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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345716/spontaneous-nacl-doped-ice-at-seawater-conditions-focus-on-the-mechanisms-of-ion-inclusion
#1
M M Conde, M Rovere, P Gallo
Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time scale have been performed on an aqueous solution of TIP4P/2005 water and NaCl by using the direct coexistence technique to study the ice growth and the ice/liquid interface water. At ambient pressure, for temperatures above the eutectic point of the salt and at seawater concentrations the brine rejection phenomenon and the spontaneous growth of an ice slab doped by the salt are obtained, as found in natural terrestrial and planetary environments. Experiments indicate that Cl(-) goes via substitution to ice sites...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345580/differential-roles-of-caspase-1-and-caspase-11-in-infection-and-inflammation
#2
Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, Benoit Briard, Amanda Burton, Sebastien Gingras, Stephane Pelletier, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Caspase-1, also known as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-converting enzyme (ICE), regulates antimicrobial host defense, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, metabolism and membrane biogenesis. On activation within an inflammasome complex, caspase-1 induces pyroptosis and converts pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into their biologically active forms. "ICE(-/-)" or "Casp1(-/-)" mice generated using 129 embryonic stem cells carry a 129-associated inactivating passenger mutation on the caspase-11 locus, essentially making them deficient in both caspase-1 and caspase-11...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345129/the-effect-of-microwave-on-the-interaction-of-flavor-compounds-with-g-actin-from-grass-carp-catenopharyngodon-idella
#3
Xiaowei Lou, Qiuli Yang, Yangying Sun, Daodong Pan, Jinxuan Cao
BACKGROUND: In order to investigate the influence of non-thermal effects of microwaves on the flavor of fish and meat products, the G-actin of grass carp in ice baths was exposed to different microwave powers (0, 100, 300 or 500 W); the surface hydrophobicity, sulphydryl contents, secondary structures and adsorption capacity of G-actin to ketones were determined. RESULTS: As microwave power increased from 0 to 300 W, the surface hydrophobicity, total and reactive sulphydryls increased; α-helix, β-sheet and random coil fractions turned into β-turn fractions...
March 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345056/arctic-sea-ice-eurasia-snow-and-extreme-winter-haze-in-china
#4
Yufei Zou, Yuhang Wang, Yuzhong Zhang, Ja-Ho Koo
The East China Plains (ECP) region experienced the worst haze pollution on record for January in 2013. We show that the unprecedented haze event is due to the extremely poor ventilation conditions, which had not been seen in the preceding three decades. Statistical analysis suggests that the extremely poor ventilation conditions are linked to Arctic sea ice loss in the preceding autumn and extensive boreal snowfall in the earlier winter. We identify the regional circulation mode that leads to extremely poor ventilation over the ECP region...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345038/ultra-robust-high-field-magnetization-plateau-and-supersolidity-in-bond-frustrated-mncr2s4
#5
Vladimir Tsurkan, Sergei Zherlitsyn, Lilian Prodan, Viorel Felea, Pham Thanh Cong, Yurii Skourski, Zhe Wang, Joachim Deisenhofer, Hans-Albrecht Krug von Nidda, Joahim Wosnitza, Alois Loidl
Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344741/comparison-of-whole-body-cooling-techniques-for-athletes-and-military-personnel
#6
Emma A Nye, Lindsey E Eberman, Kenneth E Games, Colin Carriker
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cooling rates of The Polar Life Pod(®), a military protocol and cold water immersion. A randomized, repeated measures design was used to compare three treatment options. Participants exercised in an environmental chamber, where they followed a military march protocol on a treadmill, followed by the application of one of three treatments: Cold water immersion tub (5 - 10 °C), Polar Life Pod® (5 - 10 °C), Ice sheets at onset (5 - 10 °C). Mean cooling rate for CWI was 0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344426/competitive-sports-participation-in-high-school-and-subsequent-substance-use-in-young-adulthood-assessing-differences-based-on-level-of-contact
#7
Philip Veliz, John Schulenberg, Megan Patrick, Deb Kloska, Sean Esteban McCabe, Nicole Zarrett
The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12(th) graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12(th) graders from six recent cohorts (2006-2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12(th) grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2...
March 2017: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343572/effect-of-the-timing-of-ice-slurry-ingestion-for-precooling-on-endurance-exercise-capacity-in-a-warm-environment
#8
Keisuke Takeshima, Sumire Onitsuka, Zheng Xinyan, Hiroshi Hasegawa
It has been demonstrated that precooling with ice slurry ingestion enhances endurance exercise capacity in the heat. However, no studies have yet evaluated the optimal timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. Ten active male participants completed 3 experimental cycling trials to exhaustion at 55% peak power output (PPO) after 15min of warm-up at 30% PPO at 30°C and 80% relative humidity...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342994/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-the-atmosphere-of-coastal-areas-of-the-ross-sea-antarctica-indications-for-long-term-downward-trends
#9
Karla Pozo, Tania Martellini, Simonetta Corsolini, Tom Harner, Victor Estellano, Petr Kukučka, Marie D Mulder, Gerhard Lammel, Alessandra Cincinelli
Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m(-3). In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340482/the-effect-of-interprofessional-team-based-learning-among-nursing-students-a-quasi-experimental-study
#10
Arkers Kwan Ching Wong, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Lap Ki Chan, Namkiu Chan, Fraide A Ganotice, Jacqueline Ho
BACKGROUND: Although interprofessional education has received attention in recent years as a means of providing opportunities for health-care professionals to learn with, from and about other disciplines and enhance the quality of patient care, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. Interprofessional team-based learning was introduced to make it possible for students in different healthcare disciplines to interact with each other, and to prepare them to function effectively within a team in their future career...
March 9, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340334/advances-in-phase-plate-cryo-em-imaging-of-dna-and-nucleosomes
#11
Eugene Y D Chua, Sara Sandin
Contrast in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is limited by the weak phase and radiation sensitive nature of biologic samples embedded in vitrified ice. We have recently shown that a new contrast enhancement technique utilizing the Volta phase plate can be combined with single particle analysis to determine the structure of a small chromatin complex, the nucleosome core particle, at near-atomic resolution. Here, we discuss advantages and limitations of the technique in terms of data collection, particle detection, and visualization of individual DNA molecules and higher-order chromatin structure...
February 7, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340160/safety-of-fluoroscopy-guided-transseptal-approach-for-ablation-of-left-sided-arrhythmias
#12
Zviad Matoshvili, Hamid Bastani, Tara Bourke, Frieder Braunschweig, Nikola Drca, Kristjan Gudmundsson, Per Insulander, Anette Jemtrén, Göran Kennebäck, Ott Saluveer, Jonas Schwieler, Jari Tapanainen, Christer Wredlert, Mats Jensen-Urstad
Aims: The transseptal approach is used for left atrial access during the ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and other left-sided arrhythmia substrates. Transseptal puncture (TP) is commonly performed with fluoroscopic guidance, contrast injection, and pressure monitoring. In many centres, additional techniques [intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), radiofrequency needle] are used to facilitate TP but its use adds costs. In this retrospective study, we studied the safety and complication rate when TP was routinely done with fluoroscopic guidance, contrast injection, and pressure monitoring using ICE or TEE only in selected cases...
March 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339241/disordered-route-to-the-coulomb-quantum-spin-liquid-random-transverse-fields-on-spin-ice-in-pr_-2-zr_-2-o_-7
#13
J-J Wen, S M Koohpayeh, K A Ross, B A Trump, T M McQueen, K Kimura, S Nakatsuji, Y Qiu, D M Pajerowski, J R D Copley, C L Broholm
Inelastic neutron scattering reveals a broad continuum of excitations in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of which indicate a continuous distribution of quenched transverse fields (Δ) acting on the non-Kramers Pr^{3+} crystal field ground state doublets. Spin-ice correlations are apparent within 0.2 meV of the Zeeman energy. A random phase approximation provides an excellent account of the data with a transverse field distribution ρ(Δ)∝(Δ^{2}+Γ^{2})^{-1}, where Γ=0.27(1)  meV...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339218/quantifying-fusion-born-ion-populations-in-magnetically-confined-plasmas-using-ion-cyclotron-emission
#14
L Carbajal, R O Dendy, S C Chapman, J W S Cook
Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) offers a unique promise as a diagnostic of the fusion born alpha-particle population in magnetically confined plasmas. Pioneering observations from JET and TFTR found that ICE intensity P_{ICE} scales approximately linearly with the measured neutron flux from fusion reactions, and with the inferred concentration, n_{α}/n_{i}, of fusion born alpha particles confined within the plasma. We present fully nonlinear self-consistent kinetic simulations that reproduce this scaling for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338321/thiol-reactive-star-polymers-display-enhanced-association-with-distinct-human-blood-components
#15
Joshua Julian Glass, Yang Li, Robert De Rose, Angus P R Johnston, Ewa I Czuba, Song Yang Khor, John F Quinn, Michael R Whittaker, Thomas P Davis, Stephen J Kent
Directing nanoparticles to specific cell types using non-antibody based methods is of increasing interest. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles can enhance the efficiency of cargo delivery into specific cells through interactions with cell surface proteins. However, studies to date using this technique have been largely limited to immortalized cell lines or rodents and the utility of this technology on primary human cells is unknown. Herein, we used RAFT polymerization to prepare pyridyl disulphide (PDS)-functionalized star polymers with a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) brush corona and a fluorescently-labelled crosslinked core using an arm-first method...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337991/contrasting-influences-of-aerosols-on-cloud-properties-during-deficient-and-abundant-monsoon-years
#16
Nitin Patil, Prashant Dave, Chandra Venkataraman
Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337177/diversity-and-abundance-of-ice-nucleating-strains-of-pseudomonas-syringae-in-a-freshwater-lake-in-virginia-usa
#17
Renée B Pietsch, Boris A Vinatzer, David G Schmale
The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is found in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some strains of P. syringae express an ice nucleation protein (hereafter referred to as Ice+) allowing them to catalyze the heterogeneous freezing of water. Though P. syringae has been sampled intensively from freshwater sources in France, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. syringae in natural aquatic habitats in North America. We collected samples of freshwater from three different depths in Claytor Lake, Virginia, USA between November 2015 and June 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335360/super-hydrophobic-icephobic-coatings-based-on-silica-nanoparticles-modified-by-self-assembled-monolayers
#18
Junpeng Liu, Zaid A Janjua, Martin Roe, Fang Xu, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi, Xianghui Hou
A super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained from nanocomposite materials based on silica nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) using spin coating and chemical vapor deposition methods. Scanning electron microscope images reveal the porous structure of the silica nanoparticles, which can trap small-scale air pockets. An average water contact angle of 163° and bouncing off of incoming water droplets suggest that a super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained based on the silica nanoparticles and POTS coating...
December 2, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335265/green-synthesis-of-hierarchically-structured-silver-polymer-nanocomposites-with-antibacterial-activity
#19
María Jesús Hortigüela, Luis Yuste, Fernando Rojo, Inmaculada Aranaz
The in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aided by chondroitin sulfate and the preparation of a hierarchically structured silver-polymer nanocomposite with antimicrobial activity is shown. Green synthesis of AgNPs is carried out by thermal treatment (80 and 90 °C) or UV irradiation of a chondroitin sulfate solution containing AgNO₃ without using any further reducing agents or stabilizers. Best control of the AgNPs size and polydispersity was achieved by UV irradiation. The ice-segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process, in which the polymer solution containing the AgNPs is frozen unidirectionally, and successively freeze-drying were employed to produce the chondroitin sulfate 3D scaffolds...
July 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334553/a-multi-matrix-hilic-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitation-of-endogenous-small-molecule-neurological-biomarker-n-acetyl-aspartic-acid-naa
#20
Dewakar Sangaraju, Sheerin K Shahidi-Latham, Braydon L Burgess, Brian Dean, Xiao Ding
A multi-matrix hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitation of N-Acetyl Aspartic acid (NAA) using stable isotope labeled internal standard, D3-NAA in various biological matrices such as human plasma, human CSF, mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord. A high throughput 96-well plate format supported liquid extraction (SLE) procedure was developed and used for sample preparation. Mass spectrometric analysis of NAA was performed using selected reaction monitoring transitions in positive electrospray ionization mode...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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