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Alessandro di Luca, Giuseppe Vetrugno, Vincenzo Lorenzo Pascali, Antonio Oliva, Al Ozonoff
OBJECTIVES: Italy is experiencing a crisis of malpractice litigation with important repercussions on the insurance industry (e.g., lower profits), physicians (e.g., defensive medicine), and the courts (e.g., work backlog, lengthy proceedings). We searched for common ground between legal systems in Italy and the United States and considered the implications for international collaborations in patient safety. METHODS: We examined the judicial frameworks of medical malpractice litigation in two countries with different legal foundations: the United States (a public-private system governed by common law) and Italy (a publicly financed healthcare system governed by civil law)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jakob Kleif, Lau C Thygesen, Ismail Gögenur
AIMS: Appendicitis is a common disease. The nationwide Danish National Patient Register provides an important data source for epidemiological research. Data used in register-based epidemiological research needs to be validated. We aimed to validate the diagnosis of appendicitis in the Danish National Patient Register. METHODS: From 1997 to 2015 nationwide data from the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish Pathology Register, and the Danish Civil Registration System were used to validate the diagnosis of appendicitis or the combination of the diagnosis for appendicitis and surgical removal of the appendix in the Danish National Patient Register...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ketan Shankardass, Carles Muntaner, Lauri Kokkinen, Faraz Vahid Shahidi, Alix Freiler, Goldameir Oneka, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Patricia O'Campo
BACKGROUND: There has been a renewed interest in broadening the research agenda in health promotion to include action on the structural determinants of health, including a focus on the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). Governments that use HiAP face the challenge of instituting governance structures and processes to facilitate policy coordination in an evidence-informed manner. Due to the complexity of government institutions and the policy process, systems theory has been proposed as a tool for evaluating the implementation of HiAP...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Joaquín Cabezas, Trinidad Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio Gómez-Galán, Héctor Cifuentes, Ramón González Carvajal
This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Nancy D Campbell
Using the ethical and legal concept of shared responsibility for healthy births, this article considers social, cultural, and historical contexts in which medicalization and criminalization have worked in tandem to widen surveillance in ways that intensify scrutiny of women's lives under the guise of child protection, bringing women who are pregnant, postpartum, or parenting under criminal justice control. Although pregnant and postpartum women are prime candidates for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the expanding carceral system has not prioritized drug treatment or reproductive justice...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Mikkel Brabrand, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen
IMPORTANCE: The CURB-65 score is widely implemented as a prediction tool for identifying patients with community-acquired pneumonia (cap) at increased risk of 30-day mortality. However, since most ingredients of CURB-65 are used as general prediction tools, it is likely that other prediction tools, e.g. the British National Early Warning Score (NEWS), could be as good as CURB-65 at predicting the fate of CAP patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NEWS is better than CURB-65 at predicting 30-day mortality of CAP patients...
March 14, 2018: Lung
Paolo Morandi, Sanja Hak, Guido Magenes
This article contains information related to a recent study "Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills" (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]). Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Karishma Lal, Akash Khetpal, Muhammad Saad Ali Mallick, Ansab Godil, Arsalan Majeed Adam, Zahid Ali Memon
We report an unusual case of an 18-year old woman, who presented to Civil Hospital Karachi in May 2016 with complaints of vomiting, abdominal pain, dysphagia, altered bowel habits, loss of appetite and chronic weight loss. On examination, abdomen was found to be soft and non-tender with discomfort on breathing. CT angiogram revealed reduction of aortomesenteric angle and aortomesenteric distance which were both consistent with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Reduction in angle was thought to be because of weight loss and adipose tissue depletion so patient was started on enteral and parenteral nutritional supplements...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sajida Qureshi, Shahriyar Ghazanfar, Mohammad Saeed Quraishy, Roshane Rana
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rates in patients with stented versus non-stented pancreatico-jejunostomies. METHODS: The randomised comparative clinical trial was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, from September 2009 to August 2015, and comprised patients presenting to the Surgical Unit 4 with a diagnosis of resectable periampullary carcinoma, carcinoma of head of pancreas, duodenal carcinoma involving the second part, and distal cholangiocarcinomas...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Radoslaw Panczak, Viktor von Wyl, Oliver Reich, Xhyljeta Luta, Maud Maessen, Andreas E Stuck, Claudia Berlin, Kurt Schmidlin, David C Goodman, Matthias Egger, Kerri Clough-Gorr, Marcel Zwahlen
BACKGROUND: Lack of health insurance claims (HIC) in the last year of life might indicate suboptimal end-of-life care, but reasons for no HIC are not fully understood because information on causes of death is often missing. We investigated association of no HIC with characteristics of individuals and their place of residence. METHODS: We analysed HIC of persons who died between 2008 and 2010, which were obtained from six providers of mandatory Swiss health insurance...
March 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
Michael D Kappelman, Aksel Lange, Rachel L Randell, Patricia V Basta, Robert S Sandler, Kristina Laugesen, Anna Byrjalsen, Tina Christensen, Trine Frøslev, Rune Erichsen
Background: Epidemiologic studies combining exposure and outcome data with the collection of biosamples are needed to study gene-environment interactions that might contribute to the etiology of complex diseases such as pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Nationwide registries, including those in Denmark and other Scandinavian countries, provide efficient and reliable sources of data for epidemiological studies evaluating the environmental determinants of disease. We performed a pilot study to test the feasibility of collecting salivary DNA to augment registry data in established cases of pediatric CD and randomly selected, population-based controls...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Jeong-Ki Kim, Arghavan Louhghalam, Geonhui Lee, Benjamin W Schafer, Denis Wirtz, Dong-Hwee Kim
In the original version of this Article, the affiliation details for Arghavan Louhghalam were incorrectly given as 'Institute for NanoBioTechnology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA', and it should have been given as 'Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA'. Furthermore, an incorrect grant number, R1610512, was acknowledged. The correct grant number is NRF-2016R1C1B2015018. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Jakob Manthey, Charlotte Probst, Margaret Rylett, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVES: (1) A comprehensive mortality assessment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) and (2) examination of under-reporting using vital statistics data. METHODS: A modelling study estimated sex-specific mortality rates for each country, which were subsequently aggregated by region and globally. Input data on ACM mortality were obtained from death registries for n=91 countries. For n=99 countries, mortality estimates were predicted using aggregate alcohol data from WHO publications...
March 13, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Karina Araujo Pinto, Rosane Harter Griep, Lucia Rotenberg, Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Rosane Sousa Barreto, Estela M L Aquino
Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable...
2018: PloS One
M Brouri, N Ouadahi, D Nibouche, Y Benabbas, M El Hassar, S Bouraoui, N Abad, P C Abreu, L Ikardouchene
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed at determining the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF; including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking), among patients from the Algerian sub-population of the "Africa/Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological" study attending general practitioners at primary healthcare facilities, and stratified according to their environment (rural/urban), sex and age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sites, located in 10 wilayas (administrative regions), were situated in urban and rural areas (rural populations defined as living at least 50km away from urban centres, or lacking access to suburban transport)...
March 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Lars Benjaminsen, Jesper Fels Birkelund
AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Phillip Baker, Corinna Hawkes, Kate Wingrove, Alessandro Rhyl Demaio, Justin Parkhurst, Anne Marie Thow, Helen Walls
Introduction: Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. Method: We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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