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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#1
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605484/infants-born-preterm-demonstrate-impaired-exploration-of-their-bodies-and-surfaces-throughout-the-first-two-years-of-life
#2
Iryna Babik, James Cole Galloway, Michele A Lobo
Background.: Non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors infants perform with their bodies and surfaces have been proposed to be key precursors of infants' object exploration, early learning, and future cognitive development. Little is known about the developmental trajectories of these behaviors, especially for infants born preterm. Objective.: The purpose of the study was to longitudinally compare non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors performed by full-term and preterm infants...
June 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604578/long-term-outcomes-of-cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#3
Haruo Yoshida, Haruo Takahashi, Yukihiko Kanda, Kyoko Kitaoka, Minoru Hara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the developmental delay often observed in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on the improvement of language understanding after cochlear implantation (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS: Sixteen children with severe and/or profound hearing loss due to congenital CMV infection (CMV group) and 107 congenitally deaf children (168 ears) without CMV infection as the cause of deafness (non-CMV group)...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603509/emerging-trends-in-the-multimodal-nature-of-cognition-touch-and-handedness
#4
REVIEW
Miriam Ittyerah
Advances in tactile cognition and haptics have increased our understanding of the multimodal nature of touch. Haptic data is mostly confined to human performance arising from the flexibility and dexterity of the fingers used to discriminate shapes and objects. Studies with infants indicate that recognition of objects either seen or held in the hand is possible during early periods of infancy. Evidence indicates performance differences between the hands decrease over periods of development, reflecting maturation of the cortical brain system supporting motor skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602489/prenatal-naled-and-chlorpyrifos-exposure-is-associated-with-deficits-in-infant-motor-function-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-infants
#5
Monica K Silver, Jie Shao, Binquan Zhu, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. METHODS: 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants...
June 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589258/a-latent-measure-explains-substantial-variance-in-white-matter-microstructure-across-the-newborn-human-brain
#6
Emma J Telford, Simon R Cox, Sue Fletcher-Watson, Devasuda Anblagan, Sarah Sparrow, Rozalia Pataky, Alan Quigley, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
A latent measure of white matter microstructure (g WM) provides a neural basis for information processing speed and intelligence in adults, but the temporal emergence of g WM during human development is unknown. We provide evidence that substantial variance in white matter microstructure is shared across a range of major tracts in the newborn brain. Based on diffusion MRI scans from 145 neonates [gestational age (GA) at birth range 23(+2)-41(+5) weeks], the microstructural properties of eight major white matter tracts were calculated using probabilistic neighborhood tractography...
June 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558876/chaotic-home-environment-is-associated-with-reduced-infant-processing-speed-under-high-task-demands
#7
Przemysław Tomalski, Karolina Marczuk, Ewa Pisula, Anna Malinowska, Rafał Kawa, Alicja Niedźwiecka
Early adversity has profound long-term consequences for child development across domains. The effects of early adversity on structural and functional brain development were shown for infants under 12 months of life. However, the causal mechanisms of these effects remain relatively unexplored. Using a visual habituation task we investigated whether chaotic home environment may affect processing speed in 5.5 month-old infants (n=71). We found detrimental effects of chaos on processing speed for complex but not for simple visual stimuli...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557378/lasting-effects-of-early-life-stress-in-mice-interaction-of-maternal-environment-and-infant-genes
#8
Ariel J Feifel, Harry N Shair, Claudia Schmauss
In the mouse, a powerful paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), can trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in adulthood similar to those found in humans with a history of childhood adversity. The magnitude of IMS effects differs among diverse inbred strains suggesting an interaction between the genetic background of pups and the maternal care they received. Here we investigated this interaction with studies on reciprocal F1 hybrid mice of the stress-susceptible Balb/c and the resilient C57Bl/6 strains that were either raised by Balb/c mothers (low maternal care) or by C57Bl/6 mothers (higher maternal care) with or without IMS exposure...
May 30, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553989/neuroimaging-in-former-preterm-children-who-received-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents
#9
John Phillips, Ronald A Yeo, Arvind Caprihan, Daniel C Cannon, Shrena Patel, Sarah Winter, Michael Steffen, Richard Campbell, Susan Wiedmeier, Shawna Baker, Sean Gonzales, Jean Lowe, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: In premature children, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) may improve developmental outcome. It is not clear which of several potential mechanisms are responsible for this improvement. High resolution MRI and diffusion tensor imaging characterize brain structure and white matter organization, offering possible insight into the long-term effect of ESAs on brain development. DESIGN/METHODS: MRI scans were performed at 3.5 to 4 years of age on former preterm infants treated with ESAs or placebo, and on healthy term controls...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549636/amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-improves-the-identification-of-infants-with-encephalopathy-for-therapeutic-hypothermia-and-predicts-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-2-years-of-age
#10
Janne Helen Skranes, Gro Løhaugen, Eva Margrethe Schumacher, Damjan Osredkar, Andres Server, Frances Mary Cowan, Tom Stiris, Drude Fugelseth, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether using an amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) severity pattern as an entry criterion for therapeutic hypothermia better selects infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to assess the time-to-normal trace for aEEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load as 24-month outcome predictors. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven infants meeting Norwegian therapeutic hypothermia guidelines were enrolled prospectively. Eight-channel EEG/aEEG was recorded from 6 hours until after rewarming, and read after discharge...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#11
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536205/severe-retinopathy-of-prematurity-predicts-delayed-white-matter-maturation-and-poorer-neurodevelopment
#12
Torin J A Glass, Vann Chau, Jane Gardiner, Justin Foong, Jillian Vinall, Jill G Zwicker, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, Kenneth J Poskitt, Steven P Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with (1) abnormal white matter maturation and (2) neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age (CA) compared with neonates without severe ROP. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm neonates born 24-28 weeks' gestational age recruited between 2006 and 2013 with brain MRIs obtained both early in life and at term-equivalent age. Severe ROP was defined as ROP treated with retinal laser photocoagulation...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526882/prediction-of-cognitive-and-motor-outcome-of-preterm-infants-based-on-automatic-quantitative-descriptors-from-neonatal-mr-brain-images
#13
Pim Moeskops, Ivana Išgum, Kristin Keunen, Nathalie H P Claessens, Ingrid C van Haastert, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Max A Viergever, Manon J N L Benders
This study investigates the predictive ability of automatic quantitative brain MRI descriptors for the identification of infants with low cognitive and/or motor outcome at 2-3 years chronological age. MR brain images of 173 patients were acquired at 30 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (n = 86) and 40 weeks PMA (n = 153) between 2008 and 2013. Eight tissue volumes and measures of cortical morphology were automatically computed. A support vector machine classifier was employed to identify infants who exhibit low cognitive and/or motor outcome (<85) at 2-3 years chronological age as assessed by the Bayley scales...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522659/validation-of-an-mri-brain-injury-and-growth-scoring-system-in-very-preterm-infants-scanned-at-29-to-35-week-postmenstrual-age
#14
J M George, S Fiori, J Fripp, X K Pannek, X J Bursle, X R X Moldrich, X A Guzzetta, X A Coulthard, X R S Ware, X S E Rose, X P B Colditz, X R N Boyd
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic potential of brain MR imaging before term-equivalent age is limited until valid MR imaging scoring systems are available. This study aimed to validate an MR imaging scoring system of brain injury and impaired growth for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born at <31 weeks gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three infants in a prospective cohort study underwent early 3T MR imaging between 29 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (mean, 32(+2) ± 1(+3) weeks; 49 males, born at median gestation of 28(+4) weeks; range, 23(+6)-30(+6) weeks; mean birthweight, 1068 ± 312 g)...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515367/association-of-impaired-neuronal-migration-with-cognitive-deficits-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#15
Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kimiko Deguchi, Taku Nagai, Yukiko Ito, Keitaro Yoshida, Toshihiro Endo, Seico Benner, Wei Shan, Ayako Kitazawa, Michihiko Aramaki, Kazuhiro Ishii, Minkyung Shin, Yuki Matsunaga, Kanehiro Hayashi, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama, Kenji F Tanaka, Kohichi Tanaka, Sachio Takashima, Masahiro Nakayama, Masayuki Itoh, Yukio Hirata, Barbara Antalffy, Dawna D Armstrong, Kiyofumi Yamada, Ken Inoue, Kazunori Nakajima
Many extremely preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks [GWs]) develop cognitive impairment in later life, although the underlying pathogenesis is not yet completely understood. Our examinations of the developing human neocortex confirmed that neuronal migration continues beyond 23 GWs, the gestational week at which extremely preterm infants have live births. We observed larger numbers of ectopic neurons in the white matter of the neocortex in human extremely preterm infants with brain injury and hypothesized that altered neuronal migration may be associated with cognitive impairment in later life...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505363/impact-of-high-iron-intake-on-cognition-and-neurodegeneration-in-humans-and-in-animal-models-a-systematic-review
#16
Sonal Agrawal, Kiersten L Berggren, Eileen Marks, Jonathan H Fox
Accumulation of brain iron is linked to aging and protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. High iron intake may influence important brain health outcomes in later life. The aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence from animal and human studies of the effects of high iron intake or peripheral iron status on adult cognition, brain aging, and neurodegeneration. MEDLINE, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and OpenGrey databases were searched. Studies investigating the effect of elevated iron intake at all postnatal life stages in mammalian models and humans on measures of adult brain health were included...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494105/empathy-in-pediatric-intensive-care-nurses-part-2-neural-correlates
#17
Philip L Jackson, Margot Latimer, Fanny Eugène, Emily Macleod, Tara Hatfield, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Kenneth M Prkachin
AIMS: To determine if there are brain activity differences between pediatric intensive care nurses and allied health professionals during pain intensity rating tasks and test whether these differences are related to the population observed (infant or adult) and professional experience. BACKGROUND: The underestimation of patients' pain by healthcare professionals has generally been associated with patterns of change in neural response to vicarious pain, notably reduced activation in regions associated with affective sharing and increased activation in regions associated with regulation, compared with controls...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486543/preterm-brain-injury-on-term-equivalent-age-mri-in-relation-to-perinatal-factors-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-at-two-years
#18
Margaretha J Brouwer, Karina J Kersbergen, Britt J M van Kooij, Manon J N L Benders, Ingrid C van Haastert, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Jeffrey J Neil, Linda S de Vries, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Terrie E Inder, Floris Groenendaal
OBJECTIVES: First, to apply a recently extended scoring system for preterm brain injury at term-equivalent age (TEA-)MRI in a regional extremely preterm cohort; second, to identify independent perinatal factors associated with this score; and third, to assess the prognostic value of this TEA-MRI score with respect to early neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: 239 extremely preterm infants (median gestational age [range] in weeks: 26.6 [24.3-27.9]), admitted to the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2012 were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484867/regional-brain-volume-reduction-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-preterm-children-at-low-risk-at-9%C3%A2-years-of-age
#19
Ebru Arhan, Kıvılcım Gücüyener, Şebnem Soysal, Şafak Şalvarlı, M Ali Gürses, Ayşe Serdaroğlu, Ercan Demir, Ebru Ergenekon, Canan Türkyılmaz, Esra Önal, Esin Koç, Yıldız Atalay
OBJECTIVE: More information is needed on "low-risk" preterm infants' neurological outcome so that they can be included in follow-up programs. A prospective study was performed to examine the regional brain volume changes compared to term children and to assess the relationship between the regional brain volumes to cognitive outcome of the low-risk preterm children at 9 years of age. PATIENTS: Subjects comprised 22 preterm children who were determined to be at low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits with a gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks without a major neonatal morbidity in the neonatal period and 24 age-matched term control children term and matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status...
May 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470961/language-ability-in-preterm-children-is-associated-with-arcuate-fasciculi-microstructure-at-term
#20
Piergiorgio Salvan, J Donald Tournier, Dafnis Batalle, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nigel Kennea, Paul Aljabar, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Tomoki Arichi, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
In the mature human brain, the arcuate fasciculus mediates verbal working memory, word learning, and sublexical speech repetition. However, its contribution to early language acquisition remains unclear. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the role of the direct segments of the arcuate fasciculi in the early acquisition of linguistic function. We imaged a cohort of 43 preterm born infants (median age at birth of 30 gestational weeks; median age at scan of 42 postmenstrual weeks) using high b value high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and assessed their linguistic performance at 2 years of age...
May 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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