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Research waste

M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Rulin Sun, Santao Zhang, Xing Lu, Wenjun Hu, Ning Lou, Yan Zhao, Jia Zhou, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-induced muscle wasting, which commonly occurs in cancer cachexia, is characterized by impaired quality of life and poor patient survival. To identify an appropriate treatment, research on the mechanism underlying muscle wasting is essential. Thus far, studies on muscle wasting using cancer cachectic models have generally focused on early cancer cachexia (ECC), before severe body weight loss occurs. In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
Haipeng Wu, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Jie Liang, Jin Chen, Jijun Xu, Juan Dai, Xiaodong Li, Junfeng Liu, Ming Chen, Lunhui Lu, Liang Hu, Jia Wan
Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Corwin D Nelson, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Randy E Sacco, Jessi L Powell, Mary E Drewnoski, Matthew O'Neil, Donald C Beitz, William P Weiss
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30 ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Charlotte Marchand, Marika Hogland, Mait Kriipsalu, William Hogland, Anders Kihl
The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Chris M Moody, Timothy G Townsend
Samples of leachate were collected from fourteen landfills in the state of Florida, United States that contained primarily putrescible waste (municipal solid waste, MSW, and yard waste), MSW incinerator (MSWI) ash, or a combination of both. Assessment of leachates included trace metals, anions, and nutrients in order to create a mass balance of total dissolved solids (TDS). As expected from previously literature, MSW leached a complex matrix of contaminants while MSWI ash leachate TDS was more than 98% metallic salts...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Yue Mu, Amirhomayoun Saffarzadeh, Takayuki Shimaoka
This research focused on the mineral phase transformation under varied ignition conditions with the objective of estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI) parameter in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash residues. LOI is commonly used to measure the volatile species, unburned carbon and moisture in the solid materials. There are criteria for LOI measurement in some research fields, while there is no standard protocol for LOI measurement in MSWI fly ash. Using thermogravimetry technique, the ignition condition candidates were proposed at 440/700/900°C for 1 and 2h...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Brent Robert Heard, Shelie A Miller
The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Philip Robert Baker, Daniel Peter Francis, Noran Naqiah Mohd Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
There is evidence that elder abuse is a significant public health problem that is destined to grow as population age. Countries are considering how best to act and this requires an understanding of the complex causal mechanisms contributing to its occurrence and the identification of effective interventions which can potentially make a difference. Previously, a high quality synthesis of evidence for policy and practice has been missing. In this paper, we describe a new Cochrane review of interventions to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of elder abuse...
October 13, 2016: Age and Ageing
Nunzia Linzalone, Alessio Coi, Paolo Lauriola, Daniela Luise, Alessandra Pedone, Roberto Romizi, Domenico Sallese, Fabrizio Bianchi
The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology...
October 8, 2016: Waste Management
Michael Alonzo, Jamon Van Den Hoek, Nabil Ahmed
The socio-ecological impacts of large scale resource extraction are frequently underreported in underdeveloped regions. The open-pit Grasberg mine in Papua, Indonesia, is one of the world's largest copper and gold extraction operations. Grasberg mine tailings are discharged into the lowland Ajkwa River deposition area (ADA) leading to forest inundation and degradation of water bodies critical to indigenous peoples. The extent of the changes and temporal linkages with mining activities are difficult to establish given restricted access to the region and persistent cloud cover...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ngai Yin Yip, Doriano Brogioli, Hubertus V M Hamelers, Kitty Nijmeijer
Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Suad Jaffer Al-Lawati, Mushtaque Ahmed, Malik Al-Wardy, Ahmed Al-Busaidi, B S Choudri
It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and the sludge production take place under different technical, economic and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most of cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Harvey Milquez-Sanabria, Luis Blanco-Cocom, Liliana Alzate-Gaviria
BACKGROUND: Agro-industrial wastes are an energy source for different industries. However, its application has not reached small industries. Previous and current research activities performed on the acidogenic phase of two-phase anaerobic digestion processes deal particularly with process optimization of the acid-phase reactors operating with a wide variety of substrates, both soluble and complex in nature. Mathematical models for anaerobic digestion have been developed to understand and improve the efficient operation of the process...
October 3, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Odile Sauzet, Maren Kleine, John E Williams
BACKGROUND: Given the prevalence of untreated pain among cancer patients, there have been calls for more and better research in the domain. Increasingly, calls for less waste and more optimal use of trial data collected are being made. Waste of data includes non-optimal statistical analysis and non-presentation of interpretable effect size as a measure of effectiveness of an intervention which also enable comparisons across studies. METHODS: We reviewed the recent literature on randomised trials on longitudinal cancer pain to identify sources of loss of data information by collecting material on the nature of outcomes collected, analysed, the method of analysis and what was presented as a result of the trial...
October 6, 2016: BMC Cancer
Tara M Webster, Raghav R Reddy, James Y Tan, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou, Kim F Hayes, Lutgarde Raskin
The removal of arsenic from drinking water sources produces arsenic-bearing wastes, which are disposed of in a variety of ways. Several disposal options involve anaerobic environments, including mixing arsenic waste with cow dung, landfills, anaerobic digesters, and pond sediments. Though poorly understood, the production of gaseous arsenic species in these environments can be a primary goal (cow dung mixing) or an unintended consequence (anaerobic digesters). Once formed, these gaseous arsenic species are readily diluted in the atmosphere...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Susan C Slade, Clermont E Dionne, Martin Underwood, Rachelle Buchbinder
Exercise is effective for prevention and management of acute and chronic health conditions. However, trial descriptions of exercise interventions are often suboptimal, leaving readers unclear about the content of effective programmes. To address this, the 16-item internationally endorsed Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) was developed. The aim is to present the final template and provide an Explanation and Elaboration Statement to operationalise the CERT. Development of the CERT was based on the EQUATOR Network methodological framework for developing reporting guidelines...
October 5, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Piotr Nowakowski
Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Kerry Kuluski, Allie Peckham, A Paul Williams, Ross E G Upshur
Person-centred care is becoming a key component of quality in health systems worldwide. Although the term can mean different things, it typically entails paying attention to the needs and background of health system users, involving them in decisions that affect their health, assessing their care goals and implementing a coordinated plan of care that aligns with their unique circumstances. The importance of practising a person-centred approach in care delivery dominates policy and research rhetoric worldwide, yet competing goals set by policy planners to save money, eliminate waste and sustain the healthcare system challenge the implementation of such an approach...
2016: Healthcare Quarterly
Noha A El Essawy, Abdelaziz H Konsowa, Mohamed Elnouby, Hassan A Farag
Nowadays our planet suffers from the accumulation of the plastic products which have a potential to cause a great harm to the environment in the form of air, water and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the mass numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent free process that converts polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials as fullerenes and carbon nanotube...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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