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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#1
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401835/brain-activity-and-infant-attachment-history-in-young-men-during-loss-and-reward-processing
#2
Karina Quevedo, Theodore E A Waters, Hannah Scott, Glenn I Roisman, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes
There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan)...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#3
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388601/early-post-natal-exposure-to-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rodents-is-pro-inflammatory-impairs-white-matter-integrity-and-alters-brain-metabolism
#4
Robert A Darnall, Xi Chen, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Chrystelle M Sirieix, Barjor Gimi, Susan Knoblach, Betty L McEntire, Carl E Hunt
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are frequently exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea and periodic breathing that may result in inflammation and brain injury that later manifests as cognitive and executive function deficits. We used a rodent model to determine whether early postnatal exposure to IH would result in inflammation and brain injury. METHODS: Rat pups were exposed to IH from P2-P12. Control animals were exposed to room air. Cytokines were analyzed in plasma and brain tissue at P13 and P18...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355229/surgery-increases-cell-death-and-induces-changes-in-gene-expression-compared-with-anesthesia-alone-in-the-developing-piglet-brain
#5
Kevin D Broad, Go Kawano, Igor Fierens, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova, Mojgan Ezzati, Jamshid Rostami, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Badr Chaban, Jane Hassell, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351446/on-the-relationship-between-head-circumference-brain-size-prenatal-long-chain-pufa-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-supplementation-and-cognitive-abilities-during-childhood
#6
Andrés Catena, Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar, Carolina Diaz-Piedra, Francisco J Torres-Espínola, Pilar Brandi, Miguel Pérez-García, Tamás Decsi, Berthold Koletzko, Cristina Campoy
Head circumference in infants has been reported to predict brain size, total grey matter volume (GMV) and neurocognitive development. However, it is unknown whether it has predictive value on regional and subcortical brain volumes. We aimed to explore the relationship between several head circumference measurements since birth and distributions of GMV and subcortical volumes at later childhood. We examined seventy-four, Caucasian, singleton, term-born infants born to mothers randomised to receive fish oil and/or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or placebo prenatal supplementation...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339607/gross-motor-trajectories-during-the-first-year-of-life-for-preterm-infants-with-very-low-birth-weight
#7
Yu-Han Su, Suh-Fang Jeng, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Yu-Kang Tu, Yen-Tzu Wu, Li-Chiou Chen
Background: Early identification of motor dysfunction in preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) is important in order to provide early intervention. Objective: This study was to examine the motor trajectories of preterm infants with VLBW during their first year of life and to investigate the predictive ability and influencing factors of the trajectories. Design and Methods: A total of 342 preterm infants with VLBW were prospectively assessed for motor development by the Alberta Infant Motor Scales at 4, 6, 9, and 12 months and for developmental outcomes using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, second edition, at 24 months...
March 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334351/effects-of-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-economic-status-on-neonatal-brain-development-are-modulated-by-genetic-risk
#8
Anqi Qiu, Mojun Shen, Claudia Buss, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Martin Styner, Neerja Karnani, Christine M Heim, Kieran J O'Donnell, Joanna D Holbrook, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney
This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#9
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320968/numerosity-representation-is-encoded-in-human-subcortex
#10
Elliot Collins, Joonkoo Park, Marlene Behrmann
Certain numerical abilities appear to be relatively ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, including the ability to recognize and differentiate relative quantities. This skill is present in human adults and children, as well as in nonhuman primates and, perhaps surprisingly, is also demonstrated by lower species such as mosquitofish and spiders, despite the absence of cortical computation available to primates. This ubiquity of numerical competence suggests that representations that connect to numerical tasks are likely subserved by evolutionarily conserved regions of the nervous system...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318973/the-dual-nature-of-early-life-experience-on-somatosensory-processing-in-the-human-infant-brain
#11
Nathalie L Maitre, Alexandra P Key, Olena D Chorna, James C Slaughter, Pawel J Matusz, Mark T Wallace, Micah M Murray
Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of interpersonal interactions and sensory-cognitive development [5-7]...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#12
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301882/infantile-hemangioma-of-the-posterior-fossa-in-a-newborn-early-management-and-long-term-follow-up
#13
Elsa Haine, Annick Sevely, Sergio Boetto, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Claude Cances
A 21-day-old male infant was admitted with signs of intracranial hypertension. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a voluminous mass in the posterior fossa with an intense peripheral enhancement on T1 images with gadolinium. The child was treated secondarily by surgical decompression of the posterior fossa and the lesion was biopsied. The pathological findings indicated infantile hemangioma. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated at 3 months, given the lack of tumor involution. Six months after corticotherapy was stopped, repeated MRIs indicated a significant reduction in tumor size and then complete disappearance...
March 16, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286301/immuno-modulator-inter-alpha-inhibitor-proteins-ameliorate-complex-auditory-processing-deficits-in-rats-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#14
Steven W Threlkeld, Yow-Pin Lim, Molly La Rue, Cynthia Gaudet, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is recognized as a significant problem in the perinatal period, contributing to life-long language-learning and other cognitive impairments. Central auditory processing deficits are common in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and have been shown to predict language learning deficits in other at risk infant populations. Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) are a family of structurally related plasma proteins that modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection and have been shown to attenuate cell death and improve learning outcomes after neonatal brain injury in rats...
March 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263011/emergence-of-a-hierarchical-brain-during-infancy-reflected-by-stepwise-functional-connectivity
#15
Suzanne L Pendl, Andrew P Salzwedel, Barbara D Goldman, Lisa F Barrett, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Wei Gao
The hierarchical nature of the brain's functional organization has long been recognized, but when and how this architecture emerges during development remains largely unknown. Here the development of the brain's hierarchical organization was characterized using a modified stepwise functional connectivity approach based on resting-state fMRI in a fully longitudinal sample of infants (N = 28, with scans after birth, and at 1 and 2 years) and adults. Results obtained by placing seeds in early sensory cortices revealed novel hierarchical patterns of adult brain organization ultimately converging in limbic, paralimbic, basal ganglia, and frontoparietal brain regions...
March 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#16
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241501/early%C3%A2-nutritional%C3%A2-interventions%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-cognitive%C3%A2-development%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-preterm%C3%A2-infants-a%C3%A2-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-literature
#17
REVIEW
Nora Schneider, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238825/association-between-obesity-related-biomarkers-and-cognitive-and-motor-development-in-infants
#18
Ana Cristina R Camargos, Vanessa A Mendonça, Katherine S C Oliveira, Camila Alves de Andrade, Hércules Ribeiro Leite, Sueli Ferreira da Fonseca, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Júnior, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to verify the association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), chemokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serum cortisol and redox status were measured. The Bayley-III test was utilized to evaluate cognitive and motor development, and multiple linear stepwise regression models were performed to verify the association between selected biomarkers and cognitive and motor development...
February 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230411/the-bilingual-adaptation-how-minds-accommodate-experience
#19
Ellen Bialystok
According to some estimates, more than half of the world's population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219764/gabaa-receptor-expression-and-white-matter-disruption-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets
#20
Viskasari P Kalanjati, Julie A Wixey, Stephanie M Miller, Paul B Colditz, Stella T Bjorkman
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. White matter and neuronal injury are major pathophysiological features of the IUGR neonatal brain. GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptors have been shown to play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and proliferation in the neonatal brain and may be a key factor in white matter injury and myelination in IUGR neonates. Whether there are impairments to the GABAergic system and neuronal cytoskeleton in IUGR brain has yet to be elucidated...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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