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Jaein Seo, B Douglas Smith, Elihu Estey, Ernest Voyard, Bernadette O' Donoghue, John F P Bridges
OBJECTIVE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a progressive blood cancer with few effective treatment options. As part of a patient-focused drug development (PFDD) initiative led by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS), we sought to use a community-centered approach to develop and pilot an instrument to measure patient preferences for the benefits and risks of treating AML. METHODS: Instrument development was informed by a literature review, engagement with expert stakeholders (n = 12), engagement with community stakeholders, and pretesting...
March 22, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Rashmi Goyat, Pragya Rai, Jongwha Chang, Charles D Ponte, Xi Tan
BACKGROUND: Both diabetes and antidiabetic drugs (ADDs) increase the risk for cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Due to the increasing concern about CV safety associated with ADDs, the US FDA revised regulatory guidelines in 2008 to include CV safety as an endpoint. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to compare CV mortality of oral ADDs approved before and after the FDA's 2008 guidance. METHODS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and the Clinical Trial Registry) were searched to retrieve studies published up to 24 February 2017...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Ensaf M Al-Hujaily, Tanvir Khatlani, Zeyad Alehaideb, Rizwan Ali, Bader Almuzaini, Bahauddeen M Alrfaei, Jahangir Iqbal, Imadul Islam, Shuja Malik, Bader A Marwani, Salam Massadeh, Atef Nehdi, Barrak Alsomaie, Bader Debasi, Ibraheem Bushnak, Saeed Noibi, Syed Hussain, Wahid Abdul Wajid, Jean-Pierre Armand, Sheraz Gul, Julen Oyarzabal, Rana Rais, Chas Bountra, Ahmed Alaskar, Bander Al Knawy, Mohamed Boudjelal
The 'Therapeutics discovery: From bench to first in-human trials' conference, held at the King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from October 10-12, 2017, provided a unique opportunity for experts worldwide to discuss advances in drug discovery and development, focusing on phase I clinical trials. It was the first event of its kind to be hosted at the new research center, which was constructed to boost drug discovery and development in the KSA in collaboration with institutions, such as the Academic Drug Discovery Consortium in the United States of America (USA), Structural Genomics Consortium of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom (UK), and Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in China...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Ethan A G Baker, Jill L Wegrzyn, Uzay U Sezen, Taylor Falk, Patricia E Maloney, Detlev R Vogler, Annette Delfino-Mix, Camille Jensen, Jeffry Mitton, Jessica Wright, Brian Knaus, Hardeep Rai, Richard Cronn, Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas, Hans A Vasquez-Gross, Randi A Famula, Jun-Jun Liu, Lara M Kueppers, David B Neale
Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors...
March 20, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
William J Cottam, Sarina J Iwabuchi, Marianne M Drabek, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has proven a powerful approach to understand the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, reporting altered connectivity in three main networks: the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), and the salience network (SN). The interrelation and possible mechanisms of these changes are less well understood in chronic pain. Based on emerging evidence of its role to drive switches between network states, the right anterior insula (rAI, an SN hub) may play a dominant role in network connectivity changes underpinning chronic pain...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Ramoji Kosuru, Vidya Kandula, Uddipak Rai, Swati Prakash, Zhengyuan Xia, Sanjay Singh
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated cardiovascular problems, which has remained a primary cause of the increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. It is of paramount importance to prevent the diabetes-associated cardiac complications by reducing oxidative stress with the help of nutritional or pharmacological agents. Pterostilbene (PT), the primary antioxidant in blueberries, has recently gained attention for its promising health benefits in metabolic and cardiac diseases...
March 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Nivedita Rai, R Muthukumaran, R Amutha
The HtrA protease of Helicobacter pylori, which efficiently colonizes at the gastric epithelial of host cells, disrupts the mucosal integrity of E-cadherin and spreads inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer by cleaving the cell-cell adhesion of the host. The lack of knowledge on the molecular diversity, structural and functional behavior of HpHtrA necessitated the present study to explore its inhibition mechanism. At first, the similarity of HpHtrA with other gastro-intestinal pathogenic HtrA bacteria and its remote relationship with the Human HtrA homologs were ensured by the phylogenetic analysis and hence was identified as a novel therapeutic target for further design of inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jason M Rohde, Kyle R Brimacombe, Li Liu, Michael E Pacold, Adam Yasgar, Dorian M Cheff, Tobie D Lee, Ganesha Rai, Bolormaa Baljinnyam, Zhuyin Li, Anton Simeonov, Matthew D Hall, Min Shen, David M Sabatini, Matthew B Boxer
Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Tridip Phukan, Amar Nath Rai, Mayashree B Syiem
With the intention of getting an insight into the differential effect of UV-C radiation on the N2 -fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum Meg1, various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism was evaluated in the organism. Exposure to different doses of UV-C (6, 12, 18 and 24 mJ/cm2 ) showed that among various photo-absorbing pigments, phycobiliproteins were most sensitive. Oxygen evolving complex (OEC) activity measured as net oxygen evolution rate decreased by 63% upon 24 mJ/cm2 exposure...
July 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jennifer B Gordetsky, Luciana Schultz, Kristin K Porter, Jeffrey W Nix, John V Thomas, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
MR/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy(TB) routinely samples multiple cores from each MR lesion of interest. Pathologists can evaluate the extent of cancer involvement and grade using an individual-core(IC) or aggregate(AG) method, which could potentially lead to differences in reporting. We reviewed patients who underwent TB followed by radical prostatectomy(RP). TB cores were evaluated for grade and tumor extent by two methods. IC method: grade for each TB lesion was based on the core with the highest Gleason score...
March 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Afroz Rais, Muhammad Shakeel, Kamran Malik, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Humaira Yasmin, Saqib Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Rice blast is a severe threat for agricultural production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could be suitable biocontrol agents to reduce the disease incidence. In this study, Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 significantly reduced disease severity by 40-52% with grain yield of 3.2-3.9 t ha-1 in two rice varieties i.e., basmati super and basmati 385. Bacillus spp. significantly colonized the rice rhizosphere with a cell population of 2.40E+06-5.6E+07CFU. Rice plants treated with antagonistic bacterial suspension followed by challenge inoculation with P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ashutosh Rai, Sushil Sharma, Prabhat Shrivastava, Mangal Singh
The most common tumour of salivary gland is pleomorphic adenoma (PA). They are benign, painless, can grow into big tumours but usually do not affect nerves or lymph nodes. PA most commonly occurs in the parotid gland but it may involve submandibular, lingual and minor salivary glands also. They can attain giant proportions and weigh several kilograms. We report a giant PA arising in the submandibular gland and treated by complete surgical excision without any complication. A female patient presented with a tumour in the submandibular region and front of neck with a history of more than 18 years...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sara Valpione, Matteo S Carlino, Johanna Mangana, Meghan J Mooradian, Grant McArthur, Dirk Schadendorf, Axel Hauschild, Alexander M Menzies, Ana Arance, Paolo A Ascierto, AnnaMaria Di Giacomo, Francesco de Rosa, James Larkin, John J Park, Simone M Goldinger, Ryan J Sullivan, Wen Xu, Elisabeth Livingstone, Michael Weichenthal, Rajat Rai, Lydia Gaba, Georgina V Long, Paul Lorigan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
S R Geed, Sachin Prasad, M K Kureel, R S Singh, B N Rai
The isolated microbial Alcaligenes sp. S3 from the agricultural field was used for the biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing atrazine. This study was conducted in an alternating aerobic-anoxic lab scale pilot plant. The performance of continuously operated pilot plant was evaluated in three different phases with varying atrazine concentration. The best performance of plant was observed in phase-II. The atrazine (200 mg/L) having COD value 1356 mg/L was used with varying flow rate and 90.56% COD removal was obtained at a flow rate of 300 mL/h on 122th day of operation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
A K Kothiwala, H I S Rai, Kanwaljeet Garg, Manmohan Singh, Pankaj Singh, B S Sharma, R Sood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Muralidhar Pai K, R Chandrasekhar Naidu, A Raja, Y S Rai, Niranjan Kumar, Anand Kini, Santhosh Joseph, Vinod Hegde, H S Ballal, Ramoorthi Rao, Saroja V Sharma, Vinay Kumar Valakatte
Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins fused at the cranium. This is the rarest anomaly seen in conjoined twins and craniopagus twins account for 2- 6% of conjoined twins. Conjoined twins are also extremely rare, with the anomaly seen in about 10-20 subjects per billion births. A female preponderance has been noted. Craniopagus twins can be classified into complete or partial, depending on whether or not they have shared dural venous sinuses. They can be further classified into angular or total depending on the alignment of the inter-twin longitudinal axis...
March 2018: Neurology India
Rai Kou, Taiki Hatakeyama, Jason Horng, Ji-Hun Kang, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Feng Wang
Mid-infrared light provides numerous unexpected opportunities in scientific discoveries because this wavelength region covers the fingerprints of various molecular vibrational resonances. However, the light generation efficiency and bandwidth have been a long-standing bottleneck which has limited the development so far. Moreover, the light source that can be integrated with other components such as wavelength filters, detectors, and electronics, will be the key factor toward the future practical applications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Michael Hallek, Bruce D Cheson, Daniel Catovsky, Federico Caligaris-Cappio, Guillermo Dighiero, Hartmut Döhner, Peter Hillmen, Michael Keating, Emili Montserrat, Nicholas Chiorazzi, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Kanti R Rai, John C Byrd, Barbara Eichhorst, Susan O'Brien, Tadeusz Robak, John F Seymour, Thomas J Kipps
In 2008, International Workshop on CLL (iwCLL) published consensus guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that were revised from those previously published by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group. These guidelines provided definitions intended to standardize the assessment of patients that were adopted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the evaluation of new drugs. Since the publication of these guidelines there have been major advances in the biology and treatment of patients with CLL, prompting the iwCLL to evaluate and revise the 2008 criteria...
March 14, 2018: Blood
Rajender Kumar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Anish Bhattacharya, Harmandeep Singh, Shrawan Kumar Singh
The male breast cancer is very less common as compared with the female breast cancer. We report a case of 64-year-old man who presented with the history of lower urinary tract symptoms. The digital rectal examination revealed hard and nodular prostate, and serum prostate-specific antigen level was 23.4 ng/mL. Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT revealed prostate-specific membrane antigen-expressing lesions in the prostate, axillary tail of the right breast, and axillary lymph nodes. Histology from prostate revealed prostate carcinoma, whereas fine-needle aspiration from the breast revealed invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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