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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#1
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906503/neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Hana D'Souza, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Recent technological advances allow us to measure how the infant brain functions in ways that were not possible just a decade ago. Although methodological advances are exciting, we must also consider how theories guide research: what we look for and how we explain what we find. Indeed, the ways in which research findings are interpreted affects the design of policies, educational practices, and interventions. Thus, the theoretical approaches adopted by scientists have a real impact on the lives of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their families, as well as on the wider community...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899304/caffeine-for-apnea-of-prematurity-effects-on-the-developing-brain
#3
REVIEW
Anzari Atik, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Delphi Kondos-Devcic, Jeanie Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Mary Tolcos
Caffeine is a methylxanthine that is widely used to treat apnea of prematurity (AOP). In preterm infants, caffeine reduces the duration of respiratory support, improves survival rates and lowers the incidence of cerebral palsy and cognitive delay. There is, however, little evidence relating to the immediate and long-term effects of caffeine on brain development, especially at the cellular and molecular levels. Experimental data are conflicting, with studies showing that caffeine can have either adverse or benefical effects in the developing brain...
November 27, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#4
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#5
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863706/advanced-neuroimaging-and-its-role-in-predicting-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-very-preterm-infants
#6
REVIEW
Nehal A Parikh
Up to 35% of very preterm infants survive with neurodevelopmental impairments (NDI) such as cognitive deficits, cerebral palsy, and attention deficit disorder. Advanced MRI quantitative tools such as brain morphometry, diffusion MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI at term-equivalent age are ideally suited to improve current efforts to predict later development of disabilities. This would facilitate application of targeted early intervention therapies during the first few years of life when neuroplasticity is optimal...
November 15, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845541/how-the-baby-learns-to-see-donald-o-hebb-award-lecture-canadian-society-for-brain-behaviour-and-cognitive-science-ottawa-june-2015
#7
Daphne Maurer
Hebb's (1949) book The Organisation of Behaviour presented a novel hypothesis about how the baby learns to see. This article summarizes the results of my research program that evaluated Hebb's hypothesis: first, by studying infants' eye movements and initial perceptual abilities and second, by studying the effect of visual deprivation (e.g., congenital cataracts) on later perceptual development. Collectively, the results support Hebb's hypothesis that the baby does indeed learn to see. Early visual experience not only drives the baby's initial scanning of objects, but also sets up the neural architecture that will come to underlie adults' perception...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812690/characterizing-the-pattern-of-anomalies-in-congenital-zika-syndrome-for-pediatric-clinicians
#8
Cynthia A Moore, J Erin Staples, William B Dobyns, André Pessoa, Camila V Ventura, Eduardo Borges da Fonseca, Erlane Marques Ribeiro, Liana O Ventura, Norberto Nogueira Neto, J Fernando Arena, Sonja A Rasmussen
Importance: Zika virus infection can be prenatally passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that intrauterine Zika virus infection is a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies, but the full spectrum of anomalies has not been delineated. To inform pediatric clinicians who may be called on to evaluate and treat affected infants and children, we review the most recent evidence to better characterize congenital Zika syndrome. Observations: We reviewed published reports of congenital anomalies occurring in fetuses or infants with presumed or laboratory-confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection...
November 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792918/nutritive-sucking-induces-age-specific-eeg-changes-in-0-24-week-old-infants
#9
Johannes Lehtonen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Stefanos Georgiadis, Mika P Tarvainen, Hanne Lappi, Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Ari Pääkkönen, Pasi A Karjalainen
Little is known how the brain of the newborn infant responds to the postnatal nutrition and care. No systematic studies exist in which the effects of nutritional and non-nutritional sucking on the brain activity of the infant were compared. We recorded the EEG activity of 40 infants at the ages of 0,6,12 and 24 weeks in four successive behavioral stages: while the infants were hungry and waiting for sucking, during non-nutritional and nutritional sucking, and during satiation after completed feeding. Quantitative EEG analysis was performed using occipital, parietal and central EEG channels...
October 25, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789448/white-matter-injury-and-general-movements-in-high-risk-preterm-infants
#10
C Peyton, E Yang, M E Msall, L Adde, R Støen, T Fjørtoft, A F Bos, C Einspieler, Y Zhou, M D Schreiber, J D Marks, A Drobyshevsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, <1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed "General Movement Assessment." The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements...
October 27, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766468/early-diffusion-restriction-of-white-matter-in-infants-with-small-subdural-hematomas-is-associated-with-delayed-atrophy
#11
Cameron A Elliott, Vijay Ramaswamy, Francois D Jacob, Tejas Sankar, Vivek Mehta
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the test of choice to describe the extent of microstructural injury. CASE PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION: In this case series, we describe novel acute and chronic MRI findings in four infants (6-19 months) with small, unilateral subdural hematomas in whom the etiology of head injury was suspicious for non-accidental trauma (NAT)...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747986/event-related-potential-differences-in-children-supplemented-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-infancy
#12
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725314/a-new-neonatal-cortical-and-subcortical-brain-atlas-the-melbourne-children-s-regional-infant-brain-m-crib-atlas
#13
Bonnie Alexander, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Jian Chen, Claire E Kelly, Sandra Rees, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Investigating neonatal brain structure and function can offer valuable insights into behaviour and cognition in healthy and clinical populations; both at term age, and longitudinally in comparison with later time points. Parcellated brain atlases for adult populations are readily available, however warping infant data to adult template space is not ideal due to morphological and tissue differences between these groups. Several parcellated neonatal atlases have been developed, although there remains strong demand for manually parcellated ground truth data with detailed cortical definition...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720041/enriched-dairy-fat-matrix-diet-prevents-early-life-lipopolysaccharide-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-at-adulthood
#14
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693612/brainnetcnn-convolutional-neural-networks-for-brain-networks-towards-predicting-neurodevelopment
#15
Jeremy Kawahara, Colin J Brown, Steven P Miller, Brian G Booth, Vann Chau, Ruth E Grunau, Jill G Zwicker, Ghassan Hamarneh
We propose BrainNetCNN, a convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to predict clinical neurodevelopmental outcomes from brain networks. In contrast to the spatially local convolutions done in traditional image-based CNNs, our BrainNetCNN is composed of novel edge-to-edge, edge-to-node and node-to-graph convolutional filters that leverage the topological locality of structural brain networks. We apply the BrainNetCNN framework to predict cognitive and motor developmental outcome scores from structural brain networks of infants born preterm...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687906/early-nutrition-growth-and-cognitive-development-of-infants-from-birth-to-2%C3%A2-years-in-malaysia-a-study-protocol
#16
Abdul Razak Nurliyana, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan
BACKGROUND: The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676869/pediatric-stroke-rehabilitation-a-review-of-techniques-facilitating-motor-recovery
#17
Eleni Papathanasiou, Mathilde Chevignard, Carole Vuillerot, Anne Tiberghien, Ingrid Godard
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric stroke is a relatively rare medical condition, but it often leads to long lasting motor and cognitive impairments. Rehabilitation of motor impairments has been widely studied, with most studies performed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, CP covers a variety of medical conditions, including brain lesions due to paediatric stroke occurring early in life, but not stroke occurring later on during childhood. The specificity of rehabilitation after paediatric stroke remains understudied...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668788/the-impact-of-parent-infant-interaction-on-epigenetic-plasticity-mediating-synaptic-adaptations-in-the-infant-brain
#18
Emmanuel Matas, Jörg Bock, Katharina Braun
The development of the brain depends on an individual's nature (genes) and nurture (environments). This interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental events during brain development drives the maturation of functional brain circuits such as sensory, motor, emotional, and complex cognitive pathways. Adverse environmental conditions such as early life stress can interfere with the functional development of emotional and cognitive brain systems and thereby increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later in life...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667762/brain-metabolite-alterations-in-infants-born-preterm-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-association-with-structural-changes-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#19
Rui V Simões, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Elisenda Eixarch, Núria Bargalló, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Eduard Gratacós
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and premature birth represent two independent problems that may occur simultaneously, and contribute to impaired neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in frontal lobe metabolic profiles of one-year-old IUGR infants born prematurely (P-IUGR) and adequate for gestational age controls, both premature (P-AGA) and born at term (T-AGA), and their association with brain structural and biophysical parameters, and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658730/region-specific-growth-restriction-of-brain-following-preterm-birth
#20
Sachiko Iwata, Reiji Katayama, Masahiro Kinoshita, Mamoru Saikusa, Yuko Araki, Sachio Takashima, Toshi Abe, Osuke Iwata
Regional brain sizes of very-preterm infants at term-equivalent age differ from those of term-born peers, which have been linked with later cognitive impairments. However, dependence of regional brain volume loss on gestational age has not been studied in detail. To investigate the spatial pattern of brain growth in neonates without destructive brain lesions, head MRI of 189 neonates with a wide range of gestational age (24-42 weeks gestation) was assessed using simple metrics measurements. Dependence of MRI findings on gestational age at birth (Agebirth) and the corrected age at MRI scan (AgeMRI) were assessed...
2016: Scientific Reports
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