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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645586/venous-sinus-stenting-in-the-management-of-patients-with-intracranial-hypertension-manifesting-with-skull-base-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks
#2
Rajiv R Iyer, David Solomon, Abhay Moghekar, C Rory Goodwin, Charles M Stewart, Masaru Ishii, Philippe Gailloud, Gary L Gallia
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are found to have elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In these patients, elevated ICP is thought to contribute to both the pathophysiology of the leak as well as postoperative leak recurrences. Current strategies for post-operative ICP control include medical therapy and shunting procedures. The aim of this study is to report the use of venous sinus stenting (VSS) in the management of patients with skull base CSF leaks due to elevated ICP...
June 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644358/early-empiric-antibiotic-use-is-associated-with-delayed-feeding-tolerance-in-preterm-infants-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Francisco E Martinez, Walusa A G Ferri, Clea R Leone, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Ruth Guinsburg, Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Marynéa Silva do Vale, Sergio Tadeu Martins Marba, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Ligia Maria Suppo de Souza Rugolo, José Maria de Andrade Lopes, Manoel A Ribeiro, Renato S Procianoy, José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte, Maria Cândida Ferrarez Bouzada, Daniela Marques de Lima Mota Ferreira, Navantino Alves Filho, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Dulce Maria Toledo Zanardi, Daniela Testoni, Cristina Nunes Dos Santos, Maria Rafaela Conde Gomzález, Paulyne Stadler Venzon, Jaques Belik
The causative factors of neonatal feeding intolerance are poorly understood, but potentially related to clinical practices such as empiric antibiotic usage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early empiric antibiotic exposure negatively affects preterm infants' enteral feeding tolerance. Data from infants without risk factors for sepsis, 500 to 1499 g birth weight and 24 to 34 weeks gestational age were analyzed. The primary outcomes were the empiric antibiotic exposure effects on the infants' total parenteral nutrition usage duration and prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643938/oral-application-of-a-periodontal-pathogen-impacts-serpine1-expression-and-pancreatic-islet-architecture-in-prediabetes
#4
V Ilievski, U G Bhat, S Suleiman-Ata, B A Bauer, P T Toth, S T Olson, T G Unterman, K Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a close association between periodontitis and prediabetes/insulin resistance (IR) but whether periodontitis causes prediabetes in humans is not known. Using various animal models, we have recently established that periodontitis can be an initiator of prediabetes, which is characterized by glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, our in vitro studies indicated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β cells and this induction was in part SerpinE1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PAI1) dependent...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643898/identification-of-cross-reactive-b-cell-epitopes-between-bos-d-9-0101-bos-taurus-and-gly-m-5-0101-glycine-max-by-epitope-mapping-maldi-tof-ms
#5
Ángela María Candreva, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Silvia Bronsoms, Alejandra Quiroga, Renata Curciarello, Ana Cauerhff, Silvana Petruccelli, Guillermo Horacio Docena, Sebastián Alejandro Trejo
Exposure to cow's milk constitutes one of the most common causes of food allergy. In addition, exposure to soy proteins has become relevant in a restricted proportion of milk allergic pediatric patients treated with soy formulae as a dairy substitute, because of the cross-allergenicity described between soy and milk proteins . We have previously identified several cross-reactive allergens between milk and soy that may explain this intolerance. The purpose of the present work was to identify epitopes in the purified αS1-casein and the recombinant soy allergen Gly m 5...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643240/pcsk9-inhibitors-treating-the-right-patients-in-daily-practice
#6
REVIEW
Peta King, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a novel approach to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential role of PCSK9 inhibitors in clinical practice will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials have demonstrated that PCSK9 inhibitors produce robust LDL-C lowering when administered either as monotherapy or in combination with statins. This provides the opportunity to achieve effective lipid lowering in familial hypercholesterolemia, patients with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or high risk primary prevention and an important opportunity to treat patients with statin intolerance...
August 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642867/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-a-single-intra-articular-injection-of-allogeneic-neonatal-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-compared-to-oral-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-treatment-on-the-postoperative-musculoskeletal-status-and-gait-of-dogs-over-a-6-month-period-after
#7
Mathieu Taroni, Quentin Cabon, Marine Fèbre, Thibaut Cachon, Nathalie Saulnier, Claude Carozzo, Stéphane Maddens, Fabrice Labadie, Clément Robert, Eric Viguier
OBJECTIVE: Compare the clinical and pressure walkway gait evolution of dogs after a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for a cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR) and treatment with either a 1-month course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or a single postoperative intra-articular (IA) injection of allogeneic neonatal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, monocentric clinical study...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642024/rtms-with-a-two-coil-array-safety-and-efficacy-for-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Linda L Carpenter, Scott T Aaronson, Gregory N Clarke, Paul E Holtzheimer, Clark W Johnson, William M McDonald, Elizabeth L Stannard, M Bret Schneider
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a standard of care for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not benefit from, or are unable to tolerate, antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Depth of stimulation is limited with currently approved figure-eight coils and larger coils capable of deeper penetration may be associated with loss of stimulation focality and undesired recruitment of motor cortex. A second generation 2-coil array rTMS system was designed to target converging brain pathways for potentially deeper prefrontal cortex stimulation...
June 9, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641787/social-jet-lag-potentiates-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-when-combined-with-cafeteria-diet-in-rats
#9
Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Mario Velasco-Ramos, Iván Osnaya-Ramírez, Manuel Ángeles-Castellanos, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). With this model, we explored the link between shifted sleep time with consumption of a cafeteria diet (CafD) and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641047/the-interaction-of-distress-tolerance-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-the-prediction-of-symptom-reduction-across-cbt-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
Danielle Katz, Neil A Rector, Judith M Laposa
Distress tolerance (DT) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been identified as transdiagnostic processes that predict symptom severity across a range of distinct anxiety disorders. However, the joint effect of these two variables on therapeutic outcome has not yet been examined. It is possible that DT and IU may both impact on treatment response to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in clients with anxiety, as clients with weak DT and strong IU may be less likely to engage in exposure and cognitive restructuring tasks across treatment due to their associated distress...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640857/glucose-dysregulation-and-response-to-common-anti-diabetic-agents-in-the-fatzo-pco-mouse
#11
Richard G Peterson, Charles Van Jackson, Karen M Zimmerman, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, M Dodson Michael, Paul J Emmerson, Tamer Coskun
The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Given that obesity and its sequelae in humans are polygenic in nature and not associated with leptin signaling defects, the FATZO mouse may represent a more translatable rodent model for study of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639910/apatinib-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-non-clinical-trial-setting-satisfying-efficacy-regardless-of-previous-anti-angiogenic-treatment
#12
Ying Lin, Zheng Wu, Jian Zhang, Xichun Hu, Zhonghua Wang, Biyun Wang, Jun Cao, Leiping Wang
Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) under non-clinical trial setting, and to study the impact of previous antiangiogenic treatment to the efficacy of apatinib. 52 MBC patients treated with apatinib under non-clinical trial setting in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between January 1st 2015 and October 1st 2016 were included. All patients were included in time-to-treatment failure (TTF) analysis, while 45 patients were enrolled for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) analysis because 7 of the patients with treatment discontinuation due to intolerable toxicities had too short time for efficacy assessment...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639759/-diabetes-mellitus-secondary-to-an-endocrine-pathology-when-to-think-about-it
#13
Nathalie Rouiller, François R Jornayvaz
An endocrine disease can be associated with glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, and the latter can falsely be considered as type 2 diabetes. Glycemic imbalance can be a direct or indirect consequence of excessive hormone production. Endocrine diseases such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma can increase glucose production and cause insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, glucagonoma and somatostatinoma lead to hyperglycemia by other physiopathological mechanisms detailed in this article...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639297/autophagy-activation-not-pgc-1%C3%AE-may-mediate-exercise-induced-improvements-in-glucose-handling-during-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Kyle W Turner, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. PURPOSE: To determine combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given Western diet (WD) at 8 wks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638602/b-cell-depleting-therapy-with-rituximab-or-ofatumumab-in-immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy-or-vasculitis-with-nephritis
#15
Sigrid Lundberg, Emelie Westergren, Jessica Smolander, Annette Bruchfeld
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of adult patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) or IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN) develop end-stage renal disease during long-term follow-up. In particular, patients with nephritic-nephrotic syndrome have an increased risk of rapid progression. Conventional immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids (CSs) may be insufficient for disease control and is associated with a number of side effects. Rituximab (RTX) has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in a range of glomerular diseases, but there is little information on its therapeutic potential in IgAN...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638292/combined-oral-contraceptive-pill-initiation-in-a-patient-with-major-depressive-disorder-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-social-anxiety-panic-disorder-and-histrionic-personality-disorder
#16
Cody Roi, Erich J Conrad
BACKGROUND: Comorbid psychiatric conditions present an added layer of challenge in managing patients, as each condition and associated set of symptoms exacerbate the complexity of the overall presentation. Premenopausal women may be at particular risk for inadequate care, as their comorbid conditions may present overlapping symptoms and mask independent premenstrual symptoms. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and associated conditions can be as high as 8% in women of reproductive age...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638152/combination-of-a-high-fat-diet-with-sweetened-condensed-milk-exacerbates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-each-separately-in-mice
#17
Laureane Nunes Masi, Amanda Roque Martins, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Cátia Lira do Amaral, Mariana Rodrigues Davanso, Tamires Duarte Afonso Serdan, Roberta Dourado Cavalcante da Cunha de Sá, Maysa Mariana Cruz, Maria Isabel Cardoso Alonso-Vale, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Marta Maria da Silva Righetti, Edson Aparecido Liberti, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi
Obesogenic diets increase body weight and cause insulin resistance (IR), however, the association of these changes with the main macronutrient in the diet remains to be elucidated. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with: control (CD), CD and sweetened condensed milk (HS), high-fat (HF), and HF and condensed milk (HSHF). After 2 months, increased body weight, glucose intolerance, adipocyte size and cholesterol levels were observed. As compared with CD, HS ingested the same amount of calories whereas HF and HSHF ingested less...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#18
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637794/a-trpv1-to-secretagogin-regulatory-axis-controls-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-by-modulating-protein-turnover
#19
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Fatima Girach, Edit Szodorai, Petter Storm, Åsa Segerstolpe, Giuseppe Tortoriello, Robert Schnell, Jan Mulder, Roman A Romanov, Erzsébet Borók, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Gábor Szabó, Rickard Sandberg, Stefan Kubicek, Gert Lubec, Tomas Hökfelt, Ludwig Wagner, Leif Groop, Tibor Harkany
Ca(2+)-sensor proteins are generally implicated in insulin release through SNARE interactions. Here, secretagogin, whose expression in human pancreatic islets correlates with their insulin content and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, is shown to orchestrate an unexpectedly distinct mechanism. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals retained expression of the TRP family members in β-cells from diabetic donors. Amongst these, pharmacological probing identifies Ca(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels (TRPV1) as potent inducers of secretagogin expression through recruitment of Sp1 transcription factors...
June 21, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637772/tolerance-to-increased-supplemented-dietary-intakes-of-methionine-in-healthy-older-adults
#20
Nicolaas Ep Deutz, Sunday Y Simbo, Gerdien C Ligthart-Melis, Luc Cynober, Miro Smriga, Mariëlle Pkj Engelen
Background: l-Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid for humans and is important for protein synthesis and the formation of polyamines and is involved in the synthesis of many metabolites, including homocysteine. Free-Met supplements have been claimed to have multiple positive effects; however, it remains unclear what the exact tolerance level is. With aging, Met metabolism changes, and increased plasma homocysteine is more apparent. High plasma concentrations of homocysteine are assumed to be associated with a high risk of developing atherosclerosis...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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