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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#1
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993251/hypoxia-ischemia-modifies-postsynaptic-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-complexes-in-the-neonatal-mouse-brain
#2
Fuxin Lu, Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Xuemei Liu, Xiao Liang, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
The N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-associated multiprotein complexes are indispensable for synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions. While purification and proteomic analyses of these signaling complexes have been performed in adult rodent and human brain, much less is known about the protein composition of NMDAR complexes in the developing brain and their modifications by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. In this study, the postsynaptic density proteins were prepared from postnatal day 9 naïve, sham-operated and HI-injured mouse cortex...
October 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975039/creative-music-therapy-to-promote-brain-structure-function-and-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial-protocol
#3
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Hans-Ulrich Bucher, Dirk Bassler, Cornelia Hagmann
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965494/the-impacts-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-and-being-overweight-during-pregnancy-on-neurodevelopment-of-the-offspring
#4
Staffan K Berglund, Francisco J Torres-Espínola, Luz García-Valdés, Mª Teresa Segura, Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar, Carmen Padilla, Ricardo Rueda, Miguel Pérez García, Harry J McArdle, Cristina Campoy
Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI≥25 kg/m2) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113·3 (sd 9·9) v...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961316/reduced-infancy-and-childhood-epilepsy-following-hypothermia-treated-neonatal-encephalopathy
#5
Xun Liu, Sally Jary, Frances Cowan, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what proportion of a regional cohort of cooled infants with neonatal encephalopathy develop epilepsy (determined by the International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] definition and the number of antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) up to 8 years of age. METHODS: From 2006-2013, 151 infants with perinatal asphyxia underwent 72 h cooling. Clinical and amplitude-integrated electroencepalography (aEEG) with single-channel EEG-verified neonatal seizures were treated with AEDs...
September 29, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958087/neonatal-sleep-wake-analyses-predict-18-month-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#6
R A Shellhaas, J W Burns, F Hassan, M D Carlson, J D E Barks, R D Chervin
Objectives: The neurological examination of critically ill neonates is largely limited to reflexive behavior. The exam often ignores sleep-wake physiology that may reflect brain integrity and influence long-term outcomes. We assessed whether polysomnography and concurrent cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might improve prediction of 18-month neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Term newborns with suspected seizures underwent standardized neurologic examinations to generate Thompson scores, and had 12-hour bedside polysomnography with concurrent cerebral NIRS...
August 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952606/relation-between-body-composition-at-birth-and-child-development-at-2-years-of-age-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-ethiopian-children
#7
M Abera, M Tesfaye, T Girma, C Hanlon, G S Andersen, J C Wells, B Admassu, R Wibaek, H Friis, P Kæstel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952202/re-examination-of-oostenbroek-et%C3%A2-al-2016-evidence-for-neonatal-imitation-of-tongue-protrusion
#8
Andrew N Meltzoff, Lynne Murray, Elizabeth Simpson, Mikael Heimann, Emese Nagy, Jacqueline Nadel, Eric J Pedersen, Rechele Brooks, Daniel S Messinger, Leonardo De Pascalis, Francys Subiaul, Annika Paukner, Pier F Ferrari
The meaning, mechanism, and function of imitation in early infancy have been actively discussed since Meltzoff and Moore's (1977) report of facial and manual imitation by human neonates. Oostenbroek et al. (2016) claim to challenge the existence of early imitation and to counter all interpretations so far offered. Such claims, if true, would have implications for theories of social-cognitive development. Here we identify 11 flaws in Oostenbroek et al.'s experimental design that biased the results toward null effects...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944872/isoflurane-exposure-regulates-the-cell-viability-and-bdnf-expression-of-astrocytes-via-upregulation-of-trek%C3%A2-1
#9
Cui-Hong Zhou, Ya-Hong Zhang, Fen Xue, Shan-Shan Xue, Yun-Chun Chen, Ting Gu, Zheng-Wu Peng, Hua-Ning Wang
Neonatal isoflurane exposure in rodents disrupts hippocampal cognitive functions, including learning and memory, and astrocytes may have an important role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disruption are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of TWIK‑related K+ channel (TREK‑1) in isoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment. Lentiviruses were used to overexpress or knockdown TREK‑1 in astrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane or O2 for 2 h...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#10
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931035/neuroprotection-with-hypothermia-and-allopurinol-in-an-animal-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-is-it-a-gender-question
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Cristina Durán Fernández-Feijóo, Míriam Lopez-Abad, Maria Goretti Lopez Ramos, Rafael Balada Caballé, Soledad Alcántara-Horillo, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI). Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI) fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928195/reach-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-trial-of-rehabilitation-very-early-in-congenital-hemiplegia
#12
Roslyn N Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925578/combined-fetal-inflammation-and-postnatal-hypoxia-causes-myelin-deficits-and-autism-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#13
Erik van Tilborg, E J Marijke Achterberg, Caren M van Kammen, Annette van der Toorn, Floris Groenendaal, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cobi J Heijnen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Manon N J L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#14
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#15
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903112/savoring-sweet-sugars-in-infant-and-toddler-feeding
#16
Robert D Murray
During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893979/exposure-to-unpredictable-maternal-sensory-signals-influences-cognitive-development-across-species
#17
Elysia Poggi Davis, Stephanie A Stout, Jenny Molet, Brian Vegetabile, Laura M Glynn, Curt A Sandman, Kevin Heins, Hal Stern, Tallie Z Baram
Maternal care is a critical determinant of child development. However, our understanding of processes and mechanisms by which maternal behavior influences the developing human brain remains limited. Animal research has illustrated that patterns of sensory information is important in shaping neural circuits during development. Here we examined the relation between degree of predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life and subsequent cognitive function in both humans (n = 128 mother/infant dyads) and rats (n = 12 dams; 28 adolescents)...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889996/emotion-processing-in-the-infant-brain-the-importance-of-local-information
#18
Carlijn van den Boomen, Nicolette M Munsters, Chantal Kemner
Facial expressions provide crucial information for an infant's social and cognitive development. Expressions are discriminated based on specific basic-level information, such as global and local information represented in spatial frequencies. Research in adults suggests that different neural pathways are involved in emotion discrimination, each activated by specific spatial frequency ranges. However, in infants the involvement of spatial frequencies in emotion discrimination is unknown. In the current study we investigated the effect of manipulating spatial frequency information in the face on emotion discrimination...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#19
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterised by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we study the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model, and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873072/amplitude-integrated-eeg-and-brain-sparing-in-preterm-small-for-gestational-age-infants
#20
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Simón P Lubián-López, Pamela Zafra-Rodríguez, Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, Antonio Segado-Arenas, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho
PURPOSE: Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at risk for a high mortality rate and impaired cognitive development. Only a few studies have focused on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) in preterm SGA infants. They have been shown to have a slower rate of brain maturation, but these findings have not consistently been related to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate early aEEG monitoring in SGA compared with adequate-for-gestational-age preterms...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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