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Whole body scan

Gill Norman, Maggie J Westby, Amber D Rithalia, Nikki Stubbs, Marta O Soares, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression therapy, but a wide range of dressings and topical treatments are also used. This diversity of treatments makes evidence-based decision-making challenging, and a clear and current overview of all the evidence is required...
June 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laroussi Mohamed-Salem, Juan José Santos-Mateo, Juan Sanchez-Serna, Álvaro Hernández-Vicente, Rafael Reyes-Marle, María I Castellón Sánchez, María Antonia Claver-Valderas, Emiliano Gonzalez-Vioque, Francisco J Haro-Del Moral, Pablo García-Pavía, Domingo A Pascual-Figal
BACKGROUND: Myocardial uptake of bone tracers has emerged as useful tool for the early detection of transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). The prevalence of wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) in individuals remains to be established. METHODS: All whole body bone scans performed in individuals ≥ 75 years with no previous clinical suspicion of ATTR were revised in a population-based university hospital over a 7-year period (1509 studies corresponding to 1114 patients; 80...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Domenico Albano, Francesco Bertagna, Mattia Bonacina, Rexhep Durmo, Elisabetta Cerudelli, Maria Gazzilli, Maria Beatrice Panarotto, Anna Maria Formenti, Gherando Mazziotti, Andrea Giustina, Raffaele Giubbini
OBJECTIVE: According to the 2015 ATA guidelines, thyroid ablation by iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is absolutely recommended only in patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Often distant metastases are not recognized early and they can stay silent for long time. The aim of our study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of metastatic disease before and after I-131 and to evaluate the influence of the new ATA guidelines in the management of DTC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 140 patients showing distant metastases...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Beric M Gilbert, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
Parasites of fishes have been shown to be effective bioindicators of the aquatic environment. Few investigations have been conducted on ectoparasite models and therefore little is known about the fate of trace elements and metals which they accumulate. In this study trace element sequestration was observed in the carapace of the fish louse, Argulus japonicus and found to relate to the sex of the parasite, as well as, the degree of sclerotization of the carapace. Adults of A. japonicus were collected from cyprinid hosts in the Vaal Dam, South Africa...
2018: PloS One
John C Ksander, Laura E Paige, Hunter A Johndro, Angela H Gutchess
A growing body of evidence suggests culture influences how individuals perceive the world around them. The current study investigates whether these cultural differences extend to a simple object viewing task and visual cortex by examining voxel pattern representations with Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA). During fMRI scanning, 20 East Asian and 20 American participants viewed photos of everyday items, equated for familiarity and conceptual agreement across cultures. Whole brain searchlight mapping with non-parametric statistical evaluation tested whether these stimuli evoked multi-voxel patterns that were distinct between cultural groups...
June 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Meg F Bobo, Shunxing Bao, Yuankai Huo, Yuang Yao, Jack Virostko, Andrew J Plassard, Ilwoo Lyu, Albert Assad, Richard G Abramson, Melissa A Hilmes, Bennett A Landman
Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Michael Aynardi, Steven M Raikin
This case report is a rare form of lymphoma recurrence which presented as tarsal tunnel syndrome. The patient had been previously treated for the malignancy and was presumed to be in remission; however, standard radiology imaging protocols failed to include the distal extremities on these scans. The patient presented to the orthopedic clinic with tarsal tunnel symptoms and a mass in the tarsal tunnel. A complete evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of recurrence of the malignancy. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough medical history and personal review of imaging studies, and how a systematic approach can produce the correct diagnosis for any unknown lesion...
May 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Masamichi Koyama, Takashi Terauchi, Mitsuru Koizumi, Hiroko Tanaka, Yukiko Sato
RATIONALE: Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common tumor of the salivary glands, is usually benign. It is well known, however, that pleomorphic adenomas occasionally undergo malignant transformation to carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and can metastasize. More rarely pleomorphic adenomas can metastasize without histological malignant transformation. We herein report an unusual case of pleomorphic adenoma with multiple metastases comprehensively demonstrated on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mahdi Alizadeh, Joshua Fisher, Sona Saksena, Yusra Sultan, Chris J Conklin, Devon M Middleton, Laura Krisa, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Adam E Flanders, Scott H Faro, M J Mulcahey, Feroze B Mohamed
Background and objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) are two techniques that can measure white matter integrity of the spinal cord. Recently, DTI indices have been shown to change with age. The purpose of this study is (a) to evaluate the maturational states of the entire pediatric spinal cord using DTI and DTT indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), mean length of white matter fiber tracts and tract density and (b) to analyze the DTI and DTT parameters along the entire spinal cord as a function of spinal cord levels and age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rahul Tiwari, P Srinivas Chakravarthi, Vivekanand S Kattimani, Krishna Prasad Lingamaneni
Background: Facial appearance is an important factor, affects social and psychological well-being. The ideal positioning of jaws and soft tissues is crucial during orthognathic surgery for a better outcome, but the response of facial soft tissues does not always reflect the exact movements of the underlying jaws in 1:1 ratio. So, soft tissue changes following orthognathic surgery require utmost attention during surgical correction to make successful treatment. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of perioral soft tissue changes after orthognathic surgical procedures...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Phillip C Witcher, Sara E Miner, Daniel J Horan, Whitney A Bullock, Kyung-Eun Lim, Kyung Shin Kang, Alison L Adaniya, Ryan D Ross, Gabriela G Loots, Alexander G Robling
The WNT pathway has become an attractive target for skeletal therapies. High-bone-mass phenotypes in patients with loss-of-function mutations in the LRP5/6 inhibitor Sost (sclerosteosis), or in its downstream enhancer region (van Buchem disease), highlight the utility of targeting Sost/sclerostin to improve bone properties. Sclerostin-neutralizing antibody is highly osteoanabolic in animal models and in human clinical trials, but antibody-based inhibition of another potent LRP5/6 antagonist, Dkk1, is largely inefficacious for building bone in the unperturbed adult skeleton...
June 7, 2018: JCI Insight
Christos Sachpekidis, Hoda Anwar, Julia K Winkler, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Lionel Larribere, Uwe Haberkorn, Jessica C Hassel, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has raised the issue of appropriate treatment response evaluation, due to the unique mechanism of action of the immunotherapeutic agents. Aim of this analysis is to evaluate the potential role of quantitative analysis of 2-deoxy-2-(18 F)fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) data in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab therapy. METHODS: 25 patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma underwent dynamic PET/CT (dPET/CT) of the thorax and upper abdomen as well as static, whole body PET/CT with 18 F-FDG before the start of ipilimumab treatment (baseline PET/CT), after two cycles of treatment (interim PET/CT) and at the end of treatment after four cycles (late PET/CT)...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Ludovic D'hulst, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Adriano Chiò, Andrea Calvo, Cristina Moglia, Antonio Canosa, Angelina Cistaro, Stefanie Ma Willekens, Joke De Vocht, Philip Van Damme, Marco Pagani, Koen Van Laere
OBJECTIVE: 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) single-center studies using support vector machine (SVM) approach to differentiate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from controls have shown high overall accuracy on an individual patient basis using local a priori defined classifiers. The aim of the study was to validate the SVM accuracy on a multicentric level. METHODS: A previously defined Belgian (BE) group of 175 ALS patients (61...
June 4, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Elanchezhian Somasundaram, Joanna Deaton, Robert A Kaufman, Samuel Loren Brady
To develop a more consistent fully-automated classifier for all tissues within the trunk and more accurately discriminate between tissues (such as bone) and contrast medium with overlapping high CT numbers
 Methods: Twenty-eight contrast enhanced NCAP (neck-chest-abdomen-pelvis) CT scans (4 adult and 3 pediatric patients) were used to train and test a tissue classification pipeline. The classifier output consisted of 6 tissue classes: lung, fat, muscle, solid organ, blood/bowel contrast and bone. The input features for training were selected from 28 2D image filters and 12 3D filters, and one hand crafted spatial feature...
May 31, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Deepika Bagga, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Johanna Louise Reichert, Cinzia Cecchetto, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Peter Holzer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Veronika Schöpf
PURPOSE: Experimental investigations in rodents have contributed significantly to our current understanding of the potential importance of the gut microbiome and brain interactions for neurotransmitter expression, neurodevelopment, and behaviour. However, clinical evidence to support such interactions is still scarce. The present study used a double-blind, randomized, pre- and post-intervention assessment design to investigate the effects of a 4-week multi-strain probiotic administration on whole-brain functional and structural connectivity in healthy volunteers...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Daisuke Sakai, Masato Sato, Masahiro Tanaka, Masahiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) analyses have reported that the prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Japan is 8.7-27.1%. However, these data were obtained using chest-abdominal CT, and no evaluations of sagittal, coronal, and axial images using whole-spine CT have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristic of DISH by whole spinal CT. METHODS: Participants were patients who had experienced trauma who had undergone whole-spine CT scanning based on the initial clinical practice guidelines for trauma in our institute from April 2015 to February 2018...
May 30, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Luciana Audi Castroneves, George Coura Filho, Ricardo Miguel Costa de Freitas, Raphael Salles, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Rossana Veronica Mendoza Lopez, Maria Adelaide Albergaria Pereira, Marcos Roberto Tavares, Alexsander Augusto de Lima Jorge, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Ana Oliveira Hoff
Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of 68Ga PET/CT in detecting MTC lesions and evaluate tumor expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) associating with 68Ga PET/CT findings. Methods: Prospective study evaluating 30 MTC patients; Group 1 (N=16): Biochemical disease and Group 2 (N=14): Metastatic disease. Patients underwent 68Ga PET/CT, bone scan, neck CT and US, CT chest, CT/MRI abdomen, MRI spine. 68Ga PET/CT findings were analyzed by disease site as positive or negative and as concordant or discordant with conventional studies...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christopher A Wolff, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Todd A Trappe, Leonard A Kaminsky, Matthew P Harber
BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent an improved skeletal muscle phenotype influences maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) when changes in cardiopulmonary function are limited. Thus, to primarily target skeletal muscle adaptations, we employed an alternating single-leg knee extension exercise training protocol and evaluated the impact on skeletal muscle morphology and whole body exercise capacity. METHODS: Eight sedentary volunteers (20±1 y; VO2max: 38.4±2.6 mL...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Laura Pasetto, Davide Olivari, Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Caterina Bendotti, Rosanna Piccirillo, Valentina Bonetto
Muscle wasting occurs during various chronic diseases and precedes death in humans as in mice. The evaluation of the degree of muscle atrophy in diseased mouse models is often overlooked since it requires the sacrifice of the animals for muscle examination or expensive instrumentation and highly qualified personnel, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Very often behavioral tests for muscle strength evaluation are used as an outcome measurement in preclinical therapeutic trials. However, these tests are easy to perform serially, but not enough sensitive to detect early muscle changes during disease progression...
2018: PloS One
Brittany K Wise-Oringer, Marina Goldis, Molly O Regelmann, Michelle Klein, Josef Machac, Henrietta Kotlus Rosenberg, Robert Rapaport
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is an uncommon pediatric disease with an excellent prognosis. In follow-up surveillance, neck ultrasound (US), basal and thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, and diagnostic whole-body radioactive iodine scans (DxWBS) have been traditionally used in both adults and children for the detection of recurrence or metastases of PTC. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with metastatic PTC were followed after standard ablative treatment with routine neck US and serum Tg levels, as well as periodic DxWBS...
May 25, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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