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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334351/effects-of-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-economic-status-on-neonatal-brain-development-are-modulated-by-genetic-risk
#1
Anqi Qiu, Mojun Shen, Claudia Buss, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Martin Styner, Neerja Karnani, Christine M Heim, Kieran J O'Donnell, Joanna D Holbrook, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney
This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#2
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320968/numerosity-representation-is-encoded-in-human-subcortex
#3
Elliot Collins, Joonkoo Park, Marlene Behrmann
Certain numerical abilities appear to be relatively ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, including the ability to recognize and differentiate relative quantities. This skill is present in human adults and children, as well as in nonhuman primates and, perhaps surprisingly, is also demonstrated by lower species such as mosquitofish and spiders, despite the absence of cortical computation available to primates. This ubiquity of numerical competence suggests that representations that connect to numerical tasks are likely subserved by evolutionarily conserved regions of the nervous system...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318973/the-dual-nature-of-early-life-experience-on-somatosensory-processing-in-the-human-infant-brain
#4
Nathalie L Maitre, Alexandra P Key, Olena D Chorna, James C Slaughter, Pawel J Matusz, Mark T Wallace, Micah M Murray
Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of interpersonal interactions and sensory-cognitive development [5-7]...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#5
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301882/infantile-hemangioma-of-the-posterior-fossa-in-a-newborn-early-management-and-long-term-follow-up
#6
Elsa Haine, Annick Sevely, Sergio Boetto, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Claude Cances
A 21-day-old male infant was admitted with signs of intracranial hypertension. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a voluminous mass in the posterior fossa with an intense peripheral enhancement on T1 images with gadolinium. The child was treated secondarily by surgical decompression of the posterior fossa and the lesion was biopsied. The pathological findings indicated infantile hemangioma. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated at 3 months, given the lack of tumor involution. Six months after corticotherapy was stopped, repeated MRIs indicated a significant reduction in tumor size and then complete disappearance...
March 16, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286301/immuno-modulator-inter-alpha-inhibitor-proteins-ameliorate-complex-auditory-processing-deficits-in-rats-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#7
Steven W Threlkeld, Yow-Pin Lim, Molly La Rue, Cynthia Gaudet, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is recognized as a significant problem in the perinatal period, contributing to life-long language-learning and other cognitive impairments. Central auditory processing deficits are common in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and have been shown to predict language learning deficits in other at risk infant populations. Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) are a family of structurally related plasma proteins that modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection and have been shown to attenuate cell death and improve learning outcomes after neonatal brain injury in rats...
March 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263011/emergence-of-a-hierarchical-brain-during-infancy-reflected-by-stepwise-functional-connectivity
#8
Suzanne L Pendl, Andrew P Salzwedel, Barbara D Goldman, Lisa F Barrett, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Wei Gao
The hierarchical nature of the brain's functional organization has long been recognized, but when and how this architecture emerges during development remains largely unknown. Here the development of the brain's hierarchical organization was characterized using a modified stepwise functional connectivity approach based on resting-state fMRI in a fully longitudinal sample of infants (N = 28, with scans after birth, and at 1 and 2 years) and adults. Results obtained by placing seeds in early sensory cortices revealed novel hierarchical patterns of adult brain organization ultimately converging in limbic, paralimbic, basal ganglia, and frontoparietal brain regions...
March 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#9
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241501/early%C3%A2-nutritional%C3%A2-interventions%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-cognitive%C3%A2-development%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-preterm%C3%A2-infants-a%C3%A2-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-literature
#10
REVIEW
Nora Schneider, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238825/association-between-obesity-related-biomarkers-and-cognitive-and-motor-development-in-infants
#11
Ana Cristina R Camargos, Vanessa A Mendonça, Katherine S C Oliveira, Camila Alves de Andrade, Hércules Ribeiro Leite, Sueli Ferreira da Fonseca, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Júnior, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to verify the association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), chemokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serum cortisol and redox status were measured. The Bayley-III test was utilized to evaluate cognitive and motor development, and multiple linear stepwise regression models were performed to verify the association between selected biomarkers and cognitive and motor development...
February 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230411/the-bilingual-adaptation-how-minds-accommodate-experience
#12
Ellen Bialystok
According to some estimates, more than half of the world's population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219764/gabaa-receptor-expression-and-white-matter-disruption-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets
#13
Viskasari P Kalanjati, Julie A Wixey, Stephanie M Miller, Paul B Colditz, Stella T Bjorkman
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. White matter and neuronal injury are major pathophysiological features of the IUGR neonatal brain. GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptors have been shown to play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and proliferation in the neonatal brain and may be a key factor in white matter injury and myelination in IUGR neonates. Whether there are impairments to the GABAergic system and neuronal cytoskeleton in IUGR brain has yet to be elucidated...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159210/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-fed-human-milk-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Beatrice E Lechner, Betty R Vohr
The neurodevelopmental benefits of breast milk feedings for preterm infants have been controversial. However, the effect on preterm infant neurodevelopment is sustained into childhood. The effects of breast milk feeding during the neonatal period and the duration of breastfeeding display effects on cognition into adolescence. The volume of breast milk received is a key factor in these effects. Additionally, emerging studies support the effects of human milk on structural brain development, such as increased white matter development and increased cortical thickness...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158932/the-association-of-neonatal-morbidity-with-long-term-neurological-outcome-in-infants-who-were-growth-restricted-and-preterm-at-birth-secondary-analyses-from-truffle-trial-of-randomized-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#15
A G Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, N Marlow, C Lees, H Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between neonatal morbidity (NNM) and two-year neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving children after early fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a European randomised trial (TRUFFLE) of delivery for very preterm fetuses dependent on venous Doppler or cardiotocographic criteria. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centres, participants in TRUFFLE. POPULATION: 402 surviving children after early FGR...
February 3, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151495/greater-brain-response-to-emotional-expressions-of-their-own-children-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants-an-fmri-study
#16
R Montirosso, F Arrigoni, E Casini, A Nordio, P De Carli, F Di Salle, S Moriconi, M Re, G Reni, R Borgatti
OBJECTIVE: The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. STUDY DESIGN: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral response of 10 first-time mothers of preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500) and 11 mothers of full-term infants, viewing happy-, neutral- and distress-face images of their own infant, along with a matched unknown infant...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132814/deficits-in-top-down-sensory-prediction-in-infants-at-risk-due-to-premature-birth
#17
Lauren L Emberson, Alex M Boldin, Julie E Riccio, Ronnie Guillet, Richard N Aslin
A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131560/-eating-behavior-in-pediatric-obesity-of-the-advantages-of-combining-the-neurobiological-and-neuropsychological-approaches
#18
B Schoentgen, C Lancelot, D Le Gall
Obesity is currently considered a major public health concern, as shown by the growing number of people with excess weight, alarmingly in infants, and despite medical care. Many studies have underlined the reasons for medical care failure caused by an inability to sustain a resistant behavior towards palatable food (high sugar and fat content). Hence, previous research has highlighted connections between excessive eating behavior and the activity of neurotransmitters in brain areas involved in affective behavior and the reward circuit...
January 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130959/evidence-of-altered-brain-regulatory-gene-expression-in-tobacco-exposed-fetuses
#19
Hamisu M Salihu, Arnut Paothong, Rachita Das, Lindsey M King, Anupam Pradhan, Bridget Riggs, Eknath Naik, Erin M Siegel, Valerie E Whiteman
AIM: We sought to determine the association between prenatal smoking status and expression of fetal brain regulatory genes. METHODS: At delivery, we collected information from parturient women on prenatal smoking habits and analyzed salivary cotinine levels. We obtained neonatal umbilical cord blood and extracted total RNA. We then employed the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analyses and the comparative CT method to calculate the relative gene expression of selected fetal brain regulatory genes responsible for (1) brain growth (brain-derived neutrotrophic factor, BDNF), (2) myelination (proteolipidic protein 1, PLP1 and myelin basic protein, MBP), and (3) neuronal migration and cell-cell interactions during fetal brain development or RLN...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130919/the-development-of-extremely-premature-infants
#20
Wolfgang Voss, Elke Hobbiebrunken, Uta Ungermann, Michael Wagner, Gabriele Damm
BACKGROUND: Until now, there has been no comprehensive long-term study in Germany on the development of extremely premature infants up to school age. METHODS: From October 2004 to September 2008, in the German federal state of Lower Saxony, 437 infants born at a gestational age less than 28 weeks were followed up at the ages of 2 and 5 years, and some at the age of 10 years. The 5-year follow-up data were collated with the peri- and neonatological parameters and compared with the 2- and 10-year follow-up data...
December 26, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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