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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188775.].
2018: PloS One
Caitlin Black, Colin Southwell, Louise Emmerson, Daniel Lunn, Tom Hart
Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period...
2018: PloS One
Qing Liu, Yu-Hua Xin, Xiu-Ling Chen, Hong-Can Liu, Yu-Guang Zhou, Wen-Xin Chen
A Gram-stain-positive strain designated MDB1-42T was isolated from ice collected from Midui glacier in Tibet, PR China. Strain MDB1-42T was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and grew optimally at 25-28 °C and pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that MDB1-42T represented a member of the genus Arthrobacter. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.86 %) was found with Arthrobacter agilis NBRC 15319T . Multilocus sequence analysis revealed low similarity of 91...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Indrani Roy
This study investigates the role of the eleven-year solar cycle on the Arctic climate during 1979-2016. It reveals that during those years, when the winter solar sunspot number (SSN) falls below 1.35 standard deviations (or mean value), the Arctic warming extends from the lower troposphere to high up in the upper stratosphere and vice versa when SSN is above. The warming in the atmospheric column reflects an easterly zonal wind anomaly consistent with warm air and positive geopotential height anomalies for years with minimum SSN and vice versa for the maximum...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katrina Elizabeth Champion, Cath Chapman, Nicola Clare Newton, Mary-Ellen Brierley, Lexine Stapinski, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Jack Nagle, Maree Teesson
BACKGROUND: The use of crystal methamphetamine (ice) and the associated harms for individuals, families, and communities across Australia has been the subject of growing concern in recent years. The provision of easily accessible, evidence-based, and up-to-date information and resources about crystal methamphetamine for the community is a critical component of an effective public health response. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe the codevelopment process of the Web-based Cracks in the Ice Community Toolkit, which was developed to improve access to evidence-based information and resources about crystal methamphetamine for the Australian community...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Indrani Godakanda, Chrishantha Abeysena, Ayesha Lokubalasooriya
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of sedentary behavior during leisure time, physical activity and dietary habits on overweight among school children aged 14-15 years in Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. RESULTS: School based case-control study was conducted during September to November 2013 including 176 overweight children as cases and 704 children with normal weight as controls. Cases were defined as body mass index for age and sex of ≥ +1SD and controls as those in the range of -2SD to +1SD...
March 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Chih-Yuan Wang, Yi-Chan Chen, Ti-Hsuan Chien, Hao-Yu Chang, Yu-Hsien Chen, Chih-Ying Chien, Ting-Shuo Huang
Here we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospital-based trauma registry database for evaluating the impacts of comorbidities on the prognosis for traumatized patients using Index of Coexistent Comorbidity Disease (ICED) scores. We analyzed the data of patients with blunt trauma who visited emergency department between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015 in Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung branch, a single level I trauma center in the Northern Taiwan. All consecutive patients with blunt trauma who admitted to the intensive care unit or ordinary ward after initial managements in the emergency department were included...
2018: PloS One
Sophie A Morley, Susan T Riley, Jose-Maria Porro, Mark C Rosamond, Edmund H Linfield, John E Cunningham, Sean Langridge, Christopher H Marrows
Artificial spin ices (ASI) are arrays of single domain nano-magnetic islands, arranged in geometries that give rise to frustrated magnetostatic interactions. It is possible to reach their ground state via thermal annealing. We have made square ASI using different FePd alloys to vary the magnetization via co-sputtering. From a polarized state the samples were incrementally heated and we measured the vertex population as a function of temperature using magnetic force microscopy. For the higher magnetization FePd sample, we report an onset of dynamics at T = 493 K, with a rapid collapse into >90% ground state vertices...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jian Zhao, Amy Bower, Jiayan Yang, Xiaopei Lin
The ocean's role in global climate change largely depends on its heat transport. Therefore, understanding the oceanic meridional heat transport (MHT) variability is a fundamental issue. Prevailing observational and modeling evidence suggests that MHT variability is primarily determined by the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, using new in situ observations in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic Ocean and an eddy-resolving numerical model, we show that energetic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of about 10-100 km profoundly modulate MHT variability on time scales from intra-seasonal to interannual...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Karthika Suresh, Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Ramya Chulliyil, Ketan Dinkar Sarode, V Ravi Kumar, Arindam Chowdhury, Guruswamy Kumaraswamy
We use single particle tracking to investigate colloidal dynamics in hybrid assemblies comprising colloids enmeshed in a crosslinked polymer network. These assemblies are prepared using ice templating and are macroporous monolithic structures. We investigate microstructure-property relations in assemblies that appear chemically identical, but show qualitatively different mechanical response. Specifically, we contrast elastic assemblies that can recover from large compressive deformations with plastic assemblies that fail on being compressed...
March 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jill Alexander, Jim Richards, Obed Attah, Sam Cheema, Joanna Snook, Chloe Wisdell, Karen May, James Selfe
Delayed effects of a 20-min crushed ice application on knee joint position sense assessed by a functional task during a re-warming period. INTRODUCTION: The effect of cryotherapy on joint positioning presents conflicting debates as to whether individuals are at an increased risk of injury when returning to play following cryotherapy application at the lower limb. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 20 min application of crushed ice at the knee affects knee joint kinematics immediately post and up to 20 mins post ice removal, during a small knee bend...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Nancy L Chabot, Evangela E Shread, John K Harmon
There is strong evidence that Mercury's polar deposits are water ice hosted in permanently shadowed regions. In this study, we present new Arecibo radar observations of Mercury's south pole, which reveal numerous radar-bright deposits and substantially increase the radar imaging coverage. We also use images from MESSENGER's full mission to determine the illumination conditions of Mercury's south polar region at the same spatial resolution as the north polar region, enabling comparisons between the two poles...
February 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Fengchen Chen, Xin Su, Qing Ye, Jianfeng Fu
A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Martin Cheung, Hidehito Adaniya, Cathal Cassidy, Masao Yamashita, Kun-Lung Li, Seita Taba, Tsumoru Shintake
For many macromolecular complexes, the inability to uniformly disperse solubilized specimen particles within vitreous ice films precludes their analysis by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we introduce a sample preparation process using "perpetually-hydrated" graphene oxide flakes as particle support films, and report vastly improved specimen dispersion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the presence of graphene oxide flakes in vitreous ice results in a significant reduction in electron beam-induced specimen decomposition...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Marcello Mezzasalma, Mirko Di Febbraro, Fabio Maria Guarino, Gaetano Odierna, Danilo Russo
In this work, we performed a biogeographic analysis with Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) and species distribution models (SDM) on three phylogenetically closely related Mediterranean whipsnakes (Hierophis gemonensis, H. carbonarius, H. viridiflavus), to investigate the pathways of their geographical diversification and locate putative refugial areas in the last glacial maximum (LGM). Our analysis suggests that the diversification processes between the studied species overall followed an east-west route, from eastern Greece to the Iberian Peninsula and continental France, highlighting a significant role of dispersal and vicariance processes at both inter- and intraspecific levels...
February 1, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Markus Majaneva, Ola H Diserud, Shannon H C Eagle, Erik Boström, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Torbjørn Ekrem
Freshwater metazoan biodiversity assessment using environmental DNA (eDNA) captured on filters offers new opportunities for water quality management. Filtering of water in the field is a logistical advantage compared to transport of water to the nearest lab, and thus, appropriate filter preservation becomes crucial for maximum DNA recovery. Here, the effect of four different filter preservation strategies, two filter types, and pre-filtration were evaluated by measuring metazoan diversity and community composition, using eDNA collected from a river and a lake ecosystem...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fan Yang, Owen Cruikshank, Weilue He, Alex Kostinski, Raymond A Shaw
Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Hossein Sojoudi, Hadi Arabnejad, Asif Raiyan, Siamack A Shirazi, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Ice formation and accumulation on surfaces can result in severe problems for solar photovoltaic installations, offshore oil platforms, wind turbines and aircrafts. In addition, blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases has safety and economical concerns in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Practical adoption of icephobic/hydrate-phobic surfaces requires mechanical robustness and stability under harsh environments...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Jonathan Gravel, Constance LeBlanc, Catherine Varner
Priapism is characterized by persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual arousal or desire that does not subside with orgasm. Although relatively uncommon, it is a genitourinary emergency that necessities prompt work-up and appropriate management, as there is a time-dependent relationship between total duration of erection and an increasing risk of permanent erectile dysfunction. Confirming the type of priapism is key to proper management, but the majority of cases presenting to the emergency department are ischemic in nature...
March 16, 2018: CJEM
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