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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516074/an-updated-nationwide-epidemiology-of-primary-brain-tumors-in-republic-of-korea-2013
#1
Yun-Sik Dho, Kyu-Won Jung, Johyun Ha, Youngbeom Seo, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Joo Won, Heon Yoo
BACKGROUND: This report aims to provide accurate nationwide epidemiologic data on primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the Republic of Korea. We updated the data by analyzing primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 using the data from the national cancer incidence database. METHODS: Data on primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated in terms of gender, age, and histological type...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510616/salvage-high-dose-chemotherapy-in-female-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-germ-cell-tumors-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-european-group-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation-ebmt
#2
U De Giorgi, S Richard, M Badoglio, E Kanfer, J H Bourrhis, E Nicolas-Virelizier, K Vettenranta, B Lioure, S Martin, P Dreger, M K Schuler, K Thomson, E Scarpi, G Rosti, F Selle, G Mangili, F Lanza, M Bregni
Background: High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation is a standard option for relapsed/refractory testicular germ cell tumor (GCT), but only few data have been reported in female patients with GCT. We conducted a retrospective analysis of female patients with GCT treated with HDC and registered with the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Patients and methods: Between 1985 and 2013, 60 registered female patients with GCT, median age 27 years (range 15-48), were treated with salvage HDC...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508054/flexible-adaptation-of-male-germ-cells-from-female-ipscs-of-endangered-tokudaia-osimensis
#3
Arata Honda, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Haruna Izu, Yoshihiro Kawano, Mizuho Inokuchi, Kimiko Honsho, Ah-Reum Lee, Hiroki Nabekura, Hiroshi Ohta, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Yasuhide Ohinata, Asato Kuroiwa, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Mitinori Saitou, Takamichi Jogahara, Chihiro Koshimoto
In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis, has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis, it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504566/influence-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-l26-biocenol%C3%A2-on-immune-response-against-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-germ-free-mice
#4
V Karaffová, T Csank, D Mudroňová, J Király, V Revajová, S Gancarčíková, R Nemcová, J Pistl, Š Vilček, M Levkut
Probiotic bacteria are frequently used for prevention of bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract, but there are only limited studies on their efficacy against viral gut infections in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri L26 Biocenol(TM) on the innate and adaptive immune responses in germ-free Balb/c mice, experimentally infected by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which confers immunosuppressive effect. A total of 30 six-week-old female mice were divided into 3 groups and animals in experimental group LPCV (n=10) were inoculated with L...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502832/sexually-dimorphic-expression-in-developing-and-adult-gonads-shows-an-important-role-of-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-during-sex-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#5
Yuezhong Liu, Wei Zhang, Xinxin Du, Jun Zhao, Xiaobing Liu, Xiaojing Li, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502659/apc-c-cdh1-enables-removal-of-shugoshin-2-from-the-arms-of-bivalent-chromosomes-by-moderating-cyclin-dependent-kinase-activity
#6
Ahmed Rattani, Randy Ballesteros Mejia, Katherine Roberts, Maurici B Roig, Jonathan Godwin, Michael Hopkins, Manuel Eguren, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Elwy Okaz, Sugako Ogushi, Magda Wolna, Jean Metson, Alberto M Pendás, Marcos Malumbres, Béla Novák, Mary Herbert, Kim Nasmyth
In mammalian females, germ cells remain arrested as primordial follicles. Resumption of meiosis is heralded by germinal vesicle breakdown, condensation of chromosomes, and their eventual alignment on metaphase plates. At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/C(Cdc20)) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. Because cohesion around centromeres is protected by shugoshin-2, sister chromatids remain attached through centromeric/pericentromeric cohesin...
May 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492696/complex-recombination-with-deletion-in-the-f8-and-duplication-in-the-tmlhe-mediated-by-int22h-copies-during-early-embryogenesis
#7
Changming Chen, Xiaoling Xie, Xi Wu, Yeling Lu, Xuefeng Wang, Wenman Wu, Yiqun Hu, Qiulan Ding
Haemophilia A (HA) is a common X-linked recessive bleeding disorder and almost one half of patients with severe HA are caused by intron 22 inversion (Inv22) in the F8. Inv22 is considered to be almost exclusively of meiotic origin in germ cells during spermatogenesis and only one mosaic Inv22 female carrier with the mutation possibly occurring during mitosis of the embryo has been reported so far. Previously we have identified a novel complex recombination mediated by int22h copies in a sporadic severe HA pedigree and herein we have localised the sequences flanking the breakpoint region using genome walking technique, AccuCopy technique, gene chip and real-time PCR...
May 11, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472404/three-generation-study-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-following-exposure-of-pubescent-f0-male-mice-to-di-n-butyl-phthalate
#8
Malgorzata M Dobrzynska, Ewa J Tyrkiel, Aneta Gajowik
Humans are exposed to phthalates continuously throughout life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects induced in male mice following 8 weeks of subchronic exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during their puberty and to investigate the possibility of transmission of mutations to subsequent generations via the sperm. Pzh:Sfis outbred male mice aged 4.5 weeks were exposed to DBP by gavage for 8 weeks, 3 days per week to doses of 1/16 LD50 or 1/4 LD50 each time. Six to seven males from each dosage group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the start of exposure for examination of sperm count and quality...
May 2, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#9
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Christopher Payne, Shannon Gallagher, Terence Martin, Ursula Storb
Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b (Ssm1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, Rearrangement by Deletion). Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463397/treatment-and-outcomes-of-uk-and-german-patients-with-relapsed-intracranial-germ-cell-tumors-following-uniform-first-line-therapy
#10
Matthew J Murray, Shivani Bailey, Katja Heinemann, Jillian Mann, Ulrich K Göbel, Frank Saran, Juliet P Hale, Gabriele Calaminus, James C Nicholson
We aimed to retrospectively assess treatments/outcomes, including the value of high-dose-chemotherapy and autologous-stem-cell-rescue (HDC+AuSCR) and re-irradiation, in a large, European patient-cohort with relapsed intracranial germ-cell-tumors (GCTs) receiving uniform first-line therapy, including radiotherapy as standard-of-care. Fifty-eight UK/German patients (48 male/10 female) with relapsed intracranial-GCTs [13 germinoma/45 non-germinomatous GCT(NGGCT)] treated 1996-2010 as per the SIOP-CNS-GCT-96 protocol were evaluated...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457750/single-cell-rna-seq-analysis-maps-development-of-human-germline-cells-and-gonadal-niche-interactions
#11
Li Li, Ji Dong, Liying Yan, Jun Yong, Xixi Liu, Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoying Fan, Xinglong Wu, Hongshan Guo, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaohui Zhu, Rong Li, Jie Yan, Yuan Wei, Yangyu Zhao, Wei Wang, Yixin Ren, Peng Yuan, Zhiqiang Yan, Boqiang Hu, Fan Guo, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang, Jie Qiao
Human fetal germ cells (FGCs) are precursors to sperm and eggs and are crucial for maintenance of the species. However, the developmental trajectories and heterogeneity of human FGCs remain largely unknown. Here we performed single-cell RNA-seq analysis of over 2,000 FGCs and their gonadal niche cells in female and male human embryos spanning several developmental stages. We found that female FGCs undergo four distinct sequential phases characterized by mitosis, retinoic acid signaling, meiotic prophase, and oogenesis...
April 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456466/constitutive-wnt-ctnnb1-activation-triggers-spermatogonial-stem-cell-proliferation-and-germ-cell-depletion
#12
Anne-Amandine Chassot, Morgane Le Rolle, Maxime Jourden, Maketo M Taketo, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Marie-Christine Chaboissier
The differentiation of germ cells into oogonia or spermatogonia is the first step that eventually gives rise to fully mature gametes. In the female fetal gonad, the RSPO1/WNT/CTNNB1 signalling pathway is involved in primordial germ cell proliferation and differentiation into female germ cells, which are able to enter meiosis. In the postnatal testis, the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway also mediates proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. Here we show that forced activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway in fetal gonocytes using transgenic mice leads to deregulated spermatogonial proliferation, and exhaustion of the spermatocytes by apoptosis, resulting in a hypoplastic testis...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454250/intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-to-treat-primary-female-mediastinal-seminoma-and-massive-pericardial-effusion-a-case-report
#13
Jun Cao, Yan Zhou, Fangwen Zou, Jin-An Ma, Chunhong Hu
Primary mediastinal seminoma is a rare extragonadal germ cell tumour that mainly occurs in males. The present study reports the case of a 27-year-old woman that presented with superior vena cava syndrome and a large mass in the mediastinum, which was diagnosed as primary female mediastinal seminoma. The patient received 6 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy [4 cycles BEP chemotherapy (120 mg cisplatin, 0.45 g etoposide and 60 mg bleomycin, once every 3 weeks); 2 cycles IEP chemotherapy (120 mg cisplatin, 100 mg epirubicin and 6 g ifosfamide, once every 3 weeks)] and the patient showed an increase in the size of the mediastinal mass and hydropericardium, indicating a resistance to chemotherapy...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450750/environmental-influences-on-ovarian-dysgenesis-developmental-windows-sensitive-to-chemical-exposures
#14
REVIEW
Hanna Katarina Lilith Johansson, Terje Svingen, Paul A Fowler, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Julie Boberg
A woman's reproductive health and ability to have children directly affect numerous aspects of her life, from personal well-being and socioeconomic standing, to morbidity and lifespan. In turn, reproductive health depends on the development of correctly functioning ovaries, a process that starts early during fetal life. Early disruption to ovarian programming can have long-lasting consequences, potentially manifesting as disease much later in adulthood. A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemicals early in life, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals, can cause a range of disorders later in life, such as those described in the ovarian dysgenesis syndrome hypothesis...
April 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444134/characterization-of-foxo1-3-and-4-transcription-factors-in-ovaries-of-fetal-prepubertal-and-adult-rhesus-macaques
#15
Alison Y Ting, Mary B Zelinski
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activation of primordial follicles leading to early depletion of ovarian follicles and subsequent infertility. Whether a similar mechanism for follicle activation exists in the primate ovary is unclear. In the current study, protein localization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 as well as their upstream regulator, AKT/p-AKT, were examined in rhesus macaque ovaries of 3 developmental stages: fetal, prepubertal and adult...
April 22, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#16
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434637/clinical-heterogeneity-in-children-with-gonadal-dysgenesis-associated-with-non-mosaic-46-xy-karyotype
#17
Y S Wong, Y H Tam, K K Y Pang, K F To, S S C Chan, K W Chan, K H Lee
INTRODUCTION: Gonadal dysgenesis is unique in disorders of sex development (DSD), in that it can be associated with 46,XX, 46,XY or mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotypes. Gonadal dysgenesis can be partial or complete. Gonadal dysgenesis associated with the Y-chromosome has increased risk of gonadal germ cell neoplasms. Most of the literature focus on 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, while there are scanty data on the condition when the karyotype is non-mosaic 46,XY. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diversity of clinical pictures of children presenting with 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433748/the-repertoire-of-epithelial-morphogenesis-on-display-progressive-elaboration-of-drosophila-egg-structure
#18
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Duhart, Travis T Parsons, Laurel A Raftery
Epithelial structures are foundational for tissue organization in all metazoans. Sheets of epithelial cells form lateral adhesive junctions and acquire apico-basal polarity perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Genetic analyses in the insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, have greatly advanced our understanding of how epithelial organization is established, and how it is modulated during tissue morphogenesis. Major insights into collective cell migrations have come from analyses of morphogenetic movements within the adult follicular epithelium that cooperates with female germ cells to build a mature egg...
April 19, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429716/polyembryoma-of-the-testis-a-report-of-two-cases-dominant-within-mixed-germ-cell-tumors-and-review-of-gonadal-polyembryomas
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer N Stall, Robert H Young
Two testicular mixed germ cell tumors, from men of 21 and 41 years, in which polyembryoma predominated are described. A literature review uncovered an additional five testicular and nine ovarian cases. One tumor occurred in a 60-year-old man, but all others occurred within the typical age range of gonadal germ cell tumors. One male presented with gynecomastia and one female with sexual precocity, but all otherwise had standard clinical manifestations. These tumors are typically large with non-specific gross features, but a few have a prominent hemorrhagic appearance...
April 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422548/epidemiological-profile-and-treatment-outcomes-in-young-adults-19-29-years-of-age-treated-for-cancer-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#20
Victor Hugo Fonseca de Jesus, Taynan Nunes Ribeiro, Ludmilla T Domingos Chinen, Vanessa Alves, Maria Paula Curado, Marcello Ferretti Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the incidence of cancer in young adults (20-39 years) is increasing, and represents an important cause of mortality in this age group. A retrospective study was undertaken to provide information that may lead to improved treatment outcomes. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinicopathological, treatment, and survival information were retrieved from the electronic database registry of a tertiary referral hospital in São Paulo, Brazil for patients 19-29 years of age diagnosed with cancer between January 2007 and December 2012...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
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