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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339608/inhibition-of-arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-prevents-4-hydroxynonenal-induced-protein-damage-in-male-germ-cells%C3%A2
#1
Elizabeth G Bromfield, Bettina P Mihalas, Matthew D Dun, R John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Jessica L H Walters, Brett Nixon
Lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), are causative agents responsible for extensive protein damage within the male and female germlines. Recently, we have demonstrated that 4HNE production can initiate the proteolytic degradation of the molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2) in male germ cells. These events may be partially responsible for HSPA2 deficiency in the spermatozoa of patients that repeatedly fail in vitro fertilization. Given this, mechanisms that limit the production of 4HNE will be highly advantageous for the preservation of male fertility...
February 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339605/uniparental-chicken-offsprings-derived-from-oogenesis-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-zz-%C3%A2
#2
Chunhai Liu, Il-Kuk Chang, Kamal A Khazanehdari, Shruti Thomas, Preetha Varghese, Vijaya Baskar, Razan Alkhatib, Wenhai Li, Jörg Kinne, Michael J McGrew, Ulrich Wernery
Cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer) in avian species has proven unachievable due to the physical structure of the avian oocyte. Here, the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells with genetic sex ZZ (ZZ PGCs) was investigated in female germline chimeric chicken hosts with the aim to produce uniparental offspring. ZZ PGCs were expanded in culture and transplanted into the same and opposite sex chicken embryos which were partially sterilized using irradiation. All tested chimeric roosters (ZZ/ZZ) showed germline transmission with transmission rates of 3...
February 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332739/gdf9-affects-the-development-and-tight-junction-functions-of-immature-bovine-sertoli-cells
#3
K Tang, L Wang, Y Jin, W Yang, L Yang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily are critical regulators of germ cell development that act as extracellular ligands of the signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, apoptosis and other aspects of cell behaviour. As a member of the TGF-β superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and the ovulation rate in females; however, its role in the testis has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GDF9 and its receptor genes BMPRII and ALK5 in prepuberal bovine Sertoli cells (SCs)...
March 23, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329872/doxorubicin-has-dose-dependent-toxicity-on-mouse-ovarian-follicle-development-hormone-secretion-and-oocyte-maturation
#4
Shuo Xiao, Jiyang Zhang, Mingjun Liu, Hideyuki Iwahata, Hunter B Rogers, Teresa K Woodruff
Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most commonly used anticancer medications, has been reported to affect fertility by damaging ovarian follicles; however, the dose-dependent toxicity of DOX on the dynamic follicle development and oocyte maturation has not been well-defined. Our objective is to determine the effects of human-relevant exposure levels of DOX on follicular functions across developmental time. In vitro cultured multilayered secondary mouse follicles were treated with DOX at 0, 2, 20, 100, and 200 nM for 24 hours, and follicle development, hormone secretion, and oocyte maturation were analyzed...
March 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326217/a-rare-adrenal-mass-in-a-3-month-old-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Ashish Garg, Elza Pollak-Christian, Navneetha Unnikrishnan
A three-month-old female infant presented with abdominal distention for 2 months. A large palpable mass in right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large heterogeneous mass with multiple cystic components. Mass was surgically excised and pathology was consistent with mature adrenal teratoma. Teratoma is a germ cell tumor mainly found in gonadal tissues. Occurrence of adrenal gland teratoma in children is very rare with less than 10 pediatric case reports in English literature...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324259/protective-effect-of-nigella-sativa-seeds-against-spermatocyte-chromosomal-aberrations-and-genotoxicity-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-mice
#6
Ashraf M Abdel-Moneim, Amina E Essawy, Sherifa S Hamed, Ashgan A Abou-Gabal, Aglal A Alzergy
Nigella sativa is a well-known dietary antioxidant and a valuable inhibitor of clastogenesis and carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effects of N. sativa seeds against chromosomal aberrations in primary spermatocytes and early embryonic lethality induced by CCl4 hepatotoxin in Swiss albino mice. One hundred male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. Groups I, II, and III received only normal saline, olive oil, and aqueous suspension of N. sativa seeds (50 mg/kg b...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297824/-intracranial-mixed-germ-cell-tumor
#7
Y P Zhao, Y Q Zhang, H Y Duan, Y Ma, H Liang, Q H Zhang, C Q Xue, B Luo, X Pan
Objective: To study intracranial mixed germ cell tumor diagnosis and reasonable treatment strategy. Methods: Clinical data of 17 patients with intracranial mixed germ cell tumor in Tsinghua university Yuquan hospital from October 2012 to October 2016 were retrospective analysed, including the characteristics of the general, the serum tumor markers of AFP, β-HCG, and CEA, imaging findings, pathological results, treatment methods and prognosis. Results: There were 10 cases of male, 7 cases of female. The average age was (11...
March 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297563/spermatogenesis-associated-22-is-required-for-dna-repair-and-synapsis-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-mouse-germ-cells
#8
E Hays, N Majchrzak, V Daniel, Z Ferguson, S Brown, K Hathorne, S La Salle
Analysis of the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced repro42 mutation previously identified spermatogenesis associated 22 (Spata22) as a gene required for meiotic progression and fertility in both male and female mice, but its specific contribution to the process was unclear. Here, we report on a novel, null allele of Spata22 (Spata22(Gt) ) and confirm its requirement for germ cell development. Similar to repro42 mutant mice, histological and mating analyses indicate that gametogenesis is profoundly affected in Spata22(Gt/Gt) males and females, resulting in infertility...
March 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291774/brca2-secondary-mutation-mediated-resistance-to-platinum-and-parp-inhibitor-based-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Michael J Pishvaian, Andrew V Biankin, Peter Bailey, David K Chang, Daniel Laheru, Christopher L Wolfgang, Jonathan R Brody
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has become the third leading cause of cancer death with minimal improvements in outcome for over 40 years. Recent trials of therapies that target-defective DNA maintenance using poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are showing promising results, yet invariably patients recur and succumb to disease. Mechanisms of resistance to platinum-based and PARP inhibitor therapy in other cancer types include secondary mutations, which restore the integrity of DNA repair through an increasing number of different mechanisms...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289071/disorganization-of-the-germ-cell-pool-leads-to-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#10
Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura
The mammalian ovary is an organ that controls female germ cell development, storing them and releasing mature oocytes for transporting to the oviduct. During the fetal stage, female germ cells change from a proliferative state to meiosis before forming follicles with the potential for growth of surrounding somatic cells. Understanding of molecular and physiological bases of germ cell development in the fetal ovary contributed not only to the elucidation of genetic disorders in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), but also advancement of novel treatments for patients with POI...
March 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278532/genetics-of-reproductive-aging-from-gonadal-dysgenesis-through-menopause
#11
Swapna Desai, Aleksandar Rajkovic
Reproduction is essential for the survival of the species and is influenced by external factors such as smoking and exposure to chemotherapy as well as chronic disorders such as obesity and autoimmunity. Reproductive senescence, such as menopause, is also dependent on multiple intrinsic genetic factors. Reproductive aging is not isolated from an overall aging process, and several studies strongly support the link between the early age of menopause and mortality. The extreme form of reproductive aging is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) with prevalence ranging from 1 to 5% of the female population...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274610/retinoic-acid-signaling-is-dispensable-for-somatic-development-and-function-in-the-mammalian-ovary
#12
Anna Minkina, Robin E Lindeman, Micah D Gearhart, Anne-Amandine Chassot, Marie-Christine Chaboissier, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Vivian J Bardwell, David Zarkower
Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent inducer of cell differentiation and plays an essential role in sex-specific germ cell development in the mammalian gonad. RA is essential for male gametogenesis and hence fertility. However, RA can also disrupt sexual cell fate in somatic cells of the testis, promoting transdifferentiation of male Sertoli cells to female granulosa-like cells when the male sexual regulator Dmrt1 is absent. The feminizing ability of RA in the Dmrt1 mutant somatic testis suggests that RA might normally play a role in somatic cell differentiation or cell fate maintenance in the ovary...
March 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274002/mesenteric-teratoma-in-elderly-female-a-rare-case-report
#13
Chandrasekhar Sharanappa Neeralagi, K R Surag, Yogesh Kumar, S Lakkanna, Preetham Raj
Dermoid cysts rarely present as mesenteric cysts. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologic entities, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 of 27 000 to 1 of 100 000 admissions. Mesenteric cyst was first described by Florentine anatomist Benevieni in 1507, while performing an autopsy on an eight-year-old boy. Most commonly, teratoma occurs in the early age group. Mature mesenteric teratoma in adulthood is extremely rare. Teratoma are germ cell tumours commonly composed of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272670/primary-retroperitoneal-teratoma-with-predominant-neurogenic-elements-masquerading-as-adrenal-tumor
#14
Sonam Sharma, Leelavathi Dawson, Ashish Kumar Mandal
Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are uncommon extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors that are composed of well differentiated parenchymal tissues which are derived from more than one of the three embryonic germ cell layers. Here we report an unusual and first of its kind, a case of primary mature cystic retroperitoneal teratoma mimicking as adrenal tumor in a 7-month-old female in which the tumor was predominantly composed of neurogenic tissue histologically which is unlike the usual pattern seen in the teratomas...
February 4, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267976/plant-sex-determination
#15
REVIEW
John R Pannell
Sex determination is as important for the fitness of plants as it is for animals, but its mechanisms appear to vary much more among plants than among animals, and the expression of gender in plants differs in important respects from that in most animals. In this Minireview, I provide an overview of the broad variety of ways in which plants determine sex. I suggest that several important peculiarities of plant sex determination can be understood by recognising that: plants show an alternation of generations between sporophytic and gametophytic phases (either of which may take control of sex determination); plants are modular in structure and lack a germ line (allowing for a quantitative expression of gender that is not common in animals); and separate sexes in plants have ultimately evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247049/translational-control-of-germ-cell-decisions
#16
Kumari Pushpa, Ganga Anil Kumar, Kuppuswamy Subramaniam
Germline poses unique challenges to gene expression control at the transcriptional level. While the embryonic germline maintains a global hold on new mRNA transcription, the female adult germline produces transcripts that are not translated into proteins until embryogenesis of subsequent generation. As a consequence, translational control plays a central role in governing various germ cell decisions including the formation of primordial germ cells, self-renewal/differentiation decisions in the adult germline, onset of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247045/regulation-of-the-balance-between-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-germ-line-stem-cells
#17
Ramya Singh, Dave Hansen
In many animals, reproductive fitness is dependent upon the production of large numbers of gametes over an extended period of time. This level of gamete production is possible due to the continued presence of germ line stem cells. These cells can produce two types of daughter cells, self-renewing daughter cells that will maintain the stem cell population and differentiating daughter cells that will become gametes. A balance must be maintained between the proliferating self-renewing cells and those that differentiate for long-term gamete production to be maintained...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244827/deriving-cells-expressing-markers-of-female-germ-cells-from-premature-ovarian-failure-patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Yanfei Wen, Wen He, Manbo Jiang, Minhui Zeng, Liuhong Cai
AIM: We proposed a two-step protocol for deriving cells expressing markers of female germ cells (FGCs) from premature ovarian failure patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (POF-iPSCs). MATERIAL & METHODS: We cultured POF-iPSCs in suspension and pretreated them with TGFβ-1 (1 ng/ml) for 2 days and continued with both TGFβ-1 and BMP4 (50 ng/ml) for 5 more days. Then changed to media containing retinoic acid (1 μM) and 5% follicular fluid for another 7 days...
March 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243826/differentiation-of-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-into-functional-oocytes-in-vitro
#19
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Various complex molecular events in oogenesis cannot be observed in vivo. As a bioengineering technique for female reproductive tissues, in vitro culture systems for female germ cells have been used to analyze oogenesis and preserve germ cells for over 20 years. Recently, we have established a new methodological approach for the culture of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and successfully obtained offspring. Our PGC culture system will be useful to clarify unresolved mechanisms of fertility and sterility from the beginning of mammalian oogenesis, before meiosis...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235998/the-epigenetic-modifications-and-the-anterior-to-posterior-characterization-of-meiotic-entry-during-mouse-oogenesis
#20
Xia-Fei Fu, Fan Yang, Shun-Feng Cheng, Yan-Ni Feng, Lan Li, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Xiao-Feng Sun
The meiotic initiation of mammalian oogonia is a critical step during the development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to mature oocytes. In this study, a systematic investigation of epigenetic modifications and DAZL gene expression during oogonia meiotic entry were performed. We found that the expression of DAZL was epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of CpG islands within its promoter region. During meiotic entry, a continuously increasing level of 5hmC, a stable epigenetic marker usually associated with the activation of gene expression, was observed from 11...
February 24, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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