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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073973/human-foetal-ovary-shares-meiotic-preventing-factors-with-the-developing-testis
#1
Nelly Frydman, Marine Poulain, Brahim Arkoun, Clotilde Duquenne, Sophie Tourpin, Sébastien Messiaen, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Alexandra Benachi, Gabriel Livera
STUDY QUESTION: How can pre-meiotic germ cells persist in the human foetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: Numerous oogonia escaping meiotic entry were retrieved throughout human ovarian development simultaneously with the expression of signalling pathways preventing meiosis, typically described in the rodent embryonic testis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a key event in female germ cells that remains poorly documented in research on the human ovary...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031483/speedy-a-cdk2-binding-mediates-initial-telomere-nuclear-envelope-attachment-during-meiotic-prophase-i-independent-of-cdk2-activation
#2
Zhaowei Tu, Mustafa Bilal Bayazit, Hongbin Liu, Jingjing Zhang, Kiran Busayavalasa, Sanjiv Risal, Jingchen Shao, Ande Satyanarayana, Vincenzo Coppola, Lino Tessarollo, Meenakshi Singh, Chunwei Zheng, Chunsheng Han, Zijiang Chen, Philipp Kaldis, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Kui Liu
Telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE) is a prerequisite for chromosome movement during meiotic prophase I that is required for pairing of homologous chromosomes, synapsis, and homologous recombination. Here we show that Speedy A, a noncanonical activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), is specifically localized to telomeres in prophase I male and female germ cells in mice, and plays an essential role in the telomere-NE attachment. Deletion of Spdya in mice disrupts telomere-NE attachment, and this impairs homologous pairing and synapsis and leads to zygotene arrest in male and female germ cells...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007692/micrornas-are-stored-in-human-mii-oocyte-and-their-expression-profile-changes-in-reproductive-aging
#3
Rosalia Battaglia, Maria Elena Vento, Marco Ragusa, Davide Barbagallo, Alessandro La Ferlita, Giovanna Di Emidio, Placido Borzí, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Paolo Scollo, Carla Tatone, Michele Purrello, Cinzia Di Pietro
Maternal RNAs are synthesized by the oocyte during its growth; some of them are utilized for oocyte-specific processes and metabolism, others are stored and used during early development before embryonic genome activation. The appropriate expression of complex sets of genes is needed for oocyte maturation and early embryo development. In spite of the basic role of noncoding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression, few studies have analyzed their role in human oocytes. In this study, we identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in human metaphase II stage oocytes, and found that some of them are able to control pluripotency, chromatin remodeling, and early embryo development...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003471/pirna-associated-proteins-and-retrotransposons-are-differentially-expressed-in-murine-testis-and-ovary-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice
#4
Eva M Rico-Leo, Nuria Moreno-Marín, Francisco J González-Rico, Eva Barrasa, Cristina Ortega-Ferrusola, Patricia Martín-Muñoz, Luis O Sánchez-Guardado, Elena Llano, Alberto Alvarez-Barrientos, Ascensión Infante-Campos, Inmaculada Catalina-Fernández, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez, Dirk G de Rooij, Alberto M Pendás, Fernando J Peña, Jaime M Merino, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero
Previous studies suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to mice reproduction and fertility. However, the mechanisms involved remain mostly unknown. Retrotransposon silencing by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is essential for germ cell maturation and, remarkably, AhR has been identified as a regulator of murine B1-SINE retrotransposons. Here, using littermate AhR(+/+) and AhR(-/-) mice, we report that AhR regulates the general course of spermatogenesis and oogenesis by a mechanism likely to be associated with piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and retrotransposons...
December 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997535/selection-for-mitochondrial-quality-drives-evolution-of-the-germline
#5
Arunas L Radzvilavicius, Zena Hadjivasiliou, Andrew Pomiankowski, Nick Lane
The origin of the germline-soma distinction is a fundamental unsolved question. Plants and basal metazoans do not have a germline but generate gametes from pluripotent stem cells in somatic tissues (somatic gametogenesis). In contrast, most bilaterians sequester a dedicated germline early in development. We develop an evolutionary model which shows that selection for mitochondrial quality drives germline evolution. In organisms with low mitochondrial replication error rates, segregation of mutations over multiple cell divisions generates variation, allowing selection to optimize gamete quality through somatic gametogenesis...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975269/egg-activation-at-fertilization
#6
Zoltan Machaty, Andrew R Miller, Lu Zhang
Fertilization is the union of gametes to initiate development of a new individual. The female gamete is formed during oogenesis. The process begins when, in the early embryo, primordial germ cells arise and subsequently colonize the genital ridges. They differentiate into oogonia, start meiosis, and become primary oocytes. The cell cycle of the primary oocytes then becomes arrested in mid-meiosis for an extended period of time. Prior to ovulation the oocytes undergo a growth phase and their sizes increase significantly...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965933/colorectal-choriocarcinoma-in-a-patient-with-probable-lynch-syndrome
#7
Viktor H Koelzer, Karl Steuer, Ulrike Camenisch Gross, Dieter Zimmermann, Aino Paasinen-Sohns, Kirsten D Mertz, Gieri Cathomas
BACKGROUND: Personalized therapy of colorectal cancer is influenced by morphological, molecular, and host-related factors. Here, we report the comprehensive clinicopathological and molecular analysis of an extra-gestational colorectal choriocarcinoma in a patient with probable Lynch syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old female with history of gastric cancer at age 36 presented with a transmurally invasive tumor of the right hemicolon and liver metastasis. A right hemicolectomy was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935102/differential-expression-of-newly-identified-long-intergenic-non-coding-rnas-in-buffalo-oocytes-indicating-their-possible-role-in-maturation-and-embryonic-development
#8
Sunny Dholpuria, Manish Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Parul Sarwalia, Sandeep Rajput, Rakesh Kumar, Sachinandan De, Tirtha K Datta
Female germ cell and its intricate milieu regulate key processes of folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. However, the composition and dynamics of the oocyte transcriptome defines its future fertilizing ability which in turn depends on a number of oocyte specific genes whose identities are still unknown. In this context, the construction of buffalo oocyte specific subtracted cDNA library has raised fresh challenges of defining the importance of a battery of oocyte expressed transcripts in oocyte maturation...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934593/establishment-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-an-8-year-old-female-patient-with-ischemic-moyamoya-disease
#9
Marina Cardano, Fabio Marsoner, Jacopo Zasso, Matteo Marcatili, Thodoris Karnavas, Luigi Andrea Lanterna, Luciano Conti
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from an 8-year old female patient affected by ischemic Moyamoya disease (MMD). Patient's PBMCs were reprogrammed using Sendai virus particles delivering the four Yamanaka factors. The footprint free hiPSC line expressed the major pluripotency markers and exhibited a normal karyotype. Cells were competent to give rise to progeny of differentiated cells belonging to the 3 germ layers. This hiPSC line represents a good tool to in vitro model MMD in order to shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of this syndrome...
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933606/relaxin-like-peptides-in-male-reproduction-a-human-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors are becoming physiologically well characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards the human. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while INSL3 is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and in the adult appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932388/from-embryo-to-adult-pirna-mediated-silencing-throughout-germline-development-in-drosophila
#11
Pauline P Marie, Stéphane Ronsseray, Antoine Boivin
In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development, has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930667/protein-phosphatase-6-protects-prophase-i-arrested-oocytes-by-safeguarding-genomic-integrity
#12
Meng-Wen Hu, Tie-Gang Meng, Zong-Zhe Jiang, Ming-Zhe Dong, Heide Schatten, Xingzhi Xu, Zhen-Bo Wang, Qing-Yuan Sun
Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase of the first meiotic division in the primordial follicle pool for months, even years, after birth depending on species, and only a limited number of oocytes resume meiosis, complete maturation, and ovulate with each reproductive cycle. We recently reported that protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), a member of the PP2A-like subfamily, which accounts for cellular serine/threonine phosphatase activity, functions in completing the second meiosis. Here, we generated mutant mice with a specific deletion of Ppp6c in oocytes from the primordial follicle stage by crossing Ppp6cF/F mice with Gdf9-Cre mice and found that Ppp6cF/F; GCre+ mice are infertile...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927791/molecular-evolution-of-two-distinct-dmrt1-promoters-for-germ-and-somatic-cells-in-vertebrate-gonads
#13
Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Masato Musashijima, Mikako Wada, Yumi Izutsu, Erina Kurakata, Min Kyun Park, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, Michihiko Ito
The transcription factor DMRT1 has important functions in two distinct processes, somatic-cell masculinization and germ-cell development in mammals. However, it is unknown whether the functions are conserevd during evolution, and what mechanism underlies its expression in the two cell lineages. Our analysis of the Xenopus laevis and Silurana tropicalis dmrt1 genes indicated the presence of two distinct promoters: one upstream of the noncoding first exon (ncEx1), and one within the first intron. In contrast, only the ncEx1-upstream promoter was detected in the dmrt1 gene of the agnathan sand lamprey, which expressed dmrt1 exclusively in the germ cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919266/arrest-at-the-diplotene-stage-of-meiotic-prophase-i-is-delayed-by-progesterone-but-is-not-required-for-primordial-follicle-formation-in-mice
#14
Sudipta Dutta, Deion M Burks, Melissa E Pepling
BACKGROUND: In mammalian females, reproductive capacity is determined by the size of the primordial follicle pool. During embryogenesis, oogonia divide mitotically but cytokinesis is incomplete so oogonia remain connected in germ cell cysts. Oogonia begin to enter meiosis at 13.5 days postcoitum in the mouse and over several days, oocytes progress through the stages of meiotic prophase I arresting in the diplotene stage. Concurrently, germ cell cysts break apart and individual oocytes become surrounded by granulosa cells forming primordial follicles...
December 5, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912078/mouse-double-minute-2-homolog-actively-suppresses-p53-activity-in-oocytes-during-mouse-folliculogenesis
#15
Chen-Xi Zhang, Qin Zhang, Yin-Yin Xie, Xue-Yan He, Cong Xiang, Xiao-Shuang Hou, Ying Zhou, Lai Chen, Guo-Xin Zhang, Geng Liu
The p53 signaling network is indispensible in cellular stress responses and tumor suppression. Negative regulations of p53 by mouse double minute 2 and 4 homologs (MDM2) and (MDM4) are an integrated component of the network and have been implicated in regulating the stress responses and the maintenance of normal development and homeostasis of multiple somatic cell lineages. However, the regulatory role of MDM2 on p53 and stress responses in female germ cells remains undetermined. Here, we used the Cre-loxP system to delete Mdm2 in oocytes at different stages of folliculogenesis in mice...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896428/xci-escaping-gene-kdm5c-contributes-to-ovarian-development-via-downregulating-mir-320a
#16
Yi-Xi Sun, Yi-Xin Zhang, Dan Zhang, Chen-Ming Xu, Song-Chang Chen, Jun-Yu Zhang, Ye-Chun Ruan, Feng Chen, Run-Ju Zhang, Ye-Qing Qian, Yi-Feng Liu, Lu-Yang Jin, Tian-Tian Yu, Hai-Yan Xu, Yu-Qin Luo, Xin-Mei Liu, Fei Sun, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Mechanisms underlying female gonadal dysgenesis remain unclarified and relatively unstudied. Whether X-chromosome inactivation (XCI)-escaping genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to this condition is currently unknown. We compared 45,X Turner Syndrome women with 46,XX normal women, and investigated differentially expressed miRNAs in Turner Syndrome through plasma miRNA sequencing. We found that miR-320a was consistently upregulated not only in 45,X plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but also in 45,X fetal gonadal tissues...
November 28, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895375/clinical-profile-treatment-and-survival-outcomes-of-peadiatric-germ-cell-tumours-a-pakistani-perspective
#17
Irfan Ul Islam Nasir, Muhammad Ijaz Ashraf, Nouman Ahmed, Muhammad Fahd Shah, Muhammad Taqi Pirzada, Amir Ali Syed, Abid Quddus Qazi
Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) are rare tumours. Generally 80% are benign and 20% malignant with a bimodal age distribution. The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised all paediatric patients below 18 years of age who received treatment for histology-proven GCT from 2006 to 2014. Of the 207 patients, 98(42.3%) were males and 109(52.7%) were females. The most common GCT was yolk sac tumour in 90(43.5%) children followed by mixed GCT in 40(19.3%) and dysgerminoma in 34(16...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880854/increased-paternal-age-at-conception-is-associated-with-transcriptomic-changes-involved-in-mitochondrial-function-in-elderly-individuals
#18
Tapio Nevalainen, Laura Kananen, Saara Marttila, Juulia Jylhävä, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
The increased paternal age at conception (PAC) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, thus raising questions that imply, potential health concerns in the offspring. As opposed to female oogonia, the male germ cells undergo hundreds of cell divisions during the fertile years. Thus, the advanced paternal age is associated with increase of point mutations in the male spermatogonia DNA, implying that this could be the major driving mechanism behind the paternal age effect observed in the offspring...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876644/dinotefuran-induced-morphophysiological-changes-in-semi-engorged-females-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-latreille-1806-acari-ixodidae-ticks-ultra-structural-evaluation
#19
Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira, Luis Adriano Anholeto, Gerváso Henrique Bechara, Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias
The present study demonstrated the effects of dinotefuran (active ingredient of the acaricide Protetor Pet(®)) on the ovary and midgut cells of semi engorged R. sanguineus females exposed to different concentrations of this chemical. For this, 120 semi-engorged females were divided into four treatment groups with 30 individuals each: group I or control (distilled water), group II (5000ppm), groups III (6250ppm) and group IV (8334ppm of dinotefuran). All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of dinotefuran or in distilled water for 5min and then dried and kept in BOD incubator for 7days...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864217/risk-of-second-malignant-neoplasms-in-women-and-girls-with-germ-cell-tumors
#20
Z Liao, M C Rodrigues, J N Poynter, J F Amatruda, C Rodriguez-Galindo, A L Frazier
BACKGROUND: While an elevated risk of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) has been observed in men treated for germ cell tumors (GCTs), risk of SMNs have not been quantified in adult women or in girls treated for GCTs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-year survivors of primary GCTs diagnosed between January 1980 and December 2012 were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 9) registries. Risk of SMNs was calculated using SEER*Stat. RESULTS: Among 1507 patients, a total of 47 SMNs were identified...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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