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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145655/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-chemical-stress-affectsmale-offspring-s-hepatic-mitochondria
#1
Roger Godschalk, Alex Remels, Camiel Hoogendoorn, Jan van Benthem, Mirjam Luijten, Nur Duale, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Freek G Bouwman, Armelle Munnia, Marco Peluso, Edwin Mariman, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Pre-conceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3x per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142208/transient-increases-in-intracellular-calcium-and-reactive-oxygen-species-levels-in-tcam-2-cells-exposed-to-microgravity
#2
C Morabito, S Guarnieri, A Catizone, C Schiraldi, G Ricci, M A Mariggiò
The effects of microgravity on functions of the human body are well described, including alterations in the male and female reproductive systems. In the present study, TCam-2 cells, which are considered a good model of mitotically active male germ cells, were used to investigate intracellular signalling and cell metabolism during exposure to simulated microgravity, a condition that affects cell shape and cytoskeletal architecture. After a 24 hour exposure to simulated microgravity, TCam-2 cells showed 1) a decreased proliferation rate and a delay in cell cycle progression, 2) increased anaerobic metabolism accompanied by increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion and modifications in mitochondrial morphology...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128947/t2-based-mr-imaging-gradient-echo-or-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-midline-and-off-midline-intracranial-germ-cell-tumors-a-pilot-study
#3
Giovanni Morana, Cesar Augusto Alves, Domenico Tortora, Jonathan L Finlay, Mariasavina Severino, Paolo Nozza, Marcello Ravegnani, Marco Pavanello, Claudia Milanaccio, Mohamad Maghnie, Andrea Rossi, Maria Luisa Garrè
PURPOSE: The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI)...
November 11, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127874/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease-carrying-lrrk2-p-i2012t-mutation
#4
Chin-Hsien Lin, Yu-Che Cheng, Han-I Lin, Ming-Ching Ho, Yu-Hung Hsu, Cheng-Hao Wen, Hui-Wen Ko, Huai-En Lu, Ching-Ying Huang, Patrick C H Hsieh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Leucine rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) is the most prevalent mutation in autosomal-dominant inheritance of PD. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a female patient with p.I2012T mutation in LRRK2 gene by using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The resulting iPSCs had a normal karyotype. The iPSCs also showed pluripotency confirmed by immunofluorescent staining and differentiated into the 3 germ layers in vivo...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126291/the-dynamic-development-of-germ-cells-during-chicken-embryogenesis
#5
Seo Yeong Yang, Hong Jo Lee, Hyung Chul Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Young Hyun Park, Tamao Ono, Jae Yong Han
Appropriate regulation of cell proliferation during embryogenesis is crucial for the maintenance of germness. An in-depth understanding of germ cell developmental processes may yield valuable information on germ cell biology and applied sciences. However, direct evidences about germ cell proliferation and cell cycling during avian embryonic development has not been well-studied. Thus, we explored chicken germ cell dynamics during embryonic development via flow cytometry employing a germ cell-specific anti-cVASA antibody (the chicken VASA homolog is termed CVH) and propidium iodide staining...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124738/transcripts-immunoprecipitated-with-sxl-protein-in-primordial-germ-cells-of-drosophila-embryos
#6
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118876/large-dermoid-cyst-presenting-as-recurrent-pancreatitis
#7
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Denzil Etienne, Madhavi Reddy, Ghulamullah Shahzad
Pancreatic dermoid cysts are rare and benign congenital abnormalities of germ cell origin. They occur equally in males and females without age predilection. Though radiographic imaging aids in the diagnosis, most times they are inconclusive and require fine-needle aspiration cytology for confirmation. We report the first case of a dermoid cyst presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 49-year-old male. Computed tomography scan, followed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed a complex cystic mass lesion adjacent to the pancreatic tail...
October 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115523/characterization-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-sertoli-cells-and-spermatogenesis-review
#8
Jin-Feng Shi, Yu-Kun Li, Kun Ren, Yuan-Jie Xie, Wei-Dong Yin, Zhong-Cheng Mo
The Sertoli cell, which is the supporting cell of spermatogenesis, has an important role in the endocrine and paracrine control of spermatogenesis. Functionally, it provides the cells of the seminiferous epithelium with nutrition, conveys mature spermatids to the lumen of seminiferous tubules, secretes androgen‑binding protein and interacts with endocrine Leydig cells. In addition, the levels of cholesterol, as well as its intermediates, vary greatly between nongonadal tissues and the male reproductive system...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110621/functional-germ-cells-from-non-testicular-adult-stem-cells-a-dream-or-reality
#9
Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Maryam Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei
BACKGROUND: Some research studies provided evidence for the differentiation capacity of adult stem cells (ASCs) into germ cells (GCs). Since the generation of GCs from stem cells (SCs) has been proposed as a potential way for treatment of infertility, many research groups, have begun their creative studies on generation of new GCs both in vitro and in vivo, and utilized different ASC types such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), skin stem cells, pancreatic stem cells, and adipose tissue MSCs...
November 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096400/cancer-incidence-in-english-children-adolescents-and-young-people-past-trends-and-projections-to-2030
#10
Francesca Pesola, Jacques Ferlay, Peter Sasieni
BACKGROUND: Estimating the future incidence of cancer is important to establish sufficient service provision, however, work in this area is limited for cancer in children, adolescents, and young adults (aged 0-24). METHODS: Age-period-cohort models were applied to cancer incidence rates for the period 1971-2013 in England. This allowed us to extrapolate past trends to 2030. We used the appropriate cancer classification developed for cancers in children and young adults, which are analysed as two separate groups to capture inherent differences...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082345/annual-reproductive-cycle-of-acheilognathus-majusculus-a-korean-endemic-species
#11
Jin-Yeong Lim, Won-Kyo Lee
An experiment was conducted to investigate the annual reproductive cycle of a Korean endemic species, Acheilognathus majusculus, from Jeokseong-myeon located in Seomjin River. The reproductive cycle is examined histologically regarding water temperature and day length of the habitat, the gonadosomatic index (GSI), the female ovipositor length index (OLI), monthly variation in egg diameter distribution, and developmental characteristics of female and male gonads. The maximum GSI was found in 19.21±2.32 and 6...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080791/development-of-xenopus-laevis-bipotential-gonads-into-testis-or-ovary-is-driven-by-sex-specific-cell-cell-interactions-proliferation-rate-cell-migration-and-deposition-of-extracellular-matrix
#12
Rafał P Piprek, Malgorzata Kloc, Jean-Pierre Tassan, Jacek Z Kubiak
Information on the mechanisms orchestrating sexual differentiation of the bipotential gonads into testes or ovaries in amphibians is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of Xenopus laevis gonad, to identify the earliest signs of sexual differentiation, and to describe mechanisms driving these processes. We used light and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and cell tracing. In order to identify the earliest signs of sexual differentiation the sex of each tadpole was determined using genotyping with the sex markers...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067503/clinical-features-radiologic-findings-and-treatment-of-pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-involving-the-basal-ganglia-and-thalamus-a-retrospective-series-of-15-cases-at-a-single-center
#13
Mengmeng Wang, Peizhi Zhou, Shizhen Zhang, Xueyou Liu, Liang Lv, Zeming Wang, Feng Ye, Yan Ju, Shu Jiang
PURPOSE: Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are relatively rare neoplasms which have not been extensively described. We here summarize the clinical and radiological features of a series of such tumors and discuss optimal treatment strategies based upon our experience. METHODS: A total of 15 pediatric patients with basal ganglionic and thalamic GCTs were treated between 2011 and 2016 at West China Hospital. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging findings, and treatment strategies were reviewed retrospectively...
October 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065103/family-history-of-cancer-in-children-and-adolescents-with-germ-cell-tumours-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#14
Jenny N Poynter, Michaela Richardson, Michelle Roesler, Mark Krailo, James F Amatruda, A Lindsay Frazier
BACKGROUND: Studies of family history of cancer in paediatric germ cell tumours (GCTs) are few, and none has had sufficient sample size to specifically evaluate family history of GCT. METHODS: We utilised family history data from a paediatric GCT study to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for GCT and other cancers using age- and sex-specific incidence rates from the SEER Program. RESULTS: This analysis included 7998 relatives of paediatric GCT probands...
October 24, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063123/cadherin-22-participates-in-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-female-germ-line-stem-cells-via-interaction-with-jak2-and-%C3%AE-catenin
#15
Xiaoyu Zhang, Yang Yang, Qin Xia, Hongfei Song, Rui Wei, Jingjing Wang, Kang Zou
The self-renewal capacity of the stem cell pool determines tissue function and health. Cadherin-22 (Cdh22), a member of the cadherin superfamily, has two splicing patterns in rats, and the short type that lacks a catenin binding domain is closely related to spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal. Previously, we reported that CDH22 was highly expressed in mouse ovary germ cells, especially in female germ line stem cells (FGSCs). However, its underlying function in FGSCs is still not clear. Here, we found that Cdh22 encodes only one type of protein product in mice and demonstrated that CDH22 was required for FGSC self-renewal...
October 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055226/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-ibms-ipsc-014-05-from-a-female-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-patient-carrying-a-common-mutation-of-r803x-in-pkd2
#16
Ming-Ching Ho, Ching-Ying Huang, Jia-Jung Lee, Shih-Han Hsu, Yu-Che Cheng, Yu-Hung Hsu, Daw-Yang Hwang, Huai-En Lu, Hung-Chun Chen, Patrick C H Hsieh
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most commonly inherited forms of polycystic kidney disease, and is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys. Here we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 63-year-old female ADPKD patient carrying an R803X mutation in the PKD2 gene using the Sendai-virus delivery system. Downstream characterization of these iPSCs showed that they possessed normal karyotyping, were free of genomic integration, retained the disease-causing PKD2 mutation, expressed pluripotency markers and could differentiate into three germ layers...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047397/tyrosine-kinase-4-is-involved-in-the-reproduction-of-the-platyhelminth-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#17
Han Ding, Fengchun Liu, Lulu Zhu, Fei Wu, Quan Liu, Siyu He, Wei Shao, Yinan Du, Cuiping Ren, Jijia Shen, Miao Liu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. Understanding the signal transduction pathways and the molecular basis of reproductive regulation in schistosomes is critically important for developing new strategies for preventing and treating these infections. Syk kinases regulate the proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and survival of various types of cells and have been identified in invertebrates...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045842/the-conserved-rna-exonuclease-rexo5-is-required-for-3-end-maturation-of-28s-rrna-5s-rrna-and-snornas
#18
Stefanie Gerstberger, Cindy Meyer, Sigi Benjamin-Hong, Joe Rodriguez, Daniel Briskin, Claudia Bognanni, Kimberly Bogardus, Hermann Steller, Thomas Tuschl
Non-coding RNA biogenesis in higher eukaryotes has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the Drosophila melanogaster Rexo5 (CG8368) protein, a metazoan-specific member of the DEDDh 3'-5' single-stranded RNA exonucleases, by genetic, biochemical, and RNA-sequencing approaches. Rexo5 is required for small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and rRNA biogenesis and is essential in D. melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate improperly 3' end-trimmed 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNA precursors in vivo. Rexo5 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in somatic metazoan cells but extremely elevated in male and female germ cells...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044430/molecular-regulation-of-sex-change-induced-by-methyltestosterone-feeding-and-methyltestosterone-feeding-withdrawal-in-the-protogynous-orange-spotted-grouper
#19
Qing Wang, Yun Liu, Cheng Peng, Xiang Wang, Ling Xiao, Dengdong Wang, Jiaxing Chen, Haifa Zhang, Huihong Zhao, Shuisheng Li, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
The sex identity of fish can be easily manipulated by exogenous hormones. Treatment with 17-methyltestosterone (MT) has been widely used to induce a male fate, but the molecular and cellular processes underlying sex changes induced by MT treatments and the withdrawal of MT are not well studied. In this study, we systematically investigated gonadal histology, gene expression profiles, sex steroid hormone levels, and cellular changes during sex changes induced by MT-feeding and MT-feeding withdrawal in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044429/dynamic-expression-of-long-noncoding-rnas-reveals-their-potential-roles-in-spermatogenesis-and-fertility
#20
Lauren Wichman, Saigopal Somasundaram, Christine Breindel, Dana M Valerio, John R McCarrey, Craig A Hodges, Ahmad M Khalil
Mammalian reproduction requires that males and females produce functional haploid germ cells through complex cellular differentiation processes known as spermatogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. While numerous studies have functionally characterized protein-coding genes and small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and piRNAs) that are essential for gametogenesis, the roles of regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are yet to be fully characterized. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that intergenic regions of the mammalian genome encode thousands of long noncoding RNAs, and many studies have now demonstrated their critical roles in key biological processes...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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