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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691250/long-term-neuroprotective-effect-of-erythropoietin-on-executive-functions-in-very-preterm-children-epokids-protocol-of-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#1
Flavia Maria Wehrle, Ulrike Held, Ruth Tuura O'Gorman, Vera Disselhoff, Barbara Schnider, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Petra Hüppi, Beatrice Latal, Cornelia Franziska Hagmann
INTRODUCTION: Premature infants are particularly vulnerable to brain injuries with associated cognitive and behavioural deficits. The worldwide first randomised interventional multicentre trial investigating the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (entitled 'Does erythropoietin improve outcome in very preterm infants?' (NCT00413946)) included 450 very preterm infants in Switzerland. MRI at term equivalent age showed less white matter (WM) injury in the erythropoietin group compared with the placebo group...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#2
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661560/observational-prospective-natural-history-of-patients-with-sanfilippo-syndrome-type-b
#3
Chester B Whitley, Maureen Cleary, Karl Eugen Mengel, Paul Harmatz, Elsa Shapiro, Igor Nestrasil, Patrick Haslett, David Whiteman, David Alexanderian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the natural course of disease progression in patients with Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB), identify potential end points for future therapy trials, and characterize biomarkers related to the disease. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter study was conducted. Baseline, 6-month, and 12-month assessments included neurodevelopmental status (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third edition), adaptive status (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition), volumetric brain magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid heparan sulfate, and urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) measurements...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621826/cognitive-functions-of-the-fetus
#4
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618994/toward-a-neuroscientific-understanding-of-play-a-dimensional-coding-framework-for-analyzing-infant-adult-play-patterns
#5
Dave Neale, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira Georgieva, Hatice Dedetas, Melissa Scarpate, Sam Wass, Victoria Leong
Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610829/association-of-histologic-chorioamnionitis-with-perinatal-brain-injury-and-early-childhood-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-preterm-neonates
#6
Daniel Bierstone, Nienke Wagenaar, Dawn L Gano, Ting Guo, Gregory Georgio, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Jojy Varghese, Hannah C Glass, Catherine Chung, Jefferson Terry, Maarten Rijpert, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Manon Benders, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller
Importance: Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. Objective: To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606185/developing-a-neurobehavioral-animal-model-of-poverty-drawing-cross-species-connections-between-environments-of-scarcity-adversity-parenting-quality-and-infant-outcome
#7
Rosemarie E Perry, Eric D Finegood, Stephen H Braren, Meriah L Dejoseph, David F Putrino, Donald A Wilson, Regina M Sullivan, C Cybele Raver, Clancy Blair
Children reared in impoverished environments are at risk for enduring psychological and physical health problems. Mechanisms by which poverty affects development, however, remain unclear. To explore one potential mechanism of poverty's impact on social-emotional and cognitive development, an experimental examination of a rodent model of scarcity-adversity was conducted and compared to results from a longitudinal study of human infants and families followed from birth (N = 1,292) who faced high levels of poverty-related scarcity-adversity...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606022/associations-between-neural-injury-markers-of-intrauterine-growth-restricted-infants-and-neurodevelopment-at-2-years-of-age
#8
E Mazarico, E Llurba, L Cabero, O Sánchez, A Valls, A Martin-Ancel, D Cardenas, M D Gómez Roig
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between brain injury biomarkers in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants (S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)) and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. METHODS: This prospective case-control study was a cooperative effort among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals. At inclusion, biometry for estimated fetal weight and feto-placental Doppler variables were measured for each infant...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593053/functional-organization-of-the-temporal-parietal-junction-for-theory-of-mind-in-preverbal-infants-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#9
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Fransisca Ting, Julia Nikolaeva
Successful human social life requires imagining what others believe or think to understand and predict behavior. This ability, often referred to as theory of mind, reliably engages a specialized network of temporal and prefrontal brain regions in older children and adults, including selective recruitment of temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). To date, how and when this specialized brain organization for ToM arises is unknown due to limitations in functional neuroimaging at younger ages. Here we employed the emerging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the functional brain response across the parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions in 7-month old male and female infants as they viewed different video scenarios of a person searching for a hidden object...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579560/term-equivalent-functional-brain-maturational-measures-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-premature-infants
#10
Nathalie M El Ters, Zachary A Vesoulis, Steve M Liao, Christopher D Smyser, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Term equivalent age (TEA) brain MRI identifies preterm infants at risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. But some infants may experience neurodevelopmental impairments even in the absence of neuroimaging abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of TEA amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) measures with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24-36 months corrected age. METHODS: We performed aEEG recordings and brain MRI at TEA (mean post-menstrual age of 39 (±2) weeks in a cohort of 60 preterm infants born at a mean gestational age of 26 (±2) weeks...
April 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572821/perioperative-neonatal-brain-injury-is-associated-with-worse-school-age-neurodevelopment-in-children-with-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Nathalie H P Claessens, Selma O Algra, Tom L Ouwehand, Nicolaas J G Jansen, Renske Schappin, Felix Haas, Maria J C Eijsermans, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders
AIM: To assess the impact of perioperative neonatal brain injury and brain volumes on neurodevelopment throughout school-age children with critical congenital heart disease (CHD). METHOD: Thirty-four survivors of neonatal cardiac surgery (seven females, 27 males) were included. Neonatal preoperative and postoperative cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed and neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months (SD 0.7, n=32, using Bayley Score of Infant and Toddler Development, Child Behavior Checklist) and 6 years (mean age 5y 11mo; SD 0...
March 24, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568326/determinants-of-early-child-development-in-rural-tanzania
#12
Ingeborg G Ribe, Erling Svensen, Britt A Lyngmo, Estomih Mduma, Sven G Hinderaker
Background: It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541043/the-development-of-attentional-biases-for-faces-in-infancy-a-developmental-systems-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527487/hypersynchrony-in-meg-spectral-amplitude-in-prospectively-identified-6-month-old-infants-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#14
Julia M Stephen, Lucinda Flynn, Danielle Kabella, Megan Schendel, Sandra Cano, Daniel D Savage, William Rayburn, Lawrence M Leeman, Jean Lowe, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Early identification of children who experience developmental delays due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge for individuals who do not exhibit facial dysmorphia. It is well-established that children with PAE may still exhibit the cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and individuals without facial dysmorphia make up the majority of individuals affected by PAE. This study employed a prospective cohort design to capture alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy and then followed the infants to 6 months of age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527341/does-antenatal-micronutrient-supplementation-improve-children-s-cognitive-function-evidence-from-the-follow-up-of-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-in-nepal
#15
Sophiya Dulal, Frédérique Liégeois, David Osrin, Adam Kuczynski, Dharma S Manandhar, Bhim P Shrestha, Aman Sen, Naomi Saville, Delan Devakumar, Audrey Prost
Introduction: Multiple Micronutrient (MMN) supplementation during pregnancy can decrease the proportion of infants born low birth weight and small for gestational age. Supplementation could also enhance children's cognitive function by improving access to key nutrients during fetal brain development and increasing birth weight, especially in areas where undernutrition is common. We tested the hypothesis that children whose mothers received MMN supplementation during pregnancy would have higher intelligence in early adolescence compared with those receiving Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) only...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506060/social-motor-and-cognitive-development-through-the-lens-of-sleep-network-dynamics-in-infants-and-toddlers-between-12-and-30-months-of-age
#16
Jessica Page, Caroline Lustenberger, Flavio Fr Hlich
Widespread change in behavior and the underlying brain network substrate is a hallmark of early development. Sleep plays a fundamental role in this process. Both slow waves and spindles are key features of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) that exhibit pronounced developmental trajectories from infancy to adulthood. Yet, these prominent features of NREM sleep are poorly understood in infants and toddlers in the age range of 12 to 30 months. Moreover, it is unknown how network dynamics of NREM sleep are associated with outcomes of early development...
February 2, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504433/therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-and-neurological-outcomes-in-a-brazilian-cohort
#17
Renato S Procianoy, Andrea Lucia A Corso, Maria Gabriela Longo, Leonardo Vedolin, Rita C Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To determine the neurodevelopment outcomes after Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and identify the neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings associated with neurological outcome in a middle-income country. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born after 35 completed weeks' gestation with signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and evidence of perinatal asphyxia before 6 hours of life were submitted to whole-body hypothermia and were imaged at 18 ± 8...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500152/cognitive-and-neuroimaging-features-and-brain-%C3%AE-amyloidosis-in-individuals-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-insight-pread-a-longitudinal-observational-study
#18
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494508/iodine-as-essential-nutrient-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#19
REVIEW
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487127/maternal-immune-activation-during-the-third-trimester-is-associated-with-neonatal-functional-connectivity-of-the-salience-network-and-fetal-to-toddler-behavior
#20
Marisa N Spann, Catherine Monk, Dustin Scheinost, Bradley S Peterson
Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is associated with altered brain development and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring. Translational human studies of MIA are few in number. Alterations of the salience network have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the same psychiatric disorders associated with MIA. If MIA is pathogenic, then associated abnormalities in the salience network should be detectable in neonates immediately after birth. We tested the hypothesis that third trimester MIA of adolescent women who are at risk for high stress and inflammation is associated with the strength of functional connectivity in the salience network of their neonate...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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