies describing the compositional and structural dependence of molybdate anions in borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses have been reported in the literature, providing a basis for our understanding of fundamental science that governs the solubility and retention of these species in the nuclear waste glasses...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332271/biodegradation-of-plastics-current-scenario-and-future-prospects-for-environmental-safety
#3
Temoor Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid, Farrukh Azeem, Ijaz Rasul, Asad Ali Shah, Muhammad Noman, Amir Hameed, Natasha Manzoor, Irfan Manzoor, Sher Muhammad
Plastic is a general term used for a wide range of high molecular weight organic polymers obtained mostly from the various hydrocarbon and petroleum derivatives. There is an ever-increasing trend towards the production and consumption of plastics due to their extensive industrial and domestic applications. However, a wide spectrum of these polymers is non-biodegradable with few exceptions. The extensive use of plastics, lack of waste management, and casual community behavior towards their proper disposal pose a significant threat to the environment...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322408/protocols-to-evaluate-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation-and-pathology-in-mice
#4
Ross Vlahos, Steven Bozinovski
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes inflammation of the airways, airway wall remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and progressive airflow limitation. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, in particular skeletal muscle wasting, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322250/lactate-metabolism-historical-context-prior-misinterpretations-and-current-understanding
#5
REVIEW
Brian S Ferguson, Matthew J Rogatzki, Matthew L Goodwin, Daniel A Kane, Zachary Rightmire, L Bruce Gladden
Lactate (La-) has long been at the center of controversy in research, clinical, and athletic settings. Since its discovery in 1780, La- has often been erroneously viewed as simply a hypoxic waste product with multiple deleterious effects. Not until the 1980s, with the introduction of the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle did a paradigm shift in our understanding of the role of La- in metabolism begin. The evidence for La- as a major player in the coordination of whole-body metabolism has since grown rapidly. La- is a readily combusted fuel that is shuttled throughout the body, and it is a potent signal for angiogenesis irrespective of oxygen tension...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320522/do-systematic-reviews-address-community-healthcare-professionals-wound-care-uncertainties-results-from-evidence-mapping-in-wound-care
#6
Janice Christie, Trish A Gray, Jo C Dumville, Nicky A Cullum
BACKGROUND: Complex wounds such as leg and foot ulcers are common, resource intensive and have negative impacts on patients' wellbeing. Evidence-based decision-making, substantiated by high quality evidence such as from systematic reviews, is widely advocated for improving patient care and healthcare efficiency. Consequently, we set out to classify and map the extent to which up-to-date systematic reviews containing robust evidence exist for wound care uncertainties prioritised by community-based healthcare professionals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318200/genome-and-metabolic-engineering-in-non-conventional-yeasts-current-advances-and-applications
#7
REVIEW
Ann-Kathrin Löbs, Cory Schwartz, Ian Wheeldon
Microbial production of chemicals and proteins from biomass-derived and waste sugar streams is a rapidly growing area of research and development. While the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent host for the conversion of glucose to ethanol, production of other chemicals from alternative substrates often requires extensive strain engineering. To avoid complex and intensive engineering of S. cerevisiae, other yeasts are often selected as hosts for bioprocessing based on their natural capacity to produce a desired product: for example, the efficient production and secretion of proteins, lipids, and primary metabolites that have value as commodity chemicals...
September 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317080/effective-regeneration-of-dystrophic-muscle-using-autologous-ipsc-derived-progenitors-with-crispr-cas9-mediated-precise-correction
#8
Mackenzie Hagan, Muhammad Ashraf, Il-Man Kim, Neal L Weintraub, Yaoliang Tang
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle wasting disease caused by a lack of dystrophin, which eventually leads to apoptosis of muscle cells and impaired muscle contractility. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing of induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC) offers the potential to correct the DMD gene defect and create healthy IPSC for autologous cell transplantation without causing immune activation. However, IPSC carry a risk of tumor formation, which can potentially be mitigated by differentiation of IPSC into myogenic progenitor cells (MPC)...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316873/failure-analyses-of-unconfined-ccwbm-body-in-uniaxial-compression-based-on-central-pressure-variation
#9
Xianjie Du, Guorui Feng, Yuxia Guo, Tingye Qi, Yujiang Zhang, Jun Guo
Cemented coal waste backfill material (CCWBM) is made of coal gangue, fly ash and cementitious materials. It has been widely used in the field of backfill mining to control surface subsidence and protect the environment. A large number of unconfined backfill bodies without lateral support are formed in partial backfill mining. To study the failure characteristics of unconfined CCWBM body in partial backfill, the stress-strain curves of the CCWBM were obtained by uniaxial compression tests at different ages (1-28 d)...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314594/functional-kaolinite
#10
REVIEW
Christian Detellier
The world resources of all clays are extremely large. Among the various types of clays, the world mine production of kaolin in 2016 was 37.0 Mt, the largest mined clay. Kaolin is traditionally used in ceramics, refractories and as paper coating and filling. But kaolin, as it is demonstrated in this paper, has a bright potential for use in non-traditional, high value-added, applications. This is particularly true for its principal component: the mineral species kaolinite which has a chemical structure allowing its functionalization, leading to a variety of potential applications...
January 4, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307072/life-cycle-assessment-of-opencast-coal-mine-production-a-case-study-in-yimin-mining-area-in-china
#11
Li Zhang, Jinman Wang, Yu Feng
China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306237/pediatric-emergency-care-applied-research-network-head-injuryprediction-rules-on-the-basis-of-cost-and-effectiveness
#12
Fatma Dilek Gökharman, Sonay Aydın, Erdem Fatihoğlu, Pınar Nercis Koşar
Background/aim: Head injuries are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Noncontrast enhanced cranial CT is the method of choice to detect possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concerns about ionizing radiation exposure make the evaluation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rules in predicting clinically important TBI and to determine the amount of medical resource waste and unnecessary radiation exposure...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305039/life-cycle-costing-of-food-waste-a-review-of-methodological-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Fabio De Menna, Jana Dietershagen, Marion Loubiere, Matteo Vittuari
Food waste (FW) is a global problem that is receiving increasing attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. Appropriate FW prevention, valorization, and management routes could mitigate or avoid these effects. Life cycle thinking and approaches, such as life cycle costing (LCC), may represent suitable tools to assess the sustainability of these routes. This study analyzes different LCC methodological aspects and approaches to evaluate FW management and valorization routes. A systematic literature review was carried out with a focus on different LCC approaches, their application to food, FW, and waste systems, as well as on specific methodological aspects...
January 2, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304780/the-influence-of-maternal-psychosocial-circumstances-and-physical-environment-on-the-risk-of-severe-wasting-in-rural-gambian-infants-a-mixed-methods-approach
#14
Helen M Nabwera, Sophie E Moore, Martha K Mwangome, Sassy C Molyneux, Momodou K Darboe, Nyima Camara-Trawally, Bakary Sonko, Alhagie Darboe, Seedy Singhateh, Anthony J Fulford, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Severe wasting affects 16 million under 5's and carries an immediate risk of death. Prevalence remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa and early infancy is a high-risk period. We aimed to explore risk factors for severe wasting in rural Gambian infants. METHODS: We undertook a case-control study from November 2014 to June 2015, in rural Gambia. Cases had WHO standard weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) < -3 on at least 1 occasion in infancy...
January 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302908/heavy-metals-in-handloom-dyeing-effluents-and-their-biosorption-by-agricultural-byproducts
#15
Kamrun Nahar, Md Abul Khair Chowdhury, Md Akhter Hossain Chowdhury, Afzal Rahman, K M Mohiuddin
The Madhabdi municipality in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh is a well-known area for textile, handloom weaving, and dyeing industries. These textile industries produce a considerable amount of effluents, sewage sludge, and solid waste materials every day that they directly discharge into surrounding water bodies and agricultural fields. This disposal poses a serious threat to the overall epidemic and socio-economic pattern of the locality. This research entailed the collection of 34 handloom-dyeing effluent samples from different handloom-dyeing industries of Madhabdi, which were then analyzed to determine the contents of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300419/the-my-meal-intake-tool-m-mit-validity-of-a-patient-self-assessment-for-food-and-fluid-intake-at-a-single-meal
#16
J McCullough, H Keller
OBJECTIVES: Hospital malnutrition is an under-recognized issue that leads to a variety of adverse outcomes, especially for older adults. Food/fluid intake (FFI) monitoring in hospital can be used to identify those who are improving and those who need further treatment. Current monitoring practices such as calorie counts are impractical for all patients and a patient-completed tool, if valid, could support routine FFI monitoring. The aim of this research was to determine whether the patient-completed My Meal Intake Tool (M-MIT) can accurately represent FFI at a single meal...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300080/mineralogical-controls-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-arsenic-in-fe-iii-as-v-coprecipitates
#17
Katrin Ehlert, Christian Mikutta, Yuan Jin, Ruben Kretzschmar
X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates are common initial products of oxidative As- and Fe-bearing sulfide weathering, and often control As solubility in mine wastes or mining-impacted soils. The formation conditions of these solids may exert a major control on their mineralogical composition and, hence, As release in the gastric tract of humans after incidental ingestion of As-contaminated soil. Here, we synthesized a set of 35 Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates as a function of pH (1.5-8) and initial molar Fe/As ratio (0...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299617/agelas-wasting-syndrome-alters-prokaryotic-symbiont-communities-of-the-caribbean-brown-tube-sponge-agelas-tubulata
#18
Lindsey K Deignan, Joseph R Pawlik, Patrick M Erwin
The brown tube sponge Agelas tubulata (cf. Agelas conifera) is an abundant and long-lived sponge on Caribbean reefs. Recently, a disease-like condition, Agelas wasting syndrome (AWS), was described from A. tubulata in the Florida Keys, where prevalence of the syndrome increased from 7 to 35% of the sponge population between 2010 and 2015. In this study, we characterized the prokaryotic symbiont community of A. tubulata for the first time from individuals collected within the same monitoring plots where AWS was described...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297165/wet-nitrogen-deposition-across-the-urban-intensive-agricultural-rural-transect-of-a-small-urban-area-in-southwest-china
#19
Ouping Deng, Shirong Zhang, Liangji Deng, Chunlong Zhang, Jianbo Fei
Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291453/climate-change-and-landscape-development-in-post-closure-safety-assessment-of-solid-radioactive-waste-disposal-results-of-an-initiative-of-the-iaea
#20
T Lindborg, M Thorne, E Andersson, J Becker, J Brandefelt, T Cabianca, M Gunia, A T K Ikonen, E Johansson, V Kangasniemi, U Kautsky, G Kirchner, R Klos, R Kowe, A Kontula, P Kupiainen, A-M Lahdenperä, N S Lord, D J Lunt, J-O Näslund, M Nordén, S Norris, D Pérez-Sánchez, A Proverbio, K Riekki, A Rübel, L Sweeck, R Walke, S Xu, G Smith, G Pröhl
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel on-going research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The project is due to be described in detail in a forthcoming IAEA report. Noting the multi-disciplinary nature of post-closure safety assessments, here, an overview of the work is given to provide researchers in the broader fields of radioecology and radiological safety assessment with a review of the work that has been undertaken...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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